LIABILITY FOR EATING BLOOD (cont.)
Question: Why must the Torah write both "Ohf" and "Behemah"?
Answer: Had it written only "Ohf," one might have thought that the Isur of Dam applies only to things like birds, i.e. that Kil'ayim (the Isur of wool and linen) does not apply to them. (Sheep would be excluded.) Therefore, it must write "Behemah";
Had it written only "Behemah," one might have thought that the Isur of Dam applies only to things like Behemos, i.e. that Em Al ha'Banim (the Isur to take a mother from its eggs or young) does not apply to them. (This would exclude Tamei (R. Gershom - and domestic) birds.) Therefore, it must write "Ohf."
Suggestion: We should say that "Kol Dam" is a Klal, and Ohf and Behemah are Peratim. From a Klal u'Ferat we only learn the Peratim, i.e. birds and Behemos, but nothing else!
Answer: "Nefesh Asher Tochal Kol Dam" is another Klal, so we have a Klal u'Frat u'Chlal, from which we learn everything similar to the Peratim.
Question: The opening and closing Kelalim are dissimilar! The opening Klal is only a Lav, but the closing Klal is Kares!
Answer: The Tana is Tana d'Vei R. Yishmael, who expounds such a Klal u'Frat u'Chlal.
We have a Klal u'Frat u'Chlal. We learn everything similar to the Peratim, i.e. things with light and severe Tum'ah, they are forbidden but can become permitted, and they are meat. Whatever has all these qualities, its blood is forbidden.
Question: What does this come to include?
Answer (Rav Ada bar Avin): It includes blood of a Koy (a Kosher animal of doubtful classification).
SIMILARITIES OF A KOY TO BEHEMOS
Question: What is the Tana's opinion about a Koy?
If he is unsure whether it is a Behemah or a Chayah, the Torah would not need to (make a Klal, Prat and Klal to) teach about it! (In any case its blood is forbidden.)
Answer: He holds that it is a creation unto itself. (It is not a Behemah nor Chayah.)
Question: The Klal, Prat and Klal forbids its blood. What is the source to forbid its Chelev?
Answer: We learn from "Kol Chelev."
Question: What is the source to forbid its Nevelah?
Answer: We learn from "Chol Nevelah" (Devarim 14:21).
Question: What is the source to forbid its Gid ha'Nasheh?
Answer: The Torah forbids the sinew on "Kaf ha'Yarech." Since it has a (round) cover on its leg bone, the Isur applies.
Question: What is the source for Tum'ah (of its Nevelah) and the need to slaughter it (to prevent it from becoming Nevelah)?
Answer: Reasoning teaches this. Since it is like a Behemah in all the above ways, surely it is like a Behemah regarding Tum'ah and Shechitah.
WHICH FLESH IS TAMEI?
(Beraisa): We exclude human blood, for people have only severe Tum'ah, but not light Tum'ah.
Contradiction (Mishnah): If one cut flesh off a person, it is not Mekabel Tum'ah until there is intent (to use it for food) and Hechsher.
Question: Why is intent needed? Cutting it off (shows that he cares about it, it) is like intent!
Answer (Reish Lakish): It was cut off to feed it to a dog. It is not Mekabel Tum'ah until there is intent to feed it to a person.
Question: Intent to feed to a dog suffices for Tum'ah!
(Mishnah): The general rule of Tum'ah is, anything normally eaten only by people is Tamei as long as a dog could eat it.
Answer: Once food was Mekabel Tum'ah, it does not cease to be Mekabel Tum'ah until it is improper for a dog;
A food is not initially Mekabel Tum'ah unless it is fit for people.
Crux of contradiction: The Mishnah discusses intent for human flesh. This is relevant only to light Tum'ah!
Resolution: Flesh from a live person has light Tum'ah. Flesh from a Mes has only severe Tum'ah.
Question: Also regarding animals, flesh and blood from a Nevelah have (only) severe Tum'ah!
(Mishnah - Beis Shamai): Blood of a Nevelah is Tahor;
Beis Hillel is Metamei.
Answer #1: Flesh from a Nevelah has light Tum'ah in the following case:
(Mishnah): The following require intent, but they do not require Hechsher: the Nevelah of a Tamei animal in any place; and Nivlas Ohf Tahor in villages.
Question (Rav): Why is intent needed?
Answer (R. Chiya): It is needed for light Tum'ah.
Question (Rav): It itself is Metamei (severe Tum'ah)!
Answer (R. Chiya): The case is, there is less than a k'Zayis of Nevelah. It joins with less than a k'Beitzah.(the volume of an egg) of food to complete the Shi'ur of k'Beitzah for Tum'as Ochlim.
Question: If so, it should require Hechsher!
(Tana d'Vei R. Yishmael): "Kol Zera Zeru'a (is not Mekabel Tum'ah unless it was Huchshar)" teaches that Hechsher is needed only for things such as seeds, which will never have severe Tum'ah (but not Nevelah)!
Answer (R. Chiya): That applies to normal food. Here, there is less than a k'Zayis of Nevelah. If we would have a full k'Zayis, it would be Tamei without Hechsher. (Therefore, even now it does not need Hechsher.)
Regarding a Mes, even if there would be a full k'Zayis, it would not have Tum'as Ochlim. Even if one would intent to eat it, his intent is ignored, since normal people would not eat it.
Answer #2 (Rav Chananyah): There can even be a full k'Zayis of Nevelah. T.he case is, dough covers it.
Interjection: If so (the Nevelah is covered), it is as if it does not have severe Tum'ah (it is not Metamei one who touches it). It should require Hechsher!
Answer: Hechsher is needed for something that does not have severe Tum'ah through Maga (touching) nor Masa (moving or supporting);
Here, granted it does not have Tum'as Maga, but it has Tum'as Masa, for if one moves or bears a covered Nevelah, he moves or bears the Nevelah!
Summation of Answer #2: In a similar case of a Mes, a k'Zayis of a Mes covered by dough, since Tum'as Mes breaks through the cover, there is still severe Tum'ah. (There is no "room" for light Tum'ah!)
WHICH BLOODS ARE FORBIDDEN?
(Beraisa): (Blood of) Sheratzim is excluded, for they lack severe Tum'ah. (Rashi deletes this citation, and the coming question and answer from the text, for also Ohf lacks Tum'as Masa. Shitah does not delete it. Perhaps it is understood as we explain.)
Question: Sheratzim have Tum'as Maga!
Answer: They have Tum'as Maga, but not Tum'as Masa. (The latter is more severe. It is Metamei the garments that the person was weasring at the time.)
(Beraisa): We exclude (blood of) fish and grasshoppers, for they are wholly permitted.
Question: What does this mean?
Suggestion: Their Chelev is permitted.
Rejection: Chelev of Chayos is permitted, yet their blood is forbidden!
Answer #1: The Isur of Gid ha'Nasheh does not apply to them.
Rejection: The Isur of Gid ha'Nasheh does not apply to birds, yet their blood is forbidden!
Answer #2: It means that they are permitted without Shechitah.
(Beraisa): (Had the Torah written only 'Ohf," one might have thought that) the Isur of Dam applies only to things like birds, i.e. that Kil'ayim does not apply to them. Therefore, it must write "Behemah."
Question: Which Kil'ayim does this refer to?
Suggestion: It refers to the Isur to cause diverse species to mate or work together.
Rejection (Mishnah): The Isur (to cause diverse species to mate or work together) applies to birds and Chayos, just like to Behemos.
Answer (Abaye): It refers to Kil'ai Begadim. It does not apply to the wool (feathers) of birds.
(Rav Yehudah): One is lashed for eating a k'Zayis of Dam Sheratzim.
Question (Beraisa): A Lav forbids the following bloods -- of the spleen, heart, kidneys, and limbs;
The following are forbidden, but one is not liable for them -- blood of people, Sheratzim and Remashim.
Answer: It means that one is not Chayav Kares for them, but he transgresses a Lav.
Objection #1: If so, they would be included in the Reisha!
Objection #2: The Tana (of the Beraisa on 20b) explicitly exempts Dam Sheratzim!
(Beraisa): (Blood of) Sheratzim is excluded, for they lack severe Tum'ah.
Answer to both questions (R. Zeira): If he was warned not to eat Sheratzim (and ate Dam Sheratzim), he is lashed. If he was warned not to eat Dam, he is exempt.
WHICH BLOODS ARE FORBIDDEN? (cont.)
(Rav): If one gathered fish blood, it is forbidden (it can be confused with animal blood, people might come to permit the latter).
Question (Beraisa #1): Blood of fish and grasshoppers is permitted.
This is l'Chatchilah!
Answer: It is permitted if it was not gathered (e.g. it is still in the fish).
Question: Beraisa #1 forbids human blood. We cannot say that this is even if it was not gathered!
(Beraisa #2): If blood is on a loaf, one scrapes it off and the loaf is permitted;
One may swallow blood between one's teeth without concern. (Rashi - blood on the loaf, even though it is not gathered, is basically permitted. It is a mere stringency not to eat it. Tosfos - if you would say that Beraisa #1 permits even gathered fish blood, you could say that it forbids gathered human blood. However, since you say that it permits fish blood only if it never separated, if any case of human blood is permitted, it should teach it!)
Answer: Beraisa #1 permits gathered fish blood in which there are scales. (It is evident that it is fish blood). Rav forbids when there are no scales inside.
Version #1 (Rav Sheshes): There is no Mitzvah to refrain from eating human blood, not even a mere stringency.
Question (Beraisa): A Lav forbids the following bloods - of the spleen, heart, kidneys, and limbs;
The following are forbidden, but one is not liable for them - blood of people, Sheratzim and Remashim.
Answer: The Beraisa forbids it when it separated. Rav Sheshes permits it when it did not separate:
(Beraisa #2): If blood is on a loaf, one scrapes it off and the loaf is permitted;
One may swallow blood between one's teeth without concern.