ERUVIN 77 (7 Cheshvan) - Dedicated in honor of the Yahrzeit of ha'Gaon Rav Meir Shapiro (niftar 5694/1933), founder of the renowned Yeshivas Chachmei Lublin, representative of the Jewish community in the Polish parliament, and creator of the DAFYOMI STUDY CYCLE (see for more) - may he entreat before Hash-m's holy throne for the complete redemption of Klal Yisrael, speedily in our days!. Dedicated by Mr. and Mrs. Shmuel Kovacs of Ramat Beit Shemesh, Israel; may the great Gaon be a Melitz Yosher for the Kovacs children to grow up with love of Torah and Yir'as Shamayim and succeed in all that they do.

[77a- 45 lines; 77b - 28 lines]

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We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any other important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos.

[1] Gemara 77b [line 4]:

"Sulam ha'Mitzri Eino Mema'et, veha'Tzori Mema'et"

The colons before and after these words are probably a printer's error. These words may be either the continuation of the statement of Rav Yechiel or the words of a Beraisa. The Yerusalmi (7:1) cites a Beraisa which states "ba'Kol Mema'atin... uv'Sulam Mitzri, v'Hu she'Kav'o" ... .


1)[line 1] EILU MA'ALIN MIKAN V'OCHLIN...- Rebbi Yochanan maintains that if the wall is less than four Tefachim wide it is a Makom Petur, and therefore Batul to both Chatzeros. Either Chatzer may lift food up to the wall and eat it there, or lower food from the wall into the Chatzer.

2)[line 10]L'KATEF- to rearrange the burden on his shoulder

3)[line 10] U'VILVAD SHE'LO YACHLIFU- as long as he does not use the Makom Petur as a way-station to transfer from a Reshus ha'Yachid to a Reshus ha'Rabim or vice versa

4a)[line 11] RESHUYOS D'ORAISA- from a Reshus ha'Yachid to a Reshus ha'Rabim or vice versa

b)[line 12] RESHUYOS D'RABANAN- from a Reshus ha'Yachid to a Reshus ha'Yachid

5)[line 16] V'TZIDO ECHAD SHAVEH LA'ARETZ- and [the Chatzer] on the other side [is higher, and the wall] is [therefore near] ground level (i.e. within ten Tefachim of the ground)

6)[line 29] D'LO BA'ISA TASHMISHTA- (lit. it is not frightening to use) one is not wary of using it (i.e. objects placed within it remain there)

7)[line 30] D'BA'ISA TASHMISHTA- (lit. it is frightening to use) one is wary of using it (i.e. objects placed on it can fall off)

8)[line 31] BA L'MA'ATO- if he comes to lessen [the height of the wall.] The Gemara assumes at this point that he wishes to accomplish this by piling dirt or building a platform etc. at the base of the wall.

9)[line 31] IM YESH B'MI'UTO ARBA'AH- if the height of the wall was reduced at any one point for a length of four Tefachim (thereby creating a Pesach)

10)[line 34] IY AHANI MI'UTA- if that which he lessened [the height of the wall] is enough [to be considered a Pesach]

11)[line 36] NAMI LO- a breach less than four Tefachim should be Batul to the rest of the wall

12)[line 36]CHULYA- a segment (from the top) of the wall

13)[line 37] KAFAH SEFEL- if he overturned a bowl or basin [at the foot of the wall]

14)[line 39] D'CHAVREI B'AR'A- [the Gemara presently understands Rav Yechiel to be referring to a case] where he attached the Sefel to the ground (by piling up dirt and clods of earth around its sides) (RITVA)

15)[line 41] PAGAH SHE'HITMINAH B'TEVEN- an unripe fig that was covered with straw that is Muktzah (e.g. that has been set aside for building) before Shabbos in order that it should ripen more quickly

16)[line 41] CHARARAH SHE'HITMINAH B'GECHALIM- a flat cake baked on coals that was covered in coals [before Shabbos, and on Shabbos the coals have already gone out (but are still Muktzah)]

17)[line 43] D'IS LEI OGNAYIM- the bowl or basin has a rim (which is covered with earth, and therefore it is forbidden to move it on Shabbos since doing so would move the earth on the rim which is similar to Chofer [digging])

18a)[last line]HA'TOMEN- one who buries (for preservation)

b)[last line]HA'TOMEN- that is, from this Mishnah it is evident that even if the entire radish is covered, it is not considered "Chofer" when one excavates it.

19)[last line]LEFES- a turnip

20)[last line]TZENON- a radish


21)[line 1]ALIN- its leaves

22)[line 2]KIL'AYIM

(a)It is forbidden to plant different types of crops together, as it states in the Torah, "Sadcha Lo Sizra Kil'ayim" "Do not plant different species (together) in your field." (Vayikra 19:19)

(b)Burying fully-grown turnips and radishes under a grapevine does not fall under the prohibition of Kil'ayim, since this is not considered planting.

23)[line 2]SHEVI'IS

(a)The Torah requires that farmers desist from working the land every seventh year, as described in Vayikra 25:1-7. The fruits that grow during the seventh (Shevi'is) year are holy to the extent that:

1.They must be treated as if they have no owner, and anyone may come in to any field and pick the fruit that he intends to eat;

2.The fruits may not be bought and sold in a normal fashion;

3.They must be eaten in the normal way for each fruit.

(b)The Shemitah year is meant to teach the Jewish people that HaSh-m, and only HaSh-m, can be relied upon for sustenance, a fact that is not always clear in the six years during which they work their own fields.

24)[line 3]D'BA'I- [digging the bowl out] requires

25a)[line 3]MARA- (O.F. fossoir) a hoe

b)[line 3]CHATZINA- (O.F. doledoire) a carpenter's adze, a type of ax

26)[line 4] SULAM HA'MITZRI- a short ladder which is easily removed

27)[line 6]CHAVAKIM- (O.F. eschelons) rungs

28)[line 12] KOVDO KOV'O- its weight fixes it in place

29)[line 16] V'EIN BEIN ZEH L'ZEH SHELOSHAH TEFACHIM- even if the two ladders are not directly opposite each other, they together constitute a Pesach as long as the closer edges are within three Tefachim of each other

30)[line 20]ITZTEVA- a wooden platform

31)[line 20] IM YESH BA'ITZTEVA HA'TACHTONAH ARBA'AH MEMA'ET- if the bottom platform is high enough that there remain less than ten Tefachim between the top of the wall and the platform over a four-Tefach length, we ignore the top platform and consider that length to be a Pesach

32)[line 22] V'EIN BEIN ZEH L'ZEH SHELOSHAH MEMA'ET- and there are less than three Tefachim between the two platforms, then that four Tefach length is considered a Pesach. If there is more than three Tefachim between them, the two platforms are not considered connected, and the top platform is therefore Halachically not connected to the ground. Such a lessening of the height of the wall in midair is worthless for the purposes of constructing a Pesach.

33)[line 24] SULAM SHE'SHELIVOSAV PORCHOS- a ladder made of widely-spaced rungs, as opposed to steps