What is this Pasuk coming to teach us?
Rashi and Ramban #1: It is teaching us that if a Kohen takes blood of a Chatas Chitzonah into the Heichal 1 with the intention of attaining atonement there, 2 the Korban is Pasul and may no longer be eaten.
Likewise, if he takes the blood of a Chatas Penimi into the Kodesh Kodshim it becomes Pasul (Ramban).
The Par Kohen Mashi'ach, the Par He'elam shel Tzibur, the Par and Sa'ir of Yom Kipur and the Se'irei Avodah Zarah, which are all burned outside the camp (Rashbam).
See Rashi, Pesachim, 23b DH 'Kol Chatas ...'.
Why does the Torah add the word "v'Chol"?
Rashi (according to R. Akiva in Sifra 4:8:1): To teach us that the same applies to the blood of all Kodshim.
R. Yosi ha'Gelili (in Sifra 4:8:1): This teaches all Chata'os, of individuals and the Tzibur, both male and female.
R. Eliezer (in Sifra 4:8:1): We learn from it Asham.
Why does the Torah add the 'Mem' in "mi'Damah"?
Ramban: To reach us that even if the Kohen receives the blood in two bowls and takes only one of them into the Azarah, the Korban is Pasul.
Rashi writes that if a Kohen takes blood of a Chatas Chitzonah into the Heichal, the Korban is Pasul. The verse says "Lechaper". The blood does not atone there!
Ramban #1, Moshav Zekenim #1: If he entered the blood with intent to atone there, it is Pasul.
Ramban #2, Moshav Zekenim #2: R. Shimon (Zevachim 82a) disqualifies only if he sprinkled the blood inside.
What do we learn from "Lechaper ba'Kodesh"?
Moshav Zekenim (8:31, from Sifra): This 1 includes [the Mikdash in] Shilo and the Beis ha'Mikdash.
Here (refer to 6:23:152:1) and in some other places that it says "Ohel Mo'ed", we need a Drashah to include Shilo and the Beis ha'Mikdash. In some places, no Drashah is needed!
Moshav Zekenim (8:31): For anything due [solely 1 ] to Kedushah of the Mikdash, they are the same (without a Drashah). For other matters, they are not the same (unless a Drashah equates them).
It seems that this is his intent, even though this word is not in the text. Surely, Dam Chatas brought inside depends at least partially on Kedushas Ohel Mo'ed! (PF)