1)

DIVIDING PROPERTY AMONG PEOPLE OWED DIFFERENT AMOUNTS (Yerushalmi Perek 10 Halachah 4 Daf 59a)

מתני' מי שהיה נשוי לשלש נשים ומת כתובתה של זו מנה ושל זו מאתים ושל זו שלש מאות ואין שם אלא מנה [דף נט עמוד ב] חולקות בשוה

(a)

(Mishnah): If a man married three women on the same day, and died, and this one's Kesuvah is 100, this one's is 200 and this one's is 300 (Zuzim). If there is only 100 [in the estate], they divide it equally (i.e. proportional to their Kesuvos, i.e. 16 and two thirds, 33 and a third, and 50 - OHR SOMAYACH Hilchos Ishus 17:3.)

1.

Note: The Rif (51a) rejected this, for the third clause holds that they divide according to their Kesuvos, and it gave the amounts! However, the OHR SOMAYACH said so only for the Yerushalmi, which says only about the middle clause that one authorized another. (However, some say that the same applies to the Seifa.) The Rif says that Rav Hai Gaon explained according to two people holding a Talis [but later retracted]. Perhaps he meant that if we look at how much money any two women received together, they divided it according to the Halachah of two holding a Talis. E.g. in case two, the first two women received a total of 125. The first woman has a claim only to 100. The second woman takes the remaining 25, and they divide the other 100 equally. This works in every case of the Mishnah. The Mishnah ends 'and similarly... they share this way"; there is always exactly one way to divide among all the parties to fulfill this. Presumably, Rav Hai rejected this because if so, the Talmudim could have explained the Mishnah without need to discuss authorizing or seizing at two times. (PF)

היו שם מאתים של מנה נוטלת חמשים ושל מאתים ושל שלש מאות שלשה שלשה של זהב

(b)

If the estate is 200, the woman [whose Kesuvah is] 100 receives 50. The women of 200 and 300 receive three gold [Dinarim, i.e. 75] each;

היו שם שלש מאות של מנה נוטלת חמשים ושל מאתים מנה ושל שלש מאות ששה של זהב

(c)

If the estate is 300, the woman of 100 receives 50, the woman of 200 receives 100, and the woman of 300 receives six gold [Dinarim, i.e. 150].

וכן שלשה שהטילו לכיס פחתו או הותירו כך הן חולקין:

(d)

The same applies to three people who cast [coins] into a pouch (invested together). If they increased or decreased, they share this way.

גמ' שמואל אמר שוחדא דדייני לשני שטרות שיצאו על שדה אחת אי זה מהן שירצו ב"ד להחליט מחליטין

(e)

(Gemara - Shmuel): We apply Shuchda d'Dainei (judges' discretion) for two [purchase] documents for one field. Beis Din gives the field to whichever one they want.

מתניתא פליגא על שמואל אין שם אלא מנה חולקות בשוה

(f)

Question (against Shmuel - Mishnah): If there is only 100 [in the estate], they divide it equally.

לא שוחדא דדייני את אמרת

(g)

Answer: [Shmuel] said only Shuchda d'Dainei. (It does not apply to in our Mishnah.)

והא תני היורשין שירשו שטר חוב הבכור נוטל פי שנים עוד יצא עליהן שטר חוב הבכור נותן פי שנים

(h)

Question (Beraisa): If heirs inherited a loan document, the Bechor receives a double portion. If a loan document was brought against them, the Bechor pays a double portion. (We are thinking like R. Tam explains Shuchda, that it is based on Hefker Beis Din Hefker. If there is a loan document against two fields sold the same day, Beis Din decides which he collects from, unlike Rav, who says that he collects half from each.)

עוד היא לשוחדא דדייני אתאמרת

(i)

Answer: Was Shuchda said in such a case?! (Shuchda is like Rashi explains. We estimate to whom he preferred to sell or give. It does not apply here. We explained this like CHASAM SOFER.)

רבי אבין בשם שמואל לא שנייא בין שני שטרות שיצאו על שדה אחת בין שטר אחד שיצא על שני שדות אי זה מהן שירצו בית דין מחליטין

(j)

(R. Avin citing Shmuel): There is no difference between two documents for one field, or one document against two fields. Whichever Beis Din wants, they decide.

שמואל אמר במרשות זו את זו בשהרשת השלישית את השנייה לדון עם הראשונה אמרה לה לא מנה אית לך סב חמשין ואיזל לך

(k)

(Shmuel): (If the estate is 200, the woman of 100 receives 50.) This is when one authorized another. The third woman (300) authorized the second (200) to go to Din with the first (100, and she removed herself from the first 100. The second) said to [the first] 'you have [a claim] of only 100 - take 50 (half), and leave. (The second already received her share of 100, so it is as if her remaining Shibud is only 100. The third woman's Shibud is three times greater, so she receives three fourths of the remaining 100, i.e. 75. We explained this like OHR SOMAYACH.)

וכן שלשה שהטילו לכיס והותירו או פחתו כך היו חולקין

(l)

(Mishnah): The same applies to three people who cast into a pouch. If they increased or decreased, they share this way.

אמר רבי אלעזר הדא דאת אמר בשהיתה הסלע חסירה או יתירה אבל לשכר ולהפסד כולהן חולקין בשוה

(m)

(R. Elazar): This is when the Sela (coin) was deficient or had an excess, but loss or profit, they all divide equally.

וקשיא ההן יהיב מאה דינרין וההן יהיב עשרה ואת אמר אכן

(n)

Question: One gave (invested) 100 Dinar, and one gave 10, and you say so (they all divide equally)?!

חברייא אמרין יכול הוא מימר ליה על ידי מניי סלקת פרגמטיא

(o)

Answer (Talmidim): [The smaller investor] can say to [the bigger investor, 'only] through my money, you were able to buy the merchandise!'

עד כדון דהוות פרגמטיא זעירה הוות פרגמטיא רובה

(p)

Question: This applies to a small merchandise (e.g. they bought one matter). If it was a great merchandise (how can we answer? The large investor could have bought almost the entire amount by himself!)

אמר רבי אבין בר חייה יכול הוא מימר ליה עד דאת מזבין חד זמן אנא מזבין עשרה זמנים

(q)

Answer (R. Avin bar Chiyah): [The smaller investor] can say to [the larger,] until you sell [the merchandise bought with your money] once, I could sell [what I bought with my money] 10 times [and profit as much as you].

עד כדון במקום קרוב במקום רחוק

(r)

Question: This is [a proper claim when the merchandise was] nearby. If it was far away [the small investor could not go back many times to invest again and profit more]!

אמר רבי הילא [דף ס עמוד א] יכול הוא מימר לי' עד דאת אזיל ואתי חד זמן אנא אזיל ואתי עשרה זמנים

(s)

Answer (R. Heila): He can say to him, in the time that you go and come [back] once, I could go and come 10 times (I am faster than you - PNEI MOSHE).

תמן תנינן חזר ונגח שור אחד שוה מאתים האחרון נוטל מנה ושלפניו חמשים זוז ושנים הראשונים דינר זהב

(t)

(Mishnah): [If a Tam ox worth 200 gored an ox worth 200, and it again gored an ox worth 200] and it again gored an ox worth 200, the last [victim] receives 100 (half-damage), the one before him receives 50 (when his ox was gored, he acquired half the damager, but now half the damager goes to pay the last victim) and the first two (the owner and the first victim) each receive a gold Dinar (25. Their shares were halved three times, due to each of the last three gorings.)

ר' שמואל בשם ר' זעירא וכן לשכר

(u)

(R. Shmuel citing R. Ze'ira): [Just like the victims share losses through goring according to their shares of the ox], so [they share] earnings (rental paid for the ox).

א"ר יוסי דר' זעירא פליגא על דר' אלעזר

(v)

(R. Yosi): R. Ze'ira argues with R. Elazar (who said above that loss or profit, they all divide equally).

ר' מנא אמר קומי רבי יודן לא מודי רבי לעזר שאם התנו ביניהן שזה נוטל לפי כיסו וזה נוטל לפי כיסו שוורים כמותנים הן

(w)

Rebuttal (R. Mana, to R. Yudan): Doesn't R. Lazar agree that if they stipulated among themselves, that this one receives according to his wallet (investment), and this one receive according to his wallet? Oxen are is if they stipulated (they did not intend to become partners, so the reasons above to share profits equally do not apply).

חזר ואמרה קומי רבי יוסי אמר ליה בפירוש פליגין

(x)

R. Mana said this in front of R. Yosi. R. Yosi said, they explicitly argue;

רבי לעזר אמר סתמן חולקין בשוה רבי זירא אמר סתמן זה נוטל לפי כיסו וזה נוטל לפי כיסו:

1.

R. Lazar says, Stam, they divide equally. R. Ze'ira says, Stam, this one receives according to his wallet, and this one receives according to his wallet.

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