Mishnah 1

1)

(a)What is the minimum area of a window in a wall that divides between two Chatzeros that give the residents the option of making either two separate Eruvin or one combined one?

(b)And what does the Tana mean when he says that it must be 'within ten Tefachim'?

(c)What is the reason for the minimum of ...

1. ... four by four Tefachim?

2. ... 'within ten Tefachim in height'?

1)

(a)The minimum area of a window in a wall that divides between two Chatzeros that give the residents the option of making either two separate Eruvin or one combined one is - four by four Tefachim.

(b)And when the Tana says that it must be 'within ten Tefachim', he means - that part of it (however minimal [See Tos. Yom-Tov]) must be within ten Tefachim from the ground.

(c)The reason for the minimum of ...

1. ... four by four Tefachim is - because less than that is too small to pass through and it cannot therefore be considered a 'Pesach' (an entrance, without which the two Chatzeros cannot be considered one).

2. ... 'within ten Tefachim in height' - is because, in similar fashion, it cannot easily be used to bridge the two Chatzeros.

2)

(a)What if the above specifications are not met?

(b)On what condition does even a dividing window that is above ten Tefachim permit them to make a combined Eiruv?

(c)Why is that?

2)

(a)If the above specifications are not met - then each Chatzer may make its own Eiruv, but are not allowed to combine.

(b)Even a dividing window that is above ten Tefachim permits them to make a combined Eiruv however - if it is inside a house with a ceiling (See Tos. Yom-Tov) ...

(c)... since in the house, there are chairs and boxes which facilitate using the top of even a higher wall.

Mishnah 2

3)

(a)What does the Mishnah say about a wall that is higher than ten Tefachim that divides between two Chatzeros?

(b)What is the width of the wall currently under discussion?

(c)The Tana permits both sets of residents to climb to the top of the wall, to eat fruit that is lying there. What does he not permit?

(d)How do we qualify this prohibition? Where may he not take the fruit to?

3)

(a)The Mishnah rules that if a wall is higher than ten Tefachim that divides between two Chatzeros - each Chatzer mat make an Eiruv, but not a combined one.

(b)The width of the wall currently under discussion - is at least four Tefachim (See Tiferes Yisrael).

(c)The Tana permits both sets of residents to climb to the top of the wall, to eat fruit that is lying there - but not to carry it down ...

(d)... and carry it into he house, though carrying it into the Chatzer is permitted (See Tos. Yom-Tov).

4)

(a)What distinction does the Mishnah now draw between a breach in the wall dividing two Chatzeros that is less than ten Amos and one that is more?

(b)Why is that?

(c)What if one makes a joint Eiruv in a case where the wall exceeds ten Amos?

4)

(a)The Mishnah - permits making a joint Eiruv in z case where a breach in the wall dividing two Chatzeros provided it is less than ten Amos, but not if it more ...

(b)... because up to ten Amos, a breach has the Din of a Pesach, but not if it ten Amos or more.

(c)If one makes a joint Eiruv in a case where the wall exceeds ten Amos - then neither is allowed to carry (since each one forbids the other, as we learned in the previous Perek).

Mishnah 3

5)

(a)If an empty ditch divides two Chatzeros, what size must it be to preclude the possibility of making a joint Eiruv?

(b)What is the significance of these measurements?

(c)On what condition may the two Chatzeros make a joint Eiruv, even if the ditch measures four by ten Tefachim?

(d)What does the Mishnah say in a case where the ditch is filled with ...

1. ... stubble or straw?

2. ... earth or stones?

(e)Why the difference?

5)

(a)An empty ditch that divides two Chatzeros must measure - four Tefachim wide by ten Tefachim deep to preclude the possibility of making a joint Eiruv ...

(b)... because then it is difficult to cross from one Chatzer to the other.

(c)Even if the ditch measures four by ten Tefachim, the two Chatzeros may make a joint Eiruv - if the ditch does not cut the two Chatzeros completely in two.

(d)Where the ditch is filled with ...

1. ... stubble or straw - the Din is as above.

2. ... earth or stones - then they are permitted to make a joint Eiruv ...

(e)... one tends to be Mevatel earth and stones, making it a permanent 'Pesach', which is not the case by stubble and straw, which the owners will remove should they need it (See Tos. Yom-Tov).

Mishnah 4

6)

(a)If one places a plank to act as a bridge between the two Chatzeros, how wide must it be to be considered a Pesach, thereby permitting them to make a joint Eiruv?

(b)The Tana adds 've'Chein Sh'nei Gezuztera'os Zu K'naged Zu'. What are 'Gezuztera'os'?

(c)What exactly does he mean?

(d)In both of these cases, are the residents of the two Chatzeros permitted to each make their own Eiruv?

6)

(a)If one places a plank to act as a bridge between the two Chatzeros - it too, must be four Tefachim wide to be considered a Pesach, thereby permitting them to make a joint Eiruv.

(b)The Tana adds 've'Chein Sh'nei Gezuztera'os Zu K'neged Zu' - (ledges that jut out from the wall of a R'shus ha'Yachid above the R'shus ha'Rabim (See Pirush ha'Mishnayos le'ha'Rambam) ...

(c)... over which they placed a plank (to enable them to go from one to the other).

(d)In both of these cases - the residents of the two Chatzeros are permitted to each make their own Eiruv, should they so choose.

Mishnah 5

7)

(a)What does the Tana say about a haystack that is ten Tefachim tall and that divides between two Chatzeros? How many Eruvin are they permitted to make?

(b)What does he say about their animals eating from the haystack?

(c)Why might we otherwise have thought that it is forbidden?

(d)In that case, why is it permitted?

7)

(a)The Tana rules that in a case where a haystack that is ten Tefachim tall and that divides between two Chatzeros - they are allowed to make two Eruvin but not a joint one.

(b)He permits the animals from each Chatzer - to eat from its own side of the haystack.

(c)We might otherwise have thought that it is forbidden - or ear that they eat sufficient to reduce the height of the haystack to less than ten Tefachim, and that people will not realize it and continue to carry in their respective Chatzer.

(d)And the reason that it is permitted is because the animals would have to so much hay, that the haystack is reduced to ess than ten Tefachim along a width of at least ten Amos (otherwise it is considered a Pesach), and it is highly unusual for animals to eat so much.

Mishnah 6

8)

(a)When placing the barrel of wine (for Shituf Mavo'os), what must one say?

(b)What distinction does the Tana draw between the Mezakeh's ...

1. ... grown-up son and daughter, on the one hand and his small son and daughter on the other?

2. ... Eved Ivri and Amah Ivriyah on the one hand, and his Eved Cana'ani and Shifchah Cana'anis on the other?

(c)Why can he not be Mezakeh the Eiruv through his ...

1. ... small son and daughter?

2. ... Eved Cana'ani and Shifchah Cana'anis?

8)

(a)When placing the barrel of wine (for Shituf Mavo'os) one declares - 'This barrel is for all the residents o the Mavoy!'

(b)The Tana permits the Mezakeh's ...

1. ... grown-up son and daughter to acquire it on behalf of the residents, but not his small son and daughter.

2. ... Eved Ivri and Amah Ivriyah (See Tos. Yom-Tov) to acquire it on behalf of the residents, but not his Eved Cana'ani and Shifchah Cana'anis.

(c)He cannot be Mezakeh the Eiruv through his ...

1. ... small son and daughter - since they do not have a 'Yad' to acquire on behalf of others.

2. ... Eved Cana'ani and Shifchah Cana'anis - since whatever they acquire, they acquire on his behalf.

(d)His wife - is eligible to acquire on behalf o the residents (See Tos. Yom-Tov).

9)

(a)What must the one who is being Zocheh do to ensure that the residents of the Mavoy are partners in the wine?

(b)On what condition is all this not necessary?

9)

(a)To ensure that the residents of the Mavoy are partners in the wine, the one who is being Zocheh - must pick up the barrel at least one Tefach on their behalf.

(b)All this is not necessary - if the residents themselves supplied the wine.

Mishnah 7

10)

(a)What does the Mezakeh do if the food diminished (from the Shi'ur that we will learn shortly)?

(b)Does he need to inform the other residents of the Mavoy?

10)

(a)If the food diminished (from the Shi'ur that we will learn shortly), the Mezakeh - must re-place it ...

(b)... without necessarily informing the other residents of the Mavoy (See Tos. Yom-Tov).

11)

(a)What if additional residents come to live in one of the Chatzeros that comprise the Mavoy?

(b)In this case however, he needs to inform the new residents, assuming that the Chatzer in which they live has another entrance that leads to a second Mavoy. Why is that?

(c)What if it doesn't?

(d)On what principle is this dual ruing based?

11)

(a)If additional residents come to live in one of the Chatzeros that comprise the Mavoy - then the Shi'ur must be supplemented accordingly.

(b)In this case however, one needs to inform the new residents, provided that is, that the Chatzer in which they live has another entrance that leads to a second Mavoy - since they may well prefer to participate in the Eiruv of the other Mavoy (See Tos. Yom-Tov).

(c)If it doesn't - then it is not necessary to inform them.

(d)This dual ruling is based on the dual principle - 'Zachin le'Adam she'Lo be'Fanav ve'Ein Chavin le'Adam she'Lo be'Fanav'.

Mishnah 8

12)

(a)If there are a lot of residents, the Shi'ur for Shitufei Mavo'os (See Tos. Yom-Tov) is sufficient food for two meals. What is the definition of 'a lot of residents'?

(b)How much food is considered sufficient two meals?

(c)What if there are less residents?

(d)What is the significance of a ki'Gerogeres?

12)

(a)If there are a lot of residents - (eighteen people [See Tos. Yom-Tov]), the Shi'ur for Shitufei Mavo'os (See Tos. Yom-Tov) is sufficient for two meals (See Tos. Yom-Tov& Tiferes Yisrael) ...

(b)... eighteen ki'Gerogros (dried figs).

(c)If there are less residents then the Shi'ur is - one ki'Gerogeres per person.

(d)The significance of a ki'Gerogeres is - that it is the Shi'ur for which one is Chayav if one carries it on Shabbos (See Tiferes Yisrael).

Mishnah 9

13)

(a)Rebbi Yossi ascribes the above Shi'ur to the beginning of an Eiruv Chatzeros (where one also made a Shituf Mavo'os). What does he say about the remains of a broken Eiruv? What is its Shi'ur?

(b)Why is he so lenient with regard to Eiruv Chatzeros?

(c)What is the Halachah?

13)

(a)Rebbi Yossi ascribes the above Shi'ur to the beginning of an Eiruv Chatzeros (where one also made a Shituf Mavo'os). As far as the remains of a broken Eiruv is concerned, he holds - that even a Kol she'Hu will suffice.

(b)The reason for his leniency is - strictly speaking, having made a Shituf Mavo'os, it is not necessary to make an Eiruv Chatzeros, and the Chachamim only required it so the children should not forget the concept of Eiruv (as we have already learned).

(c)The Halachah however - is not like him (See Tos. Yom-Tov).

Mishnah 10

14)

(a)What are the only two things that one cannot use to make an Eiruv or a Shituf, according to Rebbi Eliezer?

(b)Why must Rebi Eliezer be talking about an Eiruv T'chumin (and not an Eiruv Chatzeros)?

(c)In which point does 'ba'Kol Me'arvin nevertheless incorporate Eiruv Chatzeros?

(d)What does Rebbi Yehoshua say to that?

(e)Like whom is the Halachah?

14)

(a)The only two things that one cannot use to make an Eiruv or a Shituf, according to Rebbi Eliezer are - water and salt.

(b)Rebi Eliezer can ony be talking about an Eiruv T'chumin (and not an Eiruv Chatzeros) - because Eiruv Chatzeros requires specifically bread.

(c)'ba'Kol Me'arvin does however incorporate Eiruv Chatzeros - in that Rebbi permits even slices of bread, whereas ...

(d)Rebbi Yehoshua - requires a whole loaf.

(e)The Halachah is - Rebbi Yehoshua.

15)

(a)What distinction does Rebbi Yehoshua draw between a piece of bread even if it measure a Sa'ah and a loaf that measures an Isar (a fraction of a Sa'ah)?

(b)What is the reason for the latter ruling?

(c)On what condition does it apply?

(d)The Rambam disagrees with this explanation. How does he explain the ruling permitting a loaf that measures a Sa'ah?

15)

(a)Rebbi Yehoshua, forbids a piece of bread even if it measure a Sa'ah - but permits supplying a loaf that measures an Isar (a fraction of a Sa'ah).

(b)The reason for the latter ruling is - to avoid strife (someone who gave a whole loaf complaining to someone who gave only a broken piece).

(c)It will only apply however - on condition that it complies with the measurement that we learned earlier.

(d)The Rambam disagrees with this explanation. According to him - what the Tana means is that if the loaf measures a Sa'ah - then one may use it to cover all the residents of the Chatzer, and the above Shi'ur no longer applies (See Tos. Yom-Tov).

Mishnah 11

16)

(a)Rebbi Eliezer permits the resident of a Mavoy to give money to a store-keeper or a baker to be Mezakeh wine or bread towards an Eiruv Chatzeros or a Shituf Mavo'os that the other residents are making. What condition must both the store-keeper and the baker fulfill before it can be valid?

(b)On what grounds do the Chachamim disagree?

(c)Why will it not help even if the same storekeeper is Mezakeh all the other residents with a valid Kinyan?

16)

(a)Rebbi Eliezer permits the resident of a Mavoy to give money to a store-keeper or a baker to be Mezakeh wine or bread towards an Eiruv Chatzeros or a Shituf Mavo'os that the other residents are making (See Tos. Yom-Tov DH 'Nosein Adam' & 'Lo Zachu ... ') - provided he lives in the same Chatzer as the purchaser.

(b)The Chachamim disagree - because money does not acquire (and the purchaser will therefore need to make a proper Kinyan for the transaction to take effect).

(c)It will not help even if the same storekeeper is Mezakeh all the other residents with a valid Kinyan - since the storekeeper did not intend to be Mezakeh him by way of a gift, seeing as he took money from him.

17)

(a)What if Reuven gives Shimon (a co-resident) a small coin with a request to be Mezakeh him in the Eiruv?

(b)Why the difference?

17)

(a)If Reuven gives Shimon (a co-resident) a small coin with a request to be Mezakeh him in the Eiruv - the Chachamim agree that his money acquires for him ...

(b)... since a Balabos does not generally sell loaves or wine, Reuven meant to make him a Shali'ach, as if he had said to him 'Make an Eiruv on my behalf' (See Tos. Yom-Tov); whereas in the previous case, he intended to acquire the loaves or the wine with the maney that he gave him.

18)

(a)The Mishnah has been speaking until now, about an Eiruv Techumin. What does Rebbi Yehudah say regarding the equivalent case by an Eiruv Chatzeros?

(b)Why the difference?

(c)On which principle are these rulings based?

(d)What is the Halachah?

18)

(a)The Mishnah has been speaking until now, about an Eiruv Techumin. Regarding the equivalent case by an Eiruv Chatzeros, Rebbi Yehudah rules - that Reuven acquires a portion in the Eiruv in all cases ...

(b)... because, whereas Eiruv Techumin may well not be to the person's advantage (since he may not want to go in that direction [See Tos. Yom-Tov), Eiruv Chatzeiros generally is (See Tos. Yom-Tov DH "Aval ... ').

(c)These rulings are based on the principle 'Zachin le'Adam she'Lo be'Fanav, ve'Ein Chavin le'Adam she'Lo be'Fanav'.

(d)The Halachah is - like Rebbi Yehudah (See Tos. Yom-Tov DH 'Aval be'Eruvei Chatzeros').