What does "Asarah Zahav" mean?
Rashi (citing Targum Onkelos) and Targum Yonasan: It means that the gold incense-bowl weighed ten silver 1 Sela'im.
On what grounds were they permitted to bring Ketores Nedavah and a Chatas Nedavah?
Rashi and Ramban (on Pasuk 13): It was a temporary ruling (confined to that occasion). 1
Ramban: To permit them to inaugurate the Mizbe'ach with all the types of Korban that are brought on it.
What is the significance of .. a. "Kaf Achas Asarah Zahav"? b. "Mele'ah Ketores"?
Ramban #3: It corresponds to the ten generations from Peretz (Yehudah's older twin son) till David, all of whom were Tzadikim. b. Ramban #3: It corresponds to the numerous good deeds- like the smell of the Ketores that perpetrated.