GITIN 28 - Two weeks of study material have been dedicated by Mrs. Estanne Abraham Fawer to honor the Yahrzeit of her father, Rav Mordechai ben Eliezer Zvi (Rabbi Morton Weiner) Z'L, who passed away on 18 Teves 5760. May the merit of supporting and advancing Dafyomi study -- which was so important to him -- during the weeks of his Yahrzeit serve as an Iluy for his Neshamah.

GITIN 28 (7 Av) - Dedicated in memory of Dr. Simcha Bekelnitzky (Simcha Gedalya ben Shraga Feibush) of Queens, N.Y., by his wife and daughters to honor his eleventh Yahrzeit. G-d-fearing and knowledgeable, Simcha was well known in the community for his Chesed and Tzedakah. He will long be remembered.


WHEN ARE WE CONCERNED LEST HER HUSBAND DIED? (Yerushalmi Perek 3 Halachah 1 Daf 14a)

תני בר קפרא אפילו הניחו בן מאה שנה ועשה בדרך עוד מאה שנה נותנו לה בחזקת שהוא קיים.


(Bar Kapara): Even if they left [the husband] when he was 100 years old, and the Shali'ach was 100 years on the road, he gives [the Get] to her based on the Chazakah that he is still alive.

ולא כן תני (מניין) האומר לאשתו הרי זה גיטיך לפני מיתתי שעה אחת וכן האומר לשפחתו הרי שטר שחרוריך לפני מיתתי שעה אחת שהיא אסורה לוכל בתרומה מיד.


Question: Was it not taught that if [a Kohen] told his wife 'this is your Get; it should take effect a moment before I die', or he told his Shifchah 'this is your Get Shichrur; it should take effect a moment before I die', she is immediately forbidden to eat Terumah? (We are concerned lest he die in a short time!)

תמן משעה ראשונה נתקלקלה. ברם הכא לכשימות היא מתקלקלה:


Answer: There, from the first moment [she received the Get] she is ruined [forbidden to eat Terumah, lest the Get already took effect, for there is no Chazakah that her husband will continue to live]. Here, only when he dies she is ruined. (The Chazakah is that he is still alive.)


PEOPLE IN MORTAL DANGER (Yerushalmi Perek 3 Halachah 4 Daf 17a)

[דף יז עמוד א] מתני' שלשה דברים אמר רבי אלעזר בן פרטא לפני חכמים וקיימו את דבריו


(Mishnah): R. Eliezer ben Parta said three matters (about a man in mortal danger). Chachamim agreed to all of them:

על עיר שהקיפוה כרקום ועל ספינה המוטרפת בים ועל היוצא לידון שהן בחזקת קיימין


[Someone in] a besieged city, or in a sinking ship, or he is being taken for judgment in a capital case, the Chazakah is that he is alive;

אבל עיר שכבשה כרקום וספינה שאבדה בים והיוצא ליהרג נותנין עליו חומרי חיים וחומרי מתים


However, if the besiegers conquered the city, or the ship sank, or he was going out to be executed, we apply to him the stringencies of one who is alive and one who died;

בת כהן לישראל ובת ישראל לכהן לא תאכל בתרומה:


[If his wife was] a Bas Kohen married to a Yisrael, or a Bas Yisrael married to a Kohen, she may not eat Terumah.

גמ' איזהו כרקום


(Gemara) Question: What is considered a siege?

ר' בא בשם ר' חייא בר אשי כגון זוגין ושלשליות וכלבים ואווזין ותרנגולים ואיסטרטיות המקיפין את העיר.


Answer (R. Ba citing R. Chiya bar Ashi): E.g. there are bells, chains, dogs, geese, chickens (so it will be heard if someone flees) and soldiers surrounding the city.

וא"ר בא בשם ר' חייה בר אשי מעשה היה וברח משם סומא אחת.


(R. Ba citing R. Chiya bar Ashi): (A Mishnah teaches that if a city was breached by the enemy, all wives of Kohanim are disqualified, lest they were raped.) A case occurred, and a blind person fled from there [and all the women were permitted. Each could say that also she fled.]

היתה שם פירצה אחת מצלת את הכל.


If there was one breach [from which people can flee], it saves (permits) all of them.

היה שם מחבוייה צריכה.


Question: If there was a hiding place [where one woman could hide, and they would not suspect that anyone is there, what is the law? Can each say that she his there? Or, since it is impossible that all hid there, all are forbidden?]

ר"ז רבא בר זבדי ר"י בר חקולאי בשם ר' יודן נשייא. ובלבד כרקום של אותה מלכות. אבל כרקום של מלכות אחרת כליסטים הן.


(R. Ze'ira citing Rava bar Zavdi citing R. Yitzchak bar Chakulai citing R. Yudan Nesiya): This applies only to a siege of that kingdom, but a siege of another kingdom, they are like bandits. (They fear the kingdom they conquered; they do not defile women.)

ועוד ג' הוסיפו עליהן את שגררתו חיה ואת ששטפו נהר ואת שנפלה עליו מפולת ונותנין עליהם חומרי חיים וחומרי מתים


They added three others - if a beast was dragging him [to eat him], an overflowing river swept him away, or a house caved in on him, we apply to him the stringencies of one who is alive and one who died;

בת ישראל לכהן ובת כהן לישראל לא תאכל בתרומה:


[If his wife was] a Bas Kohen married to a Yisrael, or a Bas Yisrael married to a Kohen, she may not eat Terumah.