hebrew
1)

From whom will Hashem exact vengeance and retribution?

1.

Rashi: From Yisrael. 1

2.

Ramban, Seforno and Rashbam: From the nations.


1

Refer to 32:35:3:1.

2)

What is the difference between "Nakam" and "Shileim"?

1.

Ramban: "Nakam" is 'the vengeance of Yisrael', and "Shileim", retribution for denying Me.

2.

Seforno: "Nakam" is revenge for those who pain Me , and "Shileim"is retribution - Midah Keneged Midah.

3.

Targum Onkelos and Targum Yonasan: "Nakam" is punishment. "Shilem" is a verb - I will pay (deliver) retribution.

3)

When is "le'Eis Tamut Raglam" referring to?

1.

Rashi: When the Z'chus Avos - on which Yisrael rely, comes to an end'.

2.

Ramban and Seforno: 'When their measure [of sin] is full 1 (Seforno - they will fall and be broken).

3.

Rashbam: 'When their day of downfall arrives'.


1

Ramban: As in Bereishis, 15:16.

4)

What is "Yom Eidam"?

1.

Rashi: It is their day of downfall'. 1


1

Which Hashem will be prepared to bring upon them through a variety of agents.

5)

What is the meaning of "ve'Chash Asidos lamo"?

1.

Rashi and Targum Yonasan: 'What (the evil that - Targum Yonasan) is destined to happen will come upon them speedily'. 1

2.

Rashbam: As the Navi writes in Yeshayah, 60:22 "be'Itah Achishenah"


1

Rashi comments that until now, the Torah is testifying against them a warning that when the punishment occurs, they should know that He had forewarned them; from now on, He is consoling them as to what will happen when the punishment will come to an end - in keeping with the Pesukim of the B'rachah and the K'lalah above (30:1-3).

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