hebrew
1)

From where do we learn the prohibition against cursing anybody who is not a Cheresh?

1.

Rashi and Ramban #1 (citing Toras Kohanim): From the Pasuk in Shemos (22:27) " ... be'Amcha Lo Se'or", 'Kol she'be'Amcha'.

2.

Ramban #2 (citing Sanhedrin, 66a): The Torah mentions a judge and a king in Shemos (22:26) and a Cheresh here, automatically including those who are in between.

3.

Ramban #3: Refer to 19:14:2:3.

4.

Rashbam: The Torah only mentions "Cheresh" because it is normally a Cheresh that one curses, since he cannot hear and will therefore not retaliate, but it really incorporates everybody.

2)

Then why does the Torah mention specifically a Cheresh?

1.

Rashi and Ramban #1 (citing Toras Kohanim): To restrict the prohibition to cursing who is alive, to preclude cursing a dead person. 1

2.

Ramban #2: Refer to 19:14:1:2.

3.

Ramban #3: The Torah specifies a Cheresh here to teach us that that it is even forbidden to curse a Cheresh who cannot hear and who will therefore not become angry, 2 how much more so may one not curse someone whom one causes anger and embarrassment.


1

Rashi: such as Reuven advising Shimon to sell his field in order to purchase a donkey with the proceeds - because he (Reuven) wants the field.

2

Refer to 19:14:4:2.

3)

What are the implications of "Lifnei Iver Lo Siten Michshol"?

1.

Rashi: It is a prohibition against giving bad advice to someone who is blind to the facts.

2.

Seforno: It means literally that one should not cause a blind man harm by placing a stumbling-block in front of him. 1


1

Aadding causing damage to the list of harming one's fellow-Jew (Refer to 19:12:2:2). Refer also to 19:15:1:2*.

4)

Why does the Torah mention specifically a blind man?

1.

Rashi: Because, it is speaking about someone who is metaphorically blind. 1

2.

Ramban: Because it is the way of people to take advantage of people who are the most gullible and to mislead them 2


1

Refer to 19:14:3:1.

2

Ramban: Hence the Torah uses the term "Lo Sekalel Cheresh" and "Lifnei Iver Lo Siten Michshol". And it is by the same token that the Torah mentions judges and kings in Mishpatim (Refer to 19:14:1:2) - because people tend to curse them when they think that they ruled against them unfairly.

5)

And why does the Pasuk insert "ve'Yareisa me'Elokecha" here?

1.

Rashi: Because nobody other than Hashem knows the motivation behind the advice that Reuven gives Shimon. 1


1

Therefore the Torah warns him that Hashem knows- and will punish him.

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