[11a - 44 lines; 11b - 44 lines]
1)[line 1]דוכרניתDUCHRANIS- with the characteristics of a ram, i.e. a woman who cannot give birth
2)[line 5]טענת בתוליןTA'ANAS BESULIM
(a)When a man marries a woman who was a Besulah at the time of her Kidushin, he must write her a Kesuvah document in which he promises that she will receive 200 Zuzim (the value of 960 grams of silver) from him or his estate if he divorces her or dies. The Tana'im argue whether this obligation is mid'Oraisa or mid'Rabanan (Kesuvos 10a). When a man marries a widow or a divorcee who had once been married in the past (i.e. she was a Nesu'ah and was not just an Arusah), the woman is considered to be a Be'ulah and is not given the Kesuvah of a Besulah. Instead, the husband must write her a Kesuvah in which he promises her 100 Zuzim under the conditions specified above. The obligation to write a Kesuvah for a widow or divorcee is mid'Rabanan (Kesuvos 10b). (The Gemara there explains that the word for widow, "Almanah," alludes to her Kesuvah of one "Maneh," or 100 Zuzim.) A woman who is less than three at the time of her Kidushin is considered a Besulah whether or not she was married or had relations in the past, since her Besulim return to their original state.
(b)A Besulah differs, physically, from a Be'ulah in two ways:
1.A Besulah has a "Pesach Sasum" (the physical state of virginity) while a Be'ulah has a "Pesach Pasu'ach" (Kesuvos 9a);
2.A Besulah has "Dam Besulim" (virginal blood that emerges upon the first instance of marital relations). The quantity of virginal blood lessens as a girl reaches the stage of "Bagrus" (six months after the age of puberty).
(c)If a man marries a woman who is b'Chezkas Besulah and he finds her to be a Be'ulah, either by not finding Dam Besulim or by finding a Pesach Pasu'ach, it is not considered a Mekach Ta'us (a mistaken transaction) that annuls the Kidushin (see Kesuvos 11b). However, if he proves that his wife is indeed not a Besulah, he need not give her 200 Zuzim as her Kesuvah, but only 100, like any Be'ulah. The claim of the husband that his wife is a Be'ulah and not a Besulah is called "Ta'anas Besulim."
(d)There is another Halachic aspect to Ta'anas Besulim, which has bearing on matters of Isur v'Heter. If a woman who was assumed to be a Besulah is found to be a Be'ulah, she can become prohibited to her husband under certain circumstances.
1.The rule is that if a woman had willful relations with another man after she became an Arusah, she is a Sotah Vadai (see Background to Yevamos 85:17:d) and becomes prohibited to her husband forever.
2.If we do not know when she became a Be'ulah (i.e. before or after she became an Arusah), nor how she became a Be'ulah (i.e. b'Ones or b'Ratzon - against her will or willfully), she is permitted to her husband because of a Sfek Sfeika (a double Safek, as follows: she may have become a Be'ulah b'Ones, and even if she had relations b'Ratzon, it may have occurred before she was betrothed).
3.If, however, she became an Arusah before she reached the age of three, and she is found to be a Be'ulah at the time of her Nisu'in (and she has reached the age of 12 by then, Tosfos Kesuvos 9a DH v'Iy Ba'is), we may assume that she must have had relations after she became an Arusah, and the only question is whether they were b'Ones or b'Ratzon. Since it is a single Safek, and Sfeika d'Oraisa l'Chumra, she is prohibited to her husband. Similarly, if she became an Arusah to a Kohen and was later found by her husband to be a Be'ulah, then even if she had relations b'Ones after she became an Arusah, she becomes prohibited to her husband forever. The only point in doubt is whether she had relations before or after becoming an Arusah. Since there is but a single Safek as to whether she is permitted to her husband, she becomes Asurah to him mi'Safek.
3)[line 7]זכין לאדם שלא בפניוZACHIN L'ADAM SHE'LO B'FANAV
(a)When a person buys or sells an object, or marries or divorces a woman, he must make a Ma'aseh Kinyan (a formal Halachically-binding act denoting the change in status). This act may be performed by the Shali'ach (agent) of the person who makes the Kinyan instead of the person himself.
(b)When the acquisition of a certain object is unquestionably beneficial for a person, even though he has not appointed a Shali'ach to do so, someone may acquire it for the person as if he were his Shali'ach. This act is called Zachin l'Adam she'Lo b'Fanav. The Rishonim argue as to why "Zachin" works. Some state that there is an "Anan Sahadei" (lit. "we are witnesses," i.e. it is as clear to us as if he stated it himself) that the person would have made him a Shali'ach in this case (RASHI to Gitin 9b DH Yachzor, TOSFOS to Kesuvos 11a DH Matbilin). Other Rishonim claim that "Zachin" does not work through a vehicle of Shelichus at all, since it also works for minors who Halachically cannot appoint Shelichim. Rather, the Torah created a new law called "Zachin..." that allows one person to acquire an object for another person in such cases (RAN to Kidushin 42a - this may be an argument among the Tana'im in Bava Basra 156b).
(c)The Rishonim write that if the recipient expresses (afterwards, when he finds out about the Zechiyah) that he does not wish to accept the object, he does not obtain ownership (although in rare instances the Rishonim suggest that "Zachin" would work even if the recipient refuses the acquisition when he hears about it - see RASHBA to Kidushin 23b).
4)[line 10]בהפקירא ניחא ליהB'HEFKEIRA NICHA LEI- prefers a life of unbridled lust and lawlessness
5)[line 24]לכי גדלהL'CHI GADLAH- [the payment for her Kesuvah is available to her only] when she grows up
6)[line 25]מחייא ונפקאMEMACHYA V'NAFKA- she may reject her conversion and return to her previous state
7)[line 29]הנתינהHA'NESINAH (NESINAH)
(a)In the times of Yehoshua, the Giv'onim (members of the Chivi nation, one of the seven nations whom the Jewish people were commanded to destroy upon entering Eretz Yisrael) came and presented themselves before Yehoshua as if they came from a far-off land. Since they claimed not to be residents of Eretz Yisrael, they requested to be converted and to make peace with the Jewish people. After Yehoshua agreed to accept them, it was discovered that they were one of the seven prohibited nations. Having already accepted them, Yehoshua did not want to break his oath and covenant with them (even though they tricked him and the oath was uttered in error) so as not to cause a Chilul HaSh-m. Yehoshua accepted them and appointed them to be woodchoppers and water drawers to supply the needs for the sacrificial service on the Mizbe'ach (Yehoshua 9:3-27). In the times of Moshe Rabeinu, Giv'onim also came to be converted as they did in the times of Yehoshua, and Moshe also made them woodchoppers and water drawers (Yevamos 79a, based on Devarim 29:10). These people became known as "Nesinim," (from the root "Nasan," to give) since they were "given over" by Moshe and Yehoshua ("va'Yitenem..." - "And he appointed them...," Yehoshua 9:27) to perform the tasks of chopping wood and drawing water.
(b)The Nesinim are not permitted to marry someone who was born Jewish, just like Mamzerim. RASHI and TOSFOS (Kesuvos 29a and elsewhere) argue as to whether they are prohibited mid'Oraisa or mid'Rabanan. The Gemara (Yevamos 79a) states that Moshe Rabeinu "decreed" regarding the Nesinim of his generation, and Yehoshua extended the "decree" to last as long as the Mishkan or Beis ha'Mikdash would stand. David ha'Melech later extended the "decree" to include all time, even if the Beis ha'Mikdash would be destroyed (because of the trait of cruelty that the Nesinim exhibited, which showed that they were not worthy of uniting with the descendants of Avraham, Yitzchak, and Yakov). According to Rashi, these decrees were prohibitions against marriage, and as such the prohibition against marrying Nesinim is an Isur mid'Rabanan. According to Tosfos, these decrees were appointments of servitude. The prohibition against marrying them, though, is mid'Oraisa, since the Torah commands against marrying the seven prohibited nations even if they convert to Judaism (Yevamos 76a).
8)[line 29]הכותיתHA'KUSIS (KUSIM)
(a)The King of Ashur brought the people of Kusa to Eretz Yisrael and made them settle in the Shomron. They converted to Judaism after they found themselves under attack from lions. The Chachamim disagree as to whether their conversion was honest and valid (Geirei Emes) or not (Geirei Arayos).
(b)After the times of the Mishnah, the Kusim were found worshipping an image of a dove and the Chachamim gave them the status of Nochrim. (According to most Rishonim, this means that they decided to treat them like Nochrim l'Chumra, even if they were Geirei Emes. According to the Rambam (Peirush ha'Mishnayos), however, this means that they decided that their conversion was not sincere and deemed them Nochrim (Geirei Arayos) for all Halachic matters.)
9)[line 37]שלא יהא חוטא נשכרSHE'LO YEHEI CHOTEI NISKAR- so that a person who sins does not benefit from his action
10)[line 41]ומוכת עץU'MUKAS ETZ- and a woman who has lost her virginity (through means other than relations)
11)[line 18]כשהכיר בהKESHE'HIKIR BAH- in a case in which he knew [that] she was [a Mukas Etz]
12)[line 21]נדמייה לבעולהNEDAMYEI L'VE'ULAH- let him (Rebbi Meir) compare her (the Mukas Etz) to a Be'ulah
13)[line 26]דרוסת אישDERUSAS ISH- a woman who has lost her virginity due to relations with another man
14)[line 29]הוצאת שם רעHOTZA'AS SHEM RA (NA'ARAH HA'ME'URASAH - Maiden Accused of Adultery)
(a)If one accuses (Motzi Shem Ra) his ostensibly virgin wife of having committed adultery between Erusin (betrothal) and Nisu'in (marriage) and is found to be lying, he receives Malkus (lashes) (Devarim 22:18). He must also pay his wife's father a fine of one hundred silver Shekalim (or Sela'im - equivalent to approximately two kg. or four lb. of silver). Furthermore, he may not subsequently divorce her against her will (ibid. 22:19).
(b)A husband may base his claim upon witnesses who testify that his wife had had relations with another during the time in question, or through a Ta'anas Damim (in which he brings proof that she lacked virginal blood; see Background to Kesuvos 2:4). An accused wife (or her father) can defend herself by either discrediting her husband's witnesses as Edim Zomemim (plotting witnesses; see Background to Kesuvos 19:17), or by proving that she did indeed bleed from the detachment of her hymen (and her husband obscured the proof).
(c)If valid witnesses testify that she had committed adultery after she was properly warned of the consequences of her action, Beis Din takes her to the door of her father's house (assuming that that was where she had been living at that time; RAMBAM Isurei Bi'ah 3:9) and is put to death by Sekilah (Devarim 22:21). If such witnesses testify before her marriage, then she is executed at the city gates (Devarim 22:24; see 45a).
(d)These rules apply only to a Na'arah, a woman during the six months following the confluence of her having reached twelve years of age and having attained physical maturity. If she is a Bogeres (a woman after the six-month period of Na'arus), a Be'ulah (a non-virgin), or if she had once been married, then she receives the penalty of Chenek instead of Sekilah (44b, 48b). Furthermore, her husband neither receives Malkus nor is he fined.
15)[line 35]ונסתחפה שדהוV'NISTACHFAH SADEHU- (lit. his field was washed out) and it is your bad Mazal that caused me to be raped