[53a - 41 lines; 53b - 32 lines]
1)[line 1]נמנו וגמרוNIMNU V'GAMRU- they took a tally and established
2)[line 4]מנחותMENACHOS- voluntary and obligatory meal offerings
3)[line 5]זבחיםZEVACHIM- voluntary and obligatory animal offerings
4)[line 5]"וכל מנחה אשר תאפה בתנור וכל נעשה במרחשת ועל מחבת, לכהן המקריב אֹתָהּ לו תהיה. וכל מנחה בלולה בשמן וחרבה לכל בני אהרן תהיה איש כאחיו""V'CHOL MINCHAH ASHER TE'AFEH BA'TANUR, V'CHOL NA'ASAH VA'MARCHESHES V'AL MACHAVAS; LA'KOHEN HA'MAKRIV OSAH, LO SIHEYEH. V'CHOL MINCHAH VELULAH VA'SHEMEN VA'CHAREVAH; L'CHOL BENEI AHARON TIHEYEH, ISH K'ACHIV"- "Any meal offering that is baked in an oven, and all that is prepared in the deep frying pan, and in the shallow frying pan, shall be for the Kohen who offers it. And any meal offering, mixed with oil, and dry, shall be for all the sons of Aharon, one as much as the other" (Vayikra 7:9-10).
5)[line 7]שלא קמו תחתיהם בדלותSHE'LO KAMU TACHTEIHEN B'DALUS - they cannot serve as a [direct] substitute for them in case of poverty (KORBAN OLEH V'YORED B'DALEI DALUS)
(a)A person brings a Korban Oleh v'Yored in three specific cases:
1.Shevu'as ha'Edus (see Background to Sotah 32:4),
2.Tum'as Mikdash v'Kodashav (see Background to Nazir 17:3b),
3.Korban Shevu'ah (see Background to Nedarim 2:3).
(b)What constitutes a Korban Oleh v'Yored varies based on the means of the penitent.
1.If he is wealthy, he brings a female sheep or goat as a Chatas (Korban Ashir).
2.If he cannot afford this, he brings two Torim (turtledoves) or two Benei Yonah (common doves), one as an Olah and one as a Chatas (Korban Oleh v'Yored b'Dalus).
3.If he cannot even afford the birds, he brings one tenth of an Eifah of fine flour as a Minchas Chatas (Korban Oleh v'Yored b'Dalei Dalus). (Vayikra 5:6-13)
(c)The Minchas Chatas is not mixed with oil, and Levonah (frankincense) is not sprinkled on top of it (Vayikra 5:11). When a non-Kohen brings a Minchas Chatas, a Kometz of the flour alone is burned on the Mizbe'ach and the Kohanim receive the Shirayim (the rest of the flour, which they must eat before the following sunrise - RAMBAM Hilchos Ma'aseh ha'Korbanos 10:7).
6)[line 8]עופותOFOS- voluntary and obligatory bird offerings
7)[line 15]מעשיהם בידMA'ASEIHEM B'YAD - [their Avodos] are performed by hand (MELIKAH)
Birds that were brought as Korbanos were not slaughtered from the neck. Instead, the Kohen performed Melikah by cutting the back of the neck of the bird with his right thumbnail, making sure to cut both Simanim (the trachea and the esophagus) of the Olas ha'Of or one Siman (either one) of the Chatas ha'Of. When performing Melikah on the Chatas ha'Of he would make sure not to sever the entire neck of the bird.
8)[line 15]מעשיהם בכליMA'ASEIHEM BI'CHELI- a knife is used to slaughter a sacrifice
9)[line 18, 19]מחבת / מרחשתMACHAVAS / MARCHESHES
(a)The Minchas Marcheshes is a voluntary Minchah offering consisting of ten Matzos baked in an oven in a pan called a Marcheshes, that has ten deep sections. The portions of dough lie in the deep parts of the pan, and are baked in the olive oil. This causes the dough to bake into soft Matzos. The Kemitzah (separation of a handful of the Minchah - see Background to Sotah 23:11) was performed after the baking. (Vayikra 2:7)
(b)The Minchas Machavas is a voluntary Minchah offering consisting of ten Matzos baked in an oven on a pan called a Machavas, that has ten raised sections. The portions of dough lie on the elevated parts of the pan, so that most of the olive oil drains off. The fire burns the remaining oil, causing the dough to bake into brittle Matzos. As in the Minchas Marcheshes, the Kemitzah was performed after the baking. (Vayikra 2:5)
10a)[line 19]מעשיהם רכיםMA'ASEIHEM RAKIM- its baked goods are soft
b)[line 20]מעשיהם קשיםMA'ASEIHEM KASHIM- its baked goods are hard
(a)The Todah (thanksgiving-offering) is a form of Shelamim that is eaten for only one day and one night (Vayikra 7:15). Korbenos Shelamim that are offered by an individual may be brought from male or female sheep, cows, or goats. They are Kodshim Kalim, and may therefore be slaughtered in the entire Azarah (and not only in its northern part). Before its slaughter, the owner presses his hands on the head of the animal (Semichah). The blood of the Shelamim is cast on the lower half of the Mizbe'ach at the northeastern and southwestern corners only (Shetayim she'Hen Arba). Nesachim (a meal offering consisting of flour and oil and a wine libation) are brought as part of the Korban (Bamidbar 15:3-12). The meal offering is completely burned on the Mizbe'ach and the wine is poured into one of the Sefalim (the silver libation pipes located at the top of the southwest corner of the Mizbe'ach) (RAMBAM and RA'AVAD Hilchos Ma'aseh ha'Korbanos 2:1). The amount of flour, oil, and wine needed depends upon the animal offered, as specified in Bamidbar ibid.
(b)An animal that was sacrificed as a Todah was brought together with forty loaves of bread, ten each of the following:
1.Chalos Matzos - Matzos mixed with oil;
2.Rekikin - flat Matzos saturated with oil;
3.Soles Murbeches - Matzos made of boiled flour mixed with oil;
4.Loaves of leavened bread. (Vayikra 7:12-13)
(c)One loaf of each type of bread was given to the Kohen who performed the Zerikas ha'Dam of the Todah (Vayikra 7:14). (These four loaves were known as Terumas Lachmei Todah.) The Chazeh (breast) and Shok (thigh) of the Shelamim were given to the Kohen (Vayikra 7:34). Certain fats and other parts of the Korban were offered on the Mizbe'ach (Vayikra 3:3-4, 9-10, 14-15). The owner and his guests (men or women) eat the rest of the Korban inside the borders of the city of Yerushalayim. The meat may be cooked in any fashion and is eaten on the day that it is slaughtered and the following night.
12a)[line 26, 27]בעל מוםBA'AL MUM - a Kohen with a physical blemish which renders him unfit to perform the Avodah in the Beis ha'Mikdash
(a)It is forbidden for a Kohen who has a Mum (blemish) to do the Avodah in the Beis ha'Mikdash, whether the Mum is a Mum Kavu'a (a permanent blemish; e.g. an amputated hand or foot) or a Mum Over (a temporary blemish; e.g. boils). [According to the Rambam this is counted as two Lavin (#70 and 71). According to the Ramban they are counted as one Lav.]
(b)There are three types of blemishes (Bechoros 43a):
1.blemishes that invalidate a Kohen from doing the Avodah or invalidate an animal from being offered as a sacrifice on the Mizbe'ach;
2.blemishes that only invalidate a Kohen but not an animal;
3.blemishes that invalidate a Kohen and also an animal but only because of Mar'is ha'Ayin (for appearance's sake).
(c)If a Kohen who had a Mum did the Avodah:
1.If he had a Mum that invalidates Kohanim and animals, his Avodah is Pesulah whether he did it b'Shogeg or b'Mezid, and he receives Malkos if he did it b'Mezid;
2.If he had a Mum that only invalidates Kohanim, his Avodah is Kesheirah (RAMBAM Hilchos Bi'as ha'Mikdash 6:6);
3.If he had a Mum that only invalidates him because of Mar'is ha'Ayin, he does not receive Malkos and his Avodah is Kesheirah. (Sefer ha'Chinuch #275, 276)
b)[line 27]תםTAM- a Kohen without blemishes
13)[line 27]ספראSIFRA- Toras Kohanim. One of the earliest commentaries on Vayikra, which was written by Rav (circa 220 C.E.) and which follows the opinion of Rebbi Yehudah (it is also called Sifra d'Vei Rav)
14)[line 28]דין חלוקהDIN CHALUKAH- a law permitting a Kohen to trade (lit. "divide" one portion for another) his portion of Matnos Kehunah (giving that portion monetary value)
15a)[line 28]הצנועיםHA'TZENU'IM- the modest (well-mannered) Kohanim
b)[line 29]מושכין את ידיהםMOSHCHIN ES YEDEIHEM - they withdraw their hands [from taking a portion of the Lechem ha'Panim] (LECHEM HA'PANIM)
(a)The Lechem ha'Panim (Showbread) is an offering of 12 loaves (that are Matzah), which are arranged in two Sedarim (stacks), six loaves to each Seder, on the Golden Table of the Mishkan or Beis ha'Mikdash. Fresh loaves were arranged on the Table every Shabbos and are left there until the following Shabbos. The Kohanim eat the loaves that are removed. (Vayikra 24:5-9).
(b)During the period of the second Beis ha'Mikdash, after Shimon ha'Tzadik, the Kohen Gadol, died, the portions of the Lechem ha'Panim that the Kohanim received became cursed, such that a small portion no longer satiated the Kohen who ate it. The modest Kohanim refused to accept a small portion, since they would not be fulfilling the Mitzvah of eating food that is Kadosh (the Mitzvah requires that one either eat a k'Zayis, or an amount that satiates). (See Yoma 39a.)
16)[line 29]והגרגרניםGARGERANIN- gluttons
17)[line 29]חוטפיםCHOTFIM- they snatch it
18)[line 30]בן חמצןBEN CHAMTZAN- the one who steals, extorts, grabs that which is not his
19)[line 31]"פלטני מיד רשע מכף מעול וחומץ""PALTENI MI'YAD RASHA MI'KAF ME'AVEL V'CHOMETZ"- "Save me from the hand of the wicked, from the palm of the evil-doer and extorter" (Tehilim 71:4).
20)[line 32]"למדו היטב דרשו משפט אשרו חמוץ""LIMDU HEITEV, DIRSHU MISHPAT, ASHERU CHAMOTZ..."- "Learn to do good, seek justice, defend the victim [of extortion]..." (Yeshayah 1:17)
21)[line 35]משמיה דגמראMI'SHEMEI DI'GEMARA- according to a tradition that he received (in the name of Rebbi Meir)
22)[line 36]תרומת מעשרTERUMAS MA'ASER
23)[line 36]"כן תרימו גם אתם תרומת ה'""KEN TARIMU GAM ATEM TERUMAS HASHM..."- "Thus you also shall offer an offering to HaSh-m [of all your tithes, which you receive from the people of Yisrael; and you shall give from it HaSh-m's gift to Aharon the Kohen]" (Bamidbar 18:28).
24)[line 39]"יובל הִוא קדש תהיה לכם""YOVEL HI, KODESH TIHEYEH LACHEM"- "It is a Yovel year, it shall be holy to you" (Vayikra 25:12) - Even though the verse is referring to Yovel, the Gemara cites it with regard to fruits of Shevi'is because the laws of Yovel and Shevi'is are the same (RITVA).
25)[line 40]"קדש ישראל לה', ראשית תבואתו""KODESH YISRAEL LA'SH-M, REISHIS TEVU'ASO"- "Yisrael is holy to HaSh-m, the first of His produce" (Yirmeyahu 2:3).
26)[line 1]תרגמה רבין סבאTIRGEMAH RAVIN SABA- Ravin the Elder explained it
27)[line 2]בהוייתו יהאB'HAVAYASO YEHEI- in its state (of belonging to HaSh-m) it shall be
28)[line 11]משום טרחא דאורחאMISHUM TIRCHA D'ORCHA- because of the trouble of traveling on the way
29)[line 13]דנתחיל הקדש על ידייהוD'NASCHIL HEKDESH AL YADAIHU - that Hekdesh should become desecrated (removed from the status of Hekdesh) through them (ME'ILAH)
(a)It is forbidden to derive personal benefit from anything that is Hekdesh, as the Torah states, "Lo Suchal le'Echol b'Sha'arecha... u'Nedarecha Asher Tidor" - "You may not eat in your settlements... and your pledges [to Hekdesh] that you will pledge" (Devarim 12:17) (RAMBAM Hilchos Me'ilah 1:1-3). The minimum amount for which one transgresses this prohibition is a Perutah's worth of benefit.
(b)If someone benefited from Hekdesh intentionally, he receives Malkos and must pay to Hekdesh the amount that he benefited. However, the object from which he benefited remains Hekdesh.
(c)If someone benefited from Hekdesh unintentionally, the object loses its Kedushah. He must bring a Korban Me'ilah and repay Hekdesh the value of his benefit plus an additional fifth (of the ensuing total, or a quarter of the original value). This is true of any object that has Kedushas Damim (i.e. its value is consecrated to Hekdesh). An object that has Kedushas ha'Guf (i.e. an object with intrinsic Kedushah, such as the utensils used in the Beis ha'Mikdash or a live Korban that is used in the Beis ha'Mikdash "as is") does not lose its Kedushah under any circumstances (Rosh Hashanah 28a).
30)[line 17]אונסא דאורחאONSA D'ORCHA- the [responsibility that the man has to compensate for] accidents that happen on the way
31)[line 21]מעות מהו שיצאו לחולין?MA'OS MAHU SHE'YETZ'U L'CHULIN?- Does the money (of Hekdesh) become Chulin (non-sanctified) (see above, entry #29)
32a)[line 25]חנוני כבעל הביתCHENVANI K'VA'AL HA'BAYIS- a storekeeper is considered like a normal homeowner
b)[line 25]חנוניCHENVANI- a storekeeper
c)[line 26]כשולחניK'SHULCHANI- like a moneychanger