[77a - 42 lines; 77b - 46 lines]

1)[line 1]חללCHALAL

(a)The Torah (Vayikra 21:14) commands a Kohen Gadol not to marry a widow (Almanah), divorcee (Gerushah), prostitute ("Zonah" - see Background to Gitin 79:22), or Chalalah. An ordinary Kohen (Hedyot) is permitted to marry a widow, but not any of the other women listed above. The child from one of the above-mentioned unions is invalidated from the Kehunah, and is called a "Chalal." The Rabanan also prohibited all Kohanim from marrying a Chalutzah (see Background to Kidushin 45:6), and made the children of a Kohen from a Chalutzah Chalalim mid'Rabanan.

(b)A Chalal does not have the sanctity that a Kohen normally has. For this reason, both the privileges and the restrictions that apply to a Kohen do not apply to him. For example:

1.He may not serve in the Beis ha'Mikdash, and according to some sources he is Chayav Misah b'Yedei Shamayim if he does (MINCHAS CHINUCH 275:5).

2.A Chalal may not eat Terumah or the Kodshim reserved for Kohanim (Terumos 8:1).

3.He is not restricted with regard to the women that he is allowed to marry.

4.Chalalim are not prohibited from coming into contact with corpses.

5.He is not accorded the honors that are normally accorded to a Kohen.

(c)A widow, divorcee, or prostitute who has relations with a Kohen Gadol, and a divorcee or prostitute who has relations with a regular Kohen, becomes a "Chalalah." Female children born through such a union are also Chalalos. Also, any Jewish woman who has relations with a Chalal becomes a Chalalah (even though she is permitted to have relations with him).

(d)A Chalalah is prohibited to marry a Kohen. If she does marry (and have relations with) a Kohen, the Chalalah and the Kohen are punished with Malkos. A Chalalah may not eat Terumah. Although a Jewish woman who has living children from a Kohen normally eats Terumah, if she becomes a Chalalah she may no longer eat Terumah. Similarly, although the daughter of a Kohen normally eats Terumah until she becomes married to a non-Kohen, if she becomes a Chalalah she may no longer eat Terumah (Yevamos 69a).

(e)There is a Mitzvas Aseh for a Kohen Gadol to marry a Besulah (Vayikra 21:13). If he transgresses this Aseh and marries a Be'ulah (who is not an Almanah), the Tana'im argue as to whether the woman becomes a Chalalah and whether the child is a Chalal.

2)[line 4]גרGER

(a)A Kohen is prohibited to marry the daughter of a Chalal (see previous entry), even if her mother is a Jewess of unsullied lineage. Rebbi Yehudah rules that a Kohen is likewise prohibited to marry the daughter of a male convert, even if her mother is a Jewess of unsullied lineage.

(b)The SHULCHAN ARUCH (Even ha'Ezer 7:21) rules that a Kohen l'Chatchilah should not marry a woman whose parents are both converts; b'Dieved he may remain married to her. If one of her parents is Jewish, she may marry a Kohen l'Chatchilah, as long as her conception and birth took place after the conversion of the parent who is a convert (Beis Shmuel ibid. 7:42).

(c)The reason a Kohen may not marry a [initial] convert is because she is in the category of a "Zonah" (see Yevamos 60a-61a and Background to Gitin 79:22) (Vayikra 21:7).

3)[line 12]"ולא יחלל זרעו בעמיו...""V'LO YECHALEL ZAR'O B'AMAV..."- "He shall not invalidate his seed among his people..." (Vayikra 21:15).

4)[line 13]"לא יטמא בעל בעמיו להחלו""LO YITAMA BA'AL B'AMAV, L'HECHALO"- "A husband may not defile himself among his people for one who profanes him (i.e. his wife whose marriage profanes him)" (Vayikra 21:4).

5)[line 20]כשם שבני ישראל מקוה טהרה לחללות, כך בנות ישראל מקוה טהרה לחלליםK'SHEM SHE'BENEI YISRAEL MIKVEH TAHARAH L'CHALALOS, KACH BENOS YISRAEL MIKVEH TAHARAH L'CHALALIM- just as the union between a Chalalah and a Yisrael (or a Levi) of unsullied lineage brings about children who are not Chalalim, so, too, does the union between a Chalal and a Bas Yisrael (or a Bas Levi) bring about children who are not Chalalim (lit. just as a Yisrael of unsullied lineage purifies Chalalos as a Mikvah [purifies people who are ritually impure], so, too...)

6a)[line 22]בעם אחדB'AM ECHAD- (lit. with one nation) when both parents are Chalalim

b)[line 23]בשני עממיםB'SHNEI AMAMIM- (lit. with two nations) when one parent is a Chalal and the other is a non-Kohen of unsullied lineage

7)[line 27]אם נפשך לומרIM NAFSHECHA LOMAR- and if you desire to say otherwise [and ask a different question on the Kal va'Chomer]

8)[line 31]מחזיר גרושתוMACHZIR GERUSHASO

(a)It is forbidden for any Jew to remarry his wife after divorcing her, if she married someone else in the interim (who subsequently divorced her or died), as the Torah states, "Lo Yuchal Ba'alah ha'Rishon Asher Shilechah, Lashuv l'Kachtah..." (Devarim 24:4). This Isur applies only if she was married after the initial divorce; if she was raped, her ex-husband may remarry her.

(b)The Tana'im argue as to whether the ex-husband is prohibited from remarrying her if she received Kidushin (but not Nisu'in) to someone else after the initial divorce (Yevamos 11b).

(c)If her first husband did remarry her, their daughter is called Bas Meshulachas (Nidah 69b), and she is permitted to marry a Kohen. The mother alone is restricted since the above-mentioned verse continues with the words "Ki So'evah Hi," which is taken to mean, "she (the mother) is an abomination" - and not her daughter. (See SEFER HA'CHINUCH #580.)

9)[line 37]אלמנה אלמנה אלמנהALMANAH ALMANAH ALMANAH- a Kohen Gadol who has relations with a woman who has been widowed three times, as the Gemara proceeds to explain

10)[line 39]בזמן שהם כסדרBI'ZEMAN SHE'HEM K'SEDER- when these changes of status (Almanah, Gerushah, etc.) occurred specifically in this order

77b----------------------------------------77b

11a)[line 1]גופין מוחלקיםGUFIN MUCHLAKIM- they are different people

b)[line 1]שמות מוחלקיםSHEMOS MUCHLAKIM- different prohibitions

12)[line 5]נזירNAZIR

(a)If a person makes a vow to become a Nazir without stipulating a time period, his or her Nezirus lasts for a period of thirty days. If the person stipulates a time period, his or her Nezirus lasts for whatever amount of time he stipulated. During this period, the Nazir is not allowed to:

1.cut his hair;

2.become Tamei by touching or being in the same room as a corpse;

3.consume any products of the grapevine (Bamidbar 6:1-21, SEFER HA'CHINUCH #377). Transgressing any one of these prohibitions makes the Nazir liable to Malkos, as long as he was warned beforehand. Our Gemara mentions that multiple warnings will create multiple liabilities.

(b)When a Nazir completes his period of Nezirus, he must offer three sacrifices: a male sheep as an Olah, a female sheep as a Chatas, and a ram as a Shelamim. Together with the Shelamim he brings 6 and 2/3 Esronos of Soles (fine flour), which are made into 20 loaves of Matzah, 10 Chalos (unleavened loaves of Matzah), and 10 Rekikin (flat Matzos). He then shaves off the hair of his head and burns it under the cauldron in which the Zero'a of the Shelamim is cooked (Bamidbar 6:18). (SEFER HA'CHINUCH #377)

13)[line 11]"[והוא אשה בבתוליה יקח.] אלמנה וגרושה וחללה זנה [את אלה לא יקח]...""[V'HU ISHAH VI'VESULEHA YIKACH.] ALMANAH U'GERUSHAH VA'CHALALAH ZONAH, [ES ELEH LO YIKACH...]"- "[And he shall take a wife in her virginity.] A widow, a divorcee, a Chalalah, and a prostitute, [these women he shall not marry...]" (Vayikra 21:13-14).

14)[line 13]איסור חל על איסור / אין איסור חל על איסורISUR CHAL AL ISUR / EIN ISUR CHAL AL ISUR

(a)An object that is already prohibited by one Isur Torah cannot become prohibited by a second one (Ein Isur Chal Al Isur). However, there are a number of possible exceptions to this principle (when we rule Isur Chal Al Isur) that are debated by the Tana'im (Chulin 101a):

1.Isur b'Vas Achas - Two Isurim may take effect at the same instant to prohibit the same object.

2.Isur Kollel - The second Isur may take effect if it includes objects that the first Isur did not (e.g. Yom ha'Kipurim prohibits not only the eating of Neveilos, but Kosher foods as well).

3.Isur Mosif - The second Isur may take effect if it adds a new dimension of Isur to the first (e.g. it prohibits the object to people who were not included in the first Isur, or it makes the object Asur b'Hana'ah and not just Asur to be eaten).

4.Isur Chamur (according to Rebbi Yehudah) - A more stringent Isur can take effect on an object that is already prohibited by a less stringent Isur (e.g. the prohibition of Gid ha'Nasheh is more stringent than the prohibition of non-Kosher animals, since it applied to Bnei Yaakov when they were still permitted to eat non-Kosher animals).

(b)According to Rebbi Shimon, an object that is already prohibited can never become prohibited by another Isur, even if the second Isur is Kolel, Mosif, or Chamur.

15)[line 16]איסור מוסיףISUR MOSIF

See previous entry.

16)[line 20]למיכל בתרומהL'MEICHAL BI'TERUMAH

(a)After a crop is harvested and brought to the owner's house or yard, the owner must separate Terumah from the crop, which he gives to a Kohen. Kohanim and members of their households are allowed to eat Terumah, as long as they are Tehorim (Bamidbar 18:12). If a Kohen marries a woman who is prohibited to him (see above, entry #1), she becomes a Chalalah and she may not eat Terumah.

(b)If a non-Kohen eats Terumah without knowing that it is Terumah, he must replace what he ate in the form of a food that becomes Terumah (Tashlumei Terumah). He returns the Keren, the amount of Terumah that he ate, to the Kohen who owned the Terumah (see Insights to Pesachim 32:1). In addition, he is fined another Chomesh (fifth) of the ensuing total (i.e. a quarter of the value of what he ate) (Vayikra 22:14). This Chomesh may be paid to any Kohen (Terumos 6:2), and is not necessarily given to the Kohen who owned the Terumah that was eaten.

17)[line 23]זונהZONAH

(a)The Torah prohibits a Kohen from marrying a Zonah, with an Isur Lav (Vayikra 21:14). A Zonah is generally defined as a woman who had relations with a man out of wedlock. However, the Tana'im argue about the exact definition of who is a Zonah.

1.Some say that a Zonah is any woman who is unable to have children, since it is not the manner for men to marry such a woman. She is prohibited to a Kohen whether she actually had relations with a man out of wedlock or not. Our Sugya cannot be referring to this definition of Zonah.

2.Some say that a Zonah is any woman who had relations with a man out of wedlock, i.e. without Kidushin, or, according to others, any woman who made herself available for all (without Kidushin).

3.Others say that the only woman who is considered a Zonah is an "Eshes Ish," a woman who committed adultery.

4.The Chachamim say that a Zonah is a woman who had relations with a man to whom she is prohibited (Yevamos 61b).

(b)The Halachah follows the Chachamim, who say that a Zonah is a woman (at least three years of age) who had relations with a man to whom she is prohibited. The Rishonim, though, argue about which Isur will make her into a Zonah.

1.A number of Rishonim maintain that a Zonah is only a woman who had relations with a man to whom she is prohibited with an Isur Kares or with a man with whom Kidushin cannot take effect (such as an Eved or a Nochri). A woman who had relations with a man to whom she is prohibited with only an Isur Lav is not considered a Zonah. (RA'AVAD, Hilchos Isurei Bi'ah 18:1; see also TOSFOS to Gitin 89a, DH Be'ulah, and MAHARSHA there.)

2.Others say that having relations with a man who is prohibited to her with any Isur, whether it is an Isur Kares or an Isur Lav, will make her into a Zonah. (RASHI to Yevamos 56b, 61b, and RAMBAM, Hilchos Isurei Bi'ah 18:1.)

(c)A woman who had relations with a man who is prohibited to her because of an Isur Kehunah (for example, an Almanah (widow) who had relations with a Kohen Gadol, and a Gerushah (divorcee) who had relations with a regular Kohen) becomes a Chalalah, but not a Zonah. She becomes prohibited from marrying a Kohen (Vayikra 21:7, 14) and from eating Terumah. A woman who has relations with a man who was not always prohibited to her (such as a "Machzir Gerushaso") does not become a Zonah and is permitted to marry a Kohen and to eat Terumah (Yevamos 69a).

(d)A convert is also prohibited to a Kohen because of the Isur of Zonah (Yevamos 61b). The Rishonim argue about the reason for this.

1.According to RASHI (ibid.) and the RA'AVAD (Hilchos Isurei Bi'ah 18:3), the reason is because she had relations with a Nochri or an Eved, with whom Kidushin cannot take effect (as mentioned above in b:1). Therefore, if she was less than three years old when she converted, she is not considered a Zonah and she is not prohibited to a Kohen because of the Isur of Zonah. However, she is prohibited because of a different verse (in Yechezkel) as taught in Kidushin 78a.

2.The RAMBAM (Hilchos Isurei Bi'ah 18:1, 3), though, says that any woman who was not born Jewish, whether she converted or not, whether she is less than three years old or older, is prohibited to a Kohen mid'Oraisa because of the Isur of Zonah.

18)[line 28]נבילהNEVEILAH

A Neveilah is a carcass of an animal that died without a Halachic slaughtering. The Torah states, "You shall not eat anything that dies by itself (Neveilah). You shall give it to the stranger who is in your gates, that he may eat it, or you may sell it to a Nochri, for you are a holy people to HaSh-m, your E-lokim" (Devarim 14:21). The flesh of a Neveilah is prohibited to be eaten, and a k'Zayis or more of a Neveilah makes an object Tamei through Maga (contact) and Masa (carrying).

19a)[line 30]איסור חמורISUR CHAMUR- a prohibition that carries the punishment of Kares (or more severe punishments). See above, entry #14

b)[line 30]איסור קלISUR KAL- a prohibition that carries the punishment of a Lav

20)[line 42]מיגרע גרעה?MIGRA GAR'AH?- Should his liability be decreased [after becoming a Kohen Gadol]?

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