[12a - 40 lines; 12b - 27 lines]
We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any other important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos.
 Rashi 12a DH mi'Shev v'Ad Tamnei Srei ד"ה משב ועד תמני סרי:
The words "me'Hashta d'Galu Bah" מהשתא דגלו בה
should be "me'Shata d'Galu Bah" משתא דגלו בה (YA'AVETZ)
 Rashi 12b DH Tzei me'Hen ד"ה צא מהן:
The words "v'Iy Atah Motzei Shnas ha'Yovel Arba Esrei Shanah"ואי אתה מוצא שנת היובל ארבע עשרה שנה
should be "v'Iy Atah Motzei Shnas ha'Yovel Ad Arba Esrei Shanah"ואי עד מוצא שנת היובל עד ארבע עשרה שנה
(This is the actual emendation of the Tzon Kodashim, in contrast to what is printed in the margin of the Gemara)
 Rashi DH u'Meshanei Hanach Telas ד"ה ומשני הנך תלת:
"Ad Shenas ha'Arba Me'os va'Asarah ha'Churban" עד שנת הארבע מאות ועשרה שנה החרבן
The word " ha'Arba Me'os va'Asarah" is superfluous
1)[line 1]נסכים הבאים בפני עצמןNESACHIM HA'BA'IN BIFNEI ATZMAN
Rashi explains that this refers to Nesachim (wine libations) that were brought on a different day from their respective Korban. If a Korban was brought without Nesachim, the Nesachim may still be brought afterwards.
2)[line 13]דארבעה בשבאD'ARBA'AH B'SHABA- that the fourth day of the week, i.e. Wednesday
3)[line 20]"בעשרים וחמש שנה לגלותנו ... אחר אשר הכתה העיר""B'ESRIM V'CHAMESH SHANAH L'GALUSENU ... ACHAR ASHER HUKESAH HA'IR" - "In the twenty-fifth year of our exile, at the beginning of the year, on the tenth of the month, in the fourteenth year after the city was destroyed" (Yechezkel 40:1) (GALUS TZIDKIYAHU / GALUS YECHONYAH)
(a)The expressions "Galuseinu" and "Hukesah ha'Ir" refer to two different exiles that occurred during the time immediately before the Churban of the first Beis ha'Mikdash. The first exile was the exile of Yehoyakim and Yechezkel at the hands of Nevuchadnetzar, who appointed Tzidkiyahu as the king in Yehudah. The second exile was eleven years later, when Nevuchadnetzar returned and destroyed Yerushalayim and the Beis ha'Mikdash, and took Tzidkiyahu into captivity.
(b)The following timeline shows the Judean kings from Chizkiyahu until Tzidkiyahu and their years of reign:
1.3199 Chizkiyahu (29 years)
2.3228 Menashe (55 years)
3.3283 Amon (2 years)
4.3285 Yoshiyahu (31 years)
5.3316 Yeho'achaz ben Yoshiyahu (3 months)
6.3316 Yehoyakim (Elyakim) ben Yoshiyahu (11 years)
7.3320 The first Exile of Yehudah
Nevuchadnetzar took part of the vessels of the Beis ha'Mikdash and youths of the royal family and brought them to Bavel
8.3327 Nevuchadnetzar returned and banished Yehoyakim to Bavel, but he died during the journey
9.3327 Yehoyachin (Yechonyah) ben Yehoyakim (3 months)
10.3327 The second Exile of Yehudah
After 3 months Nevuchadnetzar exiled Yehoyachin to Bavel. There were ten thousand men with him, among them the Charash and the Masger (Galus Yechonyah)
11.3327 Tzidkiyahu (Matanyah) ben Yoshiyahu (11 years)
12.3338 Churban of the First Beis ha'Mikdash and the third Exile of Yehudah (Galus Tzidkiyahu)
4)[line 26]אחר שנה שהוכתה העירACHAR SHANAH SHE'HUKESAH HA'IR- after the year in which the city was vanquished. That is, the fourteen years do not include the year in which the Beis ha'Mikdash was destroyed.
5)[line 35]לבר משתא דגלו בהL'VAR MI'SHATA D'GALU BAH- not including the year in which they were exiled. That is, the twenty-five years do not include the year in which Yehoyakim was exiled
6)[line 1]יהויקיםYEHOYAKIM (MALCHEI YEHUDAH)
See above, entry #3b
7)[line 5]הוה ליה בשיתא בשבועHAVAH LEI B'SHITAH B'SHAVU'A- The 420th year was the sixth year of the Shemitah cycle (i.e. the year before Shemitah), and thus the 421st year, the year in which the Beis ha'Mikdash was destroyed, was a Shemitah year. (RASHI, TOSFOS)
8)[line 6]שנת חמשים עולה לכאן ולכאןSHNAS CHAMISHIM OLAH L'CHAN ULE'CHAN
Rebbi Yehudah and the Rabanan argue about the status of the Yovel year, the fiftieth year (after seven cycles Shemitah have passed). The Rabanan maintain that the Yovel year serves as the fiftieth and final year of the Yovel cycle, and it does not serve as the first year of the next cycle. Rebbi Yehudah, on the other hand, maintains that the Yovel year is not only the fiftieth and final year of the Yovel cycle, but it also serves as the first year of the next Yovel cycle ("Shenas Chamishim Olah l'Chan ule'Chan"). (See Insights to Nedarim 61:1.)
9)[line 15]שבע שכיבשו ושבע שחילקוSHEVA SHE'KIVSHU V'SHEVA SHE'CHILKU
(a)In the times of Yehoshua, it took seven years for the Jewish people to conquer Eretz Yisrael. It took another seven years to divide it among the tribes.
(b)The Gemara here says that the Jewish people did not begin observing the Shemitah cycle until this fourteen-year period had passed, after they had conquered and divided Eretz Yisrael.
10)[line 19]הנך שני דאגלינהו סנחריב ... לא קחשיב להוHANACH SHANEI D'AGLINHU SANCHERIV ... LO KACHASHIV LEHU- these years during which Sancheriv had exiled part of the Jewish people from Eretz Yisrael are not included in the count of years towards Yovel. This is because in order to be obligated in the Mitzvah of Yovel, the entire Jewish people (including the ten tribes) must be in their land. If even part of the Jewish people are not in their land, then the laws of Yovel do not apply.