KESUVOS 50 - Two weeks of study material have been dedicated by Mrs. Estanne Abraham Fawer to honor the Yahrzeit of her father, Rav Mordechai ben Eliezer Zvi (Rabbi Morton Weiner) Z'L, who passed away on 18 Teves 5760. May the merit of supporting and advancing Dafyomi study -- which was so important to him -- during the weeks of his Yahrzeit serve as an Iluy for his Neshamah.

1)

(a)According to Rebbi Ila'a, they decreed in Usha that a person should not give more than a fifth of his profits for Tzedakah. Why is that?

(b)According to some, Rebbi Yeshevav stopped his colleague from spending more than a fifth for Tzedakah; according to others, it was his colleague who stopped him. What was the name of his colleague?

(c)The proof from Yakov Avinu's statement "Aser A'asrenu Lach" initially appears inaccurate. Why?

(d)How do we explain the Pasuk in order to establish the proof?

1)

(a)According to Rebbi Ila'a, they decreed in Usha that a person should not give more than one fifth of his profits for Tzedakah - so that he should not himself need to come on to the community for assistance.

(b)According to some, Rebbi Yeshevav stopped his colleague from spending more than a fifth for Tzedakah; according to others, it was he who was stopped by his colleague - whose name was Rebbi Akiva.

(c)The proof from Yakov Avinu's statement "Aser A'asrenu Lach" initially appears inaccurate - because a tenth plus a tenth of what remains is not equivalent to a fifth of the total.

(d)In order to reinstate it - we explain "Aser A'asrenu" to mean, not a tenth plus a tenth of what remains - but a tenth plus a tenth that is equivalent to the first one.

2)

(a)What is the significance of the Siman (regarding the three statements of Rebbi Ila'a) 'Ketanim Kasvu u'Bizbezu'?

(b)Rav Yitzchak cites another Takanah that they instituted in Usha. What did they say about a man and his son of twelve?

(c)What did Rav tell Rav Shmuel bar Shilas (a children's Rebbe) with regard to a child up to and beyond the age of six?

(d)We initially differentiate between 'stuffing him like an ox' and using punishment as an aid to teaching. What other distinction do we make between the two age groups to resolve the apparent contradiction?

2)

(a)The significance of the Siman (regarding the three statement of Rebbi Ila'a) 'Ketanim Kasvu u'Bizbezu' - is to remind us of the regressive sequence of names in Rebbi Ila'as three statement: firstly (his statement concerning one's small children - 'Ketanim') quoting Resh Lakish in the name of Rebbi Yehudah bar Chinena; secondly (his statement concerning someone who writes all his property to his sons - 'Kasvu') quoting just Resh Lakish; thirdly (his statement concerning not squandering more than a fifth - 'Bizbezu)' just in his own name.

(b)Rav Yitzchak cites another Takanah that they established in Usha; namely - that a man should persevere with his son's learning until he reaches the age of twelve. Then he should come down on him with a heavy hand, using corporal punishment and depriving him of food, to encourage him to learn more diligently.

(c)Rav told Rav Shmuel bar Shilas (a children's Rebbe) - not to accept a child under six in Cheder, but from then on to stuff him with Torah like an ox.

(d)We initially differentiate between 'stuffing him like an ox' and using punishment as an aid to teaching. Alternatively - we distinguish between his Rebbe stuffing him the written Torah (which his father began learning with at five - see Tosfos DH 'v'Safi') at six, and Mishnah, (where one only begins learning with him at ten) at twelve (see Tosfos DH 'Bar').

3)

(a)Abaye's nanny taught him many things. The age that a child should begin learning Mikra (with a Rebbe) is six, she told him. what is the correct age to start teaching him Mishnah?

(b)What is the minimum age to begin fasting full-day ...

1. ... for a boy?

2. ... for a girl?

3)

(a)Abaye's nanny taught him many things. The age that a child should begin learning Mikra (with a Rebbe) is six, she told him. The correct age for beginning to teach him Mishnah - is ten.

(b)The minimum age to begin fasting all day ...

1. ... for a boy - is twelve.

2. ... for a girl - is eleven.

4)

(a)Up to which age is a scorpion-sting lethal (if left unattended)?

(b)The antidote for this is the gall of a white vulture. What does one do with it?

(c)At what age is a wasp-sting lethal on a baby?

(d)The antidote is applied in the same way as the previous one. What is the antidote?

4)

(a)A scorpion-sting is lethal (if left unattended) - on one's sixth birthday.

(b)The antidote for this is the gall of a white vulture - to be smeared on the sting and given to him to drink in beer.

(c)A wasp-sting too, is lethal on a baby - in his first year.

(d)The antidote, which is applied in the same way as the previous one - is tendrils of a date-palm in water.

5)

(a)According to the first version of a statement of Rav Ketina, someone who sends his son to Cheder before the age of six is heading for trouble. What is the second version of his statement?

(b)How might one apply both versions of Rav Ketina's statement simultaneously?

(c)Alternatively, each one will apply to a different child. How is that?

5)

(a)According to the first version of a statement of Rav Ketina, someone who sends his son to Cheder before the age of six is heading for trouble. According to the second version of his statement - he will such good progress that he will leave all his friends behind.

(b)One might apply both versions of Rav Ketina's statement simultaneously - if the child is both physically weak and sharp.

(c)Alternatively, the former version applies to a weak child, the latter one, to a child who is strong.

6)

(a)Which Takanah did the Beis Din of Usha institute with regard to a woman who sold her Nichsei Milug during her husband's lifetime?

(b)How did Rav Yitzchak bar Yosef react when Rebbi Avahu told him that the master of Sugyos regarding the Takanos of Usha was Rebbi Yosi bar Chanina?

(c)How did the Rabbis of Yavneh (or Rebbi Eliezer) explain the Pasuk in Tehilim which talks about someone who performs Tzedakah all the time? How does Rebbi Shmuel bar Nachmeni explain it?

6)

(a)The Beis Din of Usha instituted that, if a woman sold her Nichsei Milug during her husband's lifetime and died - her husband (whom they gave the Din of the first buyer), may claim it from the buyers.

(b)When Rebbi Avahu told Rav Yitzchak bar Yosef that the master of Sugyos regarding the Takanos of Usha was Rebbi Yosi bar Chanina - he made him repeat it forty times, until he 'had it in his pocket'.

(c)The Rabbis of Yavneh (or Rebbi Eliezer) explain that the Pasuk in Tehilim, which talks about someone who performs Tzedakah all the time, refers to someone who feeds his small children. According to Rebbi Shmuel bar Nachmeni - it refers to someone who raises an orphan in his house, and who ultimately brings him (or her) under the Chupah.

7)

(a)Rav Huna and Rav Chisda argue over the interpretation of the Pasuk in Tehilim "Hon v'Osher b'Veiso, v'Tzidkaso Omedes La'ad". According to one of them, it refers to someone who learns Torah and teaches it to others. How does the other one interpret it?

(b)Why can this Pasuk not refer to Tzedakah?

(c)Another Pasuk in Tehilim says "u'Re'eh Vanim l'Vanecha, Shalom al Yisrael". According to Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi, this refers to the fact that grandchildren dispense with the need for Chalitzah or Yibum (the cause of much strife). How does Rebbi Shmuel bar Nachmeni explain it?

7)

(a)Rav Huna and Rav Chisda argue over the interpretation of the Pasuk in Tehilim "Hon v'Osher b'Veiso, v'Tzidkaso Omedes La'ad". According to one of them, it refers to someone who learns Torah and teaches it to others; according to the other one - it refers to someone who writes Sifrei-Torah, Nevi'im or Kesuvim and lends them to others.

(b)This Pasuk cannot refer to Tzedakah - because someone who gives Tzedakah, no longer possesses it, whereas the Pasuk implies that even after his good deed, he still retains his wealth.

(c)Another Pasuk in Tehilim says "u'Re'eh Vanim l'Vanecha, Shalom al Yisrael". According to Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi, this refers to the fact that grandchildren dispense with the need for Chalitzah or Yibum (the cause of much strife). According to Rebbi Shmuel bar Nachmeni - it dispenses with the need for Beis-Din to issue rulings regarding inheritance (i.e. which relatives are the closest heirs - another cause of much strife).

50b----------------------------------------50b

8)

(a)Based on Rebbi Elazar ben Azaryah's Derashah in our Mishnah, which seemingly strange comparison did Rav Hamnuna make between the inheritance of the sons and the sustenance of the daughters?

(b)In fact, it was the Talmidim who misunderstood him. Rav Yosef however, knew exactly what he meant. How did he explain the statement? To which kind of inheritance was Rav Hamnuna referring?

(c)What would happen to the Kesubas Benin Dichrin in the event of the wife's death, if her husband had not left her Karka (immobile property)? In which case would the problem arise?

8)

(a)Based on Rebbi Elazar ben Azaryah's Derashah in our Mishnah - Rav Hamnuna compared the sustenance of the daughters to the inheritance of the sons, to confine the latter to where their father left Karka (but not if he left only Metaltelin) when he died (suggesting that heirs only inherit Karka!).

(b)In fact, it was the Talmidim who misunderstood Rav Hamnuna. Rav Yosef however, knew exactly that by 'inheritance of the sons' he meant specifically 'Kesubas Benin Dichrin' (as we explained in our Mishnah.

(c)In the event of the wife's subsequent death, if her husband had not left her Karka (immobile property) - and there were children from another wife (whose Kesubah differed from the first one, or who had a different number of children), then all the children divide the property equally.

9)

(a)Rav permitted some orphan-girls to claim 'me'Chiti d'Aliyah', from wheat, which is Metaltelin (mobile property) after his death. 'de'Aliyah' may refer to the Din of Shmuel, who said 'l'Parnasah Shamin b'Av'. What does this mean? How does that explain the word 'd'Aliyah'?

(b)Alternatively, 'd'Aliyah' refers to a statement of Rav Yitzchak bar Yosef. What did he say? How does that explain the word 'de'Aliyah'?

(c)Why is it a Chidush to learn this second explanation?

(d)How do we reject the proof from Rebbi Bana'i the brother of Rebbi Chiya bar Aba, whom Shmuel instructed 'Zil Zon'! that Rav was referring to Mezonos?

9)

(a)Rav permitted some orphan-girls to claim 'me'Chiti d'Aliyah', from wheat, which is Metaltelin (mobile property) after his death. 'de'Aliyah' may refer to the Din of Shmuel, who said 'le'Parnasah Shamin b'Av' - meaning that, in the event of a man's death, when his daughters claim their dowries, we assess the father's generosity (the meaning of 'Aliyaso' according to this interpretation), and give each daughter accordingly.

(b)Alternatively, 'de'Aliyah' refers to a statement of Rav Yitzchak bar Yosef - who said that in the attic ('ba'Aliyah') they (Chazal) instituted to sustain a man's daughters from Metaltelin.

(c)It is a Chidush to learn this second explanation - because of the principle that the conditions of a Kesubah, like the Kesubah itself, can only be claimed from Karka.

(d)We reject the proof from Rebbi Bana'i the brother of Rebbi Chiya bar Aba, whom Shmuel instructed 'Zil Zon'! that Rav was referring to Mezonos - because who is to say that 'Zon' does not refer to giving the woman her dowry, and that Shmuel was merely following his own reasoning?

10)

(a)The Dayanim of Neherda'a claimed Mezonos (for the daughters) from Metaltelin. What did Rav Nachman threaten Rav Chana bar Bizna when he did likewise in Pumbedisa?

(b)When Rebbi Ami and Rebbi Asi wanted to do the same thing, Rebbi Yakov bar Idi pointed out to him that if Rebbi Yochanan and Resh Lakish did not deign to do so, how could he! What did Rebbi Shimon ben Elyakim say to Rebbi Elazar when the latter wanted to do likewise?

(c)When Rav Yosef instructed an orphan to sustain his sister from the dates lying on the mats, Abaye objected that one wouldn't even give Metaltelin to a creditor. What did he mean by that?

(d)What advantage does a creditor have over a daughter (in this respect)?

10)

(a)The Dayanim of Neherda'a claimed Mezonos (for the daughters) from Metaltelin. When Rav Chana bar Bizna (and his Beis-Din) did likewise in Pumbedisa - Rav Nachman threatened to take away their mansions unless they rescinded.

(b)When Rebbi Ami and Rebbi Asi wanted to do the same thing, Rebbi Yakov bar Idi pointed out to him that if Rebbi Yochanan and Resh Lakish did not deign to do it, how could he! When Rebbi Elazar wanted to do likewise - Rebbi Shimon ben Elyakim commented that although his ruling stemmed from a merciful heart, he should rescind, for fear that his Talmidim might fix the Halachah like him.

(c)When Rav Yosef instructed an orphan to sustain his sister from the dates lying on the mats, Abaye objected that one wouldn't even give Metaltelin to a creditor - because even he cannot claim from the Metaltelin of orphans (only from the Karka that their father left them).

(d)The advantage that a creditor has over a daughter (in this respect) is - that he is permitted to claim his debt from Meshubadim (from people who purchased from the father), whereas she cannot.

11)

(a)Rav Yosef replied that he did not mean the dates that were actually lying on the mats. Then what did he mean?

(b)What further objection did Abaye raise?

(c)How did Rav Yosef finally justify his ruling?

11)

(a)Rav Yosef replied that he did not mean the dates that were actually lying on the mats - but the dates that were ripe and almost ready to pick (but still attached to the tree).

(b)Abaye objected further - that fruit that is ready to pick is considered as if it is already picked (which case, the dates are considered Metaltelin).

(c)Rav Yosef concluded that - he meant dates that were virtually ripe, but which still needed the tree in order to ripen fully.