Why is Seifer Devarim called 'Mishneh Torah'?
Ramban: Because Moshe repeated to the generation that was about to enter Eretz Yisrael most of the common Mitzvos, 1 sometimes to clarify a point, sometimes to add an additional warning, due to their importance. 2 And sometimes he even presents new Mitzvos that have not been mentioned before, 3 which were all said to him, either at Sinai or in the Ohel Mo'ed - in the first year before he sent the Meraglim. 4
Ramban: With the exception of Ma'aseh ha'Korbanos and Mitzvos that pertain to the Taharah of Kohanim, which he does not repeat, due to the principle "Kohanim Zerizim heim!'
Ramban: Such as that of Avodah-Zarah, which the Torah repeats again and again.
Ramban: Such as Yibum and Motzi-Shem-Ra, divorce and Eidim Zom'min.
See Ramban, DH 've'Od Yosif'.
What is "Eileh ha'Devarim" referring to?
Rashi #1 and Targum Yonasan: It is referring to the words of rebuke that Moshe spoke to Yisrael. 1
Ramban: It is referring to the Mitzvos, beginning with the Aseres ha'Dibros in Va'eschanan. 2
What is the significance of all these names?
Rashi (like R. Yehudah in the Sifri): Some of them are not real place-names, but hint at the locations 1 where Yisrael angered Hashem (on which Moshe decided to rebuke them and to remind them of the kindnesses that Hashem performed on their behalf, 2 before proceeding to explain the Torah - Ramban).
Ramban #2 (citing R' Yossi ben Durmaskis in the Sifri): They are all actual place-names.
Rashbam: They are place-names, but they also hint at the places where they angered Hashem. 3
Even though the Torah will later specify the sins
If these places merely hint at the occasions where Yisrael angered Hashem, why does the Torah not state them specifically?
Rashi: In deference to the honor of Yisrael.
Why does the Torah see fit to insert the word "El Kol Yisrael"?
Rashi: Because had he only rebuked some of the people at that time, 1 the others would have asked them why they didn't answer back?
Seeing as Yisrael were encamped in Arvos Mo'av, why does the Torah call it "Bamidbar"?
Targum Yonasan: From "Bamidbar" until "Mol Suf" is an introduction to the rebuke
Ramban: Onkelos is forced to explain "ba'Midbar ba'Aravah" in this way, since Yisrael were no longer in the desert but in the land of Mo'av (the part that Sichon captured from them), as the Torah states in Pasuk 5.
Targum Yonasan: Where each tribe had its own path.
Rashbam: Where they lived for forty years.
What is the significance of "ba'Aravah"?
Rashi: It hints at the sin of Ba'al Pe'or, which took place in Arvos Mo'av.
Rashbam and Targum Yonasan): It refers to the section of the desert called 'Arvos Mo'av' (where Moshe repeated the Torah).
Targum Onkelos: 'In the plains opposite the Yam-Suf. 1
Yayin ha'Tov: Onkelos puts "ba'Aravah" and "bein Yam-Suf" together but does not explain what it is referring to.
What is "Mol Suf" referring to?
Rashi (citing Erchin, 15a): "Mol Suf" refers to when they sinned at the Yam-Suf, where, before crossing, they complained "ha'Mibli Ein Kevarim be'Mitzrayim," 1 and after crossing, they said, 'Just as we emerged, so too, did the Egyptians emerge elsewhere' 2 .
Rashbam: Refer to 1:1:7:3. The Yam-Suf
What is "Bein Paran" referring to?
Rashi and Targum Yonasan: It is referring to the episode of the Meraglim, which took place in Midbar Paran.
Targum Onkelos: It hints at their complaints about the Manna.
Moshav Zekenim: It is Har Sinai. 1
There are no such places as "Tofel" and "Lavan". So what is "u'Vein Tofel ve'Lavan" hinting at?
What happened in Chatzeros?
Rashi #1: It refers to the Machlokes of Korach. 1
Rashi #2: It refers to the episode of the Meraglim, when Hashem rebuked them for not learning a lesson from what He did to Miriam in Chatzeiros.
Targum Onkelos and Targum Yonasan: It is referring to when they complained about the lack of meat. 2
What is "Di Zahav" hinting at?
Rashi and Targum Onkelos: The Torah is referring to the 'Golden Calf" as "Di Zahav", due to the fact that they made it because they had too much gold. 1
Targum Yonasan: It hints at the merits of the righteous Avos, the Mishkan, the Aron and the Holy Keilim, which are all compared to pure gold, and without which they would have been worthy of destruction, due to the sin of the Golden Calf. 2
Hadar Zekenim: Hashem told Moshe, you rebuked Dai (enough); do not rebuke more.
QUESTIONS ON RASHI
Rashi writes that Moshe did not explicitly state the occasions when Yisrael angered Hashem, due to the honor of Yisrael. Below, it explicitly says "va'Teragnu ve'Ohaleichem", "va'Tamru Es Pi Hashem", "Maktzifim Heyisem Es Hashem" (1:27, 26, 9:22)!
Moshav Zekenim citing R. Yosef: This is not rebuke. The Torah merely tells where they were when Moshe explained the Torah to them. 1
Meshivas Nefesh: Only one who teaches oral Torah is proper to rebuke the Tzibur, After "Ho'il Moshe Be'er Es ha'Torah" (verse 5), he was able to rebuke the Tzibur explicitly.
Bartenura: It is improper to begin the Sefer with the disgrace of Yisrael. Gur Aryeh