THE TIME TO EAT A SHI'UR
Answer (Mishnah - Chachamim): (He is liable) only if the total delay was bi'Chdei Achilas Pras.
If R. Meir is stringent, we understand why Chachamim say 'only (if he ate bi'Chdei Achilas Pras)';
if R. Meir is lenient, they should say (he is liable) 'if he ate... '!
Conclusion: R. Meir is stringent.
(Ravnoi): (One is liable for eating) Chelev or Nevelah only if he ate bi'Chdei Achilas Pras;
(One becomes Tamei through eating a Shi'ur of) Tamei foods, Shekatzim u'Remasim and Tamei drinks, even the entire day, bi'Chdei Achilas Pras.
Question: What does this mean?
Answer (Rav Papa): (He becomes Tamei) even if he ate over the course of the entire day, on condition that each k'Zayis was bi'Chdei Achilas Pras.
Question (Mishnah): All food joins to the Shi'ur of a half-Pras to be Metamei a person.
Suggestion: This is only if he ate a half-Pras bi'Chdei Achilas Pras.
Answer: No, each k'Zayis was eaten bi'Chdei Achilas Pras.
Question (Beraisa): All food joins to a half-Pras to be Metamei a person if eaten bi'Chdei Achilas Pras;
If one ate intermittently, he becomes Tamei only if he finished bi'Chdei Achilas Pras of when he began.
Chachamim did not permit one to eat less than a Shi'ur and immerse. If after doing so, he completed the Shi'ur, it joins to be Metamei him (this will be explained);
They permitted a pregnant woman to eat a partial Shi'ur due to danger (to the fetus if she does not taste a food that she smelled and desires).
All (Tamei) drinks join to the Shi'ur of a Revi'is to be Metamei one who drinks them bi'Chdei Achilas Pras;
If one drank intermittently, he becomes Tamei only if he finished bi'Chdei Achilas Pras of when he began.
Chachamim permitted a woman who touched a person who is Tamei Mes (she is a Rishon l'Tum'ah) to nurse a baby, and the baby remains Tahor.
Conclusion: It says that he becomes Tamei only if he finished bi'Chdei Achilas Pras of when he began. Ravnoi is refuted.
LENIENCIES REGARDING TUM'AH
(Beraisa): They did not permit a person to eat less than a Shi'ur and immerse...
Question: What does this mean?
Answer (Rav Yehudah): They did not permit one who ate less than a Shi'ur to immerse, for if he will finish the Shi'ur after immersing, he might think that the immersion helped;
This is wrong. It helps only if it was at the end.
(Beraisa): They permitted a pregnant woman to eat a partial Shi'ur due to danger.
Question: If there is danger, she should be allowed to eat more!
Answer (Rav Papa): It means, they permitted a pregnant woman to eat a partial Shi'ur or even more due to danger.
(Beraisa): They permitted a woman who touched a Tamei Mes to nurse, and the baby remains Tahor.
Question: Why is the baby Tahor? He ingested Tamei milk. This should be Metamei him!
Suggestion: Perhaps the milk was not Huchshar to be Mekabel Tum'ah.
Rejection: Surely, it is Huchshar through a dirty drop remaining on the nipple! (The baby will not eat it, so it is considered a Mashkeh,and not food.)
Answer #1 (Rav Nachman): The case is, the baby nursed in one sucking (vigorously). It did not leave a drop on the nipple.
Objection #1 (Rava): (Sometimes) we see that his mouth is full of milk! (He does not nurse vigorously. A drop remains.)
Objection #2 (Rava): The source of milk is a Mayan! (If she is Tamei, it is Tamei without Hechsher.)
(Mishnah #1): Human milk is Tamei whether it came out l'Ratzon (willingly) or Lo l'Ratzon. An animal's milk is Tamei only if it came out l'Ratzon.
Lo l'Ratzon means, the baby (Rashi; Shitah - mother) does not want it, yet it is Tamei!
Answer #2 (Rava): Rather, the baby is Tahor because of a Sefek Sefeika (two doubts):
Perhaps he did not ingest a Shi'ur of milk. And even if he did, perhaps this was not bi'Chdei Achilas Pras!
Question: Does Rava really hold that the source of milk is a Mayan, so it does not need Hechsher?!
(Mishnah #2): If milk dripped from a (Nidah's) breast into an oven, the oven is Tamei.
Question: What was Machshir the milk?
Answer (R. Yochanan): It was Huchshar through a dirty drop remaining on the nipple.
Suggestion: Perhaps Rava argues with R. Yochanan!
Rejection: Surely he agrees with him. A Beraisa supports him!
(Beraisa): There are nine Mashkim of Zavim (and Zavos) - sweat, pus and excrement are totally Tahor;
Tears, blood of a wound and milk have Tum'as Mashkim;
Any amount of spit, Zivah and urine are Avos ha'Tum'ah.
If milk were a Mayan, it would also be an Av ha'Tum'ah, like spit and Zivah!
Conclusion: Surely, he agrees that milk is not a Mayan!
Question: Mishnah #2 and the Beraisa contradict Mishnah #1!
Answer: "Lo l'Ratzon" (in Mishnah #1) does not mean (like we assumed) that it is unwanted. Rather, (it means without expressed desire;) since most babies like milk, we assume that it is l'Ratzon (Shitah - of the mother);
If we clearly see that (s)he does not want it, it is Tahor.
(Mishnah): If one ate Tamei food... (or drank... and entered the Mikdash - if the delay was... )
Question: Why does it discuss the delay? One is liable for entering (the Mikdash while Tamei or drunk) even without any delay! (Tosfos explains that he is liable only if he did Avodah, i.e. for entering while drunk. It seems that he holds like Rashi on the Mishnah (12b), that the Chiyuv for entering the Mikdash applies only to drinking wine.)
Answer (Rava): It means, if one ate Tamei food, drank Tamei liquids, or drank a Revi'is of wine, if this was bi'Chdei Achilas Pras, if he then entered the Mikdash, he is liable.
(Beraisa) Suggestion: Perhaps "Yayin v'Shechar Al Tesht" obligates for (entering the Mikdash (and doing Avodah) after) drinking any amount of wine, or wine mi'Gito (unfermented grape juice)!
Rejection: "V'Shechar" teaches that it is Meshaker (intoxicates).
Question: What intoxicates?
Answer: A Revi'is of wine pressed at least 40 days ago intoxicates.
Question: If so, why does it say "Yayin"? (This connotes even if it does not intoxicate!)
Answer: This forbids entering the Mikdash after drinking any amount, even mi'Gito.
R. Yehudah says, "Yayin" forbids only wine;
Question: What is the source to forbid other intoxicants?
Answer: "V'Shechar" includes them.
Question: If all intoxicants are forbidden, why does it say "Yayin"?
Answer: One is Chayav Misah (b'Yedei Shamayim) for wine, but not for other intoxicants.
R. Elazar expounds (as if it said) "Yayin Al Tesht; v'Shechar Al Tesht" - do not drink in an intoxicating way;
If he paused while drinking, or added any amount of water, he is exempt.
Question: What do they argue about?
Answer: The first Tana learns a Gezeirah Shavah "Shechar-Shechar" from Nazir (that only wine is forbidden). R. Yehudah does not learn the Gezeirah Shavah. R. Elazar holds that Shechar connotes something that intoxicates.
Question: Who is the Tana of the following Beraisa?
(Beraisa): If one ate a date of Ke'ilah, drank honey (cooked with water) or milk and entered the Mikdash and served, he is liable.
Answer: It is like R. Yehudah.
(Rav Shmuel bar Achosai citing Rav): The Halachah follows R. Elazar.
Rav: R. Elazar is exceedingly sharp.
Rav Acha of Hutzal had vowed not to benefit from his wife. He came to Rav Ashi (on Yom Tov) to permit it.
Rav Ashi: Go, and return tomorrow. Rav would not expound on Yom Tov (after drinking) until the next day, lest he be drunk. (Similarly, I do not permit vows on Yom Tov.)
Rav Acha: Rav ruled that the Halachah follows R. Elazar, and you mix your wine with water!
Rav Ashi: R. Elazar exempts only when he drank exactly a Revi'is (of diluted wine). I drank more than a Revi'is.
(Beraisa): (After the Isur to enter the Mikdash when drunk, it says) "u'Lehavdil Bein ha'Kodesh u'Vein ha'Chol" refers to Damim (vows to give one's or thing's value to Hekdesh), Erchin, Charamim and Hekdeshos;
"U'Vein ha'Tamei u'Vein ha'Tahor" refers to Teme'os and Taharos. "U'Lehoros" is ruling (on Isur v'Heter). "Es Kol ha'Chukim" arewhat is expounded. "Asher Diber Hash-m" are traditions from Moshe from Sinai. "B'Yad Moshe" is Talmud (which explains everything else. Maharsha - "Asher Diber Hash-m" is Talmud, and "b'Yad Moshe" is Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai.)
Suggestion: Perhaps also Mishnah (may not be taught while drunk)!
Rejection: It says "u'Lehoros" (one may not rule based on Mishnah alone).
R. Yosi b'Rebbi Yehudah says, one might have thought that even Talmud (may not be taught while drunk). "U'Lehoros" teaches that this is not so.
Question: Who is the Tana of the following Beraisa?
(Beraisa): One who is drunk may rule that a Sheretz is Tamei and that a frog is Tahor.
Suggestion: It is like R. Yosi b'Rebbi Yehudah. It is unlike Chachamim.
Answer: No, even Chachamim permit this, for anyone who knows Chumash knows this.
(Rav): The Halachah follows R. Yosi b'Rebbi Yehudah.
Question: Rav wouldn't expound on Yom Tov (after the Seudah) until the next day (because he drank. R. Yosi forbids only Hora'ah!)
Answer: Rav would give Hora'ah when he expounded.
Question: Why didn't he expound without giving Hora'ah?
Answer: He could not avoid it (Rashi - people would always ask questions. Rambam - people learn Halachos from whatever he teaches.)
MULTIPLE CHIYUVIM FOR ONE ACHILAH
(Mishnah): One can be liable four Chata'os and one Asham for one eating, e.g. if a Tamei person ate Chelev that was Nosar of Kodshim on Yom Kipur;
R. Meir: If it was Shabbos he can be liable also for Hotza'ah (transferring from Reshus ha'Yachid to Reshus ha'Rabim, if he walked outside with the food in his mouth)!
Chachamim: The Chiyuv for Hotza'ah is not due to eating.