תוספות ד"ה דבי רבי ישמעאל

(SUMMARY: Tosfos explains that Rebbi Yishmael is excluding a Kohenes married to a non Kohen.)

נראה דלא ממעט אלא בנשאת לזר אבל לא נשאת כיון דאכלה בתרומה דחמירא כ"ש דיהבי לה מתנות ומיהו אפשר דלא יהבינן לה לר' ישמעאל


Explanation: It appears that he is only excluding a case were she is married to a non Kohen. However, if she is not married, since she is allowed to eat Terumah which is a strict matter, one can certainly give her Matnos Kehunah. However, it is possible that Rebbi Yishmael would say one should not give her these Matanos.



תוספות ד"ה רב כהנא

(SUMMARY: Tosfos explains that the Rav Kahana mentioned in our Gemara was not a Kohen.)

זהו רב כהנא שגלה מבבל לא"י דפרק הגוזל בתרא (ב"ק דף קיז.)


Explanation: This refers to Rav Kahana who was exiled (against his will) from Bavel to Eretz Yisrael in Bava Kama (117a).

שלא היה כהן כדאמרינן בסוף אלו עוברין (פסחים דף מט.) אמר רב כהנא אי לאו דנסיבת כהנתא לא גלאי


Proof: He was not a Kohen, as is evident from the Gemara in Pesachim (49a) where he states that if he would not have married a Kohenes he would not have been exiled. (He understood it was a punishment for his being an Am ha'Aretz and having married a Kohenes, which is inappropriate. The Maharsha explains that since he was humble, he viewed himself as an Am ha'Aretz.)

ואחר יש שהיה כהן בפ"ק דקדושין (דף ח.) רב כהנא שקל סודרא בפדיון הבן [וע"ע תוס' קדושין ח. ד"ה ר"כ ותוס' ב"ב קי. ד"ה ולא ובפסחים מט: ד"ה אמר]


Explanation: There was another Rav Kahana who was a Kohen, as is apparent from the Gemara in Kidushin (8a) which states that Rav Kahana took a turban (as a Kohen) for Pidyon ha'Ben. [See also Tosfos in Kidushin (8a, DH "Rav Kahana"), Bava Kama (110a, DH "v'Lo"), and Pesachim (49b, DH "Amar").]



תוספות ד"ה ה"ג

(SUMMARY: Tosfos states the correct text.)

מאי נוהגין נמי דקתני בחצי מתנות


Text: [The text should read] "What is the meaning of "the custom is?" It is that he gives half Matanos."



תוספות ד"ה חלבו אסור

(SUMMARY: Tosfos explains why Cheilev and Matanos are not stated together.)

הא דלא קתני הני תרתי דשוה לבהמה ביחד


Implied Question: It does not say the two ways that it is like a domesticated animal at once. (Why separate them?)

משום דניחא ליה למיתני דם וחלב בזה אחר זה שסמוכין בכל מקום


Answer: This is because it is better to state blood and Cheilev one after the other, as they are always next to each other (rather than to put Cheilev together with Matanos).



תוספות ד"ה ואם איתא

(SUMMARY: Tosfos explains why the Gemara did not ask its question earlier.)

בההיא דלעיל ניחא ליה טפי דלא תני בה חייב אלא נוהגין


Observation: The earlier Beraisa did not have this question because it did not say "he is obligated" but rather "the custom is."



תוספות ד"ה בזמן

(SUMMARY: Tosfos explains that the Mishnah must be discussing a case where all of the animals have blemishes.)

ע"כ כשכולן בעלי מומין איירי דאין שוחטין בכור אא"כ נפל בו מום ומדנתערב ואין מכירין בו א"כ גם האחרים בעלי מומין הם


Explanation: It must be that the case is when they all have blemishes, as one does not slaughter a Bechor unless it receives a blemish. If this case is where it was mixed into a bunch of animals and they do not recognize which animal it was, the others also must have blemishes (or else they would clearly be able to recognize the animal).



תוספות ד"ה וצריך

(SUMMARY: Tosfos explains why an animal jointly owned with a Kohen is not obligated in half of the Matanos.)

סימן על הבשר רגילין היו לרשום בשר שפטור מן המתנות והיו מכירין רישומיהן


Explanation: They used to make a sign on the meat that was exempt from Matanos, and they would recognize these signs.

וא"ת כיון דלית ליה לכהן אלא חצי חצי ליפטר וחצי ליחייב מידי דהוי אצבי הבא על התיישה דמחייבי רבנן בחצי מתנות


Question: Since the Kohen only owns half of the animal, why don't we say that half of it is exempt from Matanos and half is obligated? This should be like a deer that has relations with a sheep, regarding which the Rabbanan ruled that one should give half of the Matanos to the Kohen!

וי"ל דהתם כל שיות שבו מחייב והכא לא מחייב כל שיות שבו לכך פטרי לגמרי


Answer: In that case, all of the sheep side of the animal is obligated in Matanos. In our case, only half of the sheep is obligated in Matanos, and it is therefore totally exempt.



תוספות ד"ה אמאי

(SUMMARY: Tosfos explains our Gemara together with a Mishnah in Bechoros .)

בפ"ב דבכורות (דף יח:) איכא פלוגתא גבי שתי רחלות אחת בכרה ואחת לא בכרה וילדו שני זכרים אחד לו ואחד לכהן והשני ירעה עד שיסתאב וחייב במתנות ור' יוסי פוטר


Observation: In Bechoros (18b), there is an argument regarding two sheep, one which already had a firstborn and one which did not. Two males were born between the two of them. One he is allowed to keep, and one is given to the Kohen. The one he keeps should be put out to pasture until it receives a blemish, and is obligated in Matanos. Rebbi Yosi says it is exempt.

והך סתמא כר"מ דבתוספתא (פ"ב דבכורות) מסיים בה דברי ר"מ ומפרש בגמ' טעמא דר"מ משום דבא עליו כהן משני צדדין ואע"ג שכבר לקח אחד


Observation (cont.): This Stam Mishnah is according to Rebbi Meir. This is because the Tosefta in Bechoros (ch.2) concludes "these are the words of Rebbi Meir." The Gemara explains that his reasoning is because the Kohen can argue both sides of the argument, even though he already took one of the animals.

והשתא לא מבעיא לר"מ דפריך הכא שפיר אלא אפילו רבי יוסי דפליג התם היינו משום דלא מצי אמר אי בכור הוא כוליה דידי הוא שכבר לקח אחד אבל הכא מודי משום דמצי אמר אי בכור הוא כוליה דידי הוא


Explanation: Accordingly, it is clear that the Gemara is asking a good question according to Rebbi Meir. Even Rebbi Yosi who argues on Rebbi Meir in Bechoros (ibid.) only does so because the Kohen cannot say, "If it is a firtsborn it is totally mine" since he already took one. However, in our case he will admit that the Kohen can say that if it is a firstborn, it is totally mine.

ומשני שמכרו לישראל במומו ואפי' לר"מ דמחייב התם משום דממה נפשך אית ליה מתנות גביה אבל הכא ספק גמור והמוציא מחבירו עליו הראיה


Explanation (cont.): The answer is that he sold it to a Yisrael with its blemish. Even Rebbi Meir who says in Bechoros (ibid.) that the animal is obligated in Matanos will say that this is only because it is obligated in Matanos to the Kohen whether it is a firstborn (in which case the entire animal goes to the Kohen) or not. However, in our case it is a total doubt, and the one who wants to take away from his friend must bring proof.




תוספות ד"ה כשהוא

(SUMMARY: Rashi and Tosfos argue regarding the nature of the law that a Kohen butcher must give Matanos from animals that he slaughters and sells.)

דמיירי בטבח ולא קאי אעם דנמעט טבח כהן מדלא כתיב מאת העם זובחי הזבח וכתיב מאת זובחי יתירה הפסיק הענין דאכל שהוא טבח קאמר ואפילו כהן הואיל ושחיט בהמת ישראל


Explanation #1: This is referring to the butcher and not the people, which makes us unable to exclude a Kohen who is a butcher since it did not say "from the people who slaughter the animals." The extra Pasuk, "from the slaughterers" interrupted the topic in order to teach that every butcher must give Matanos, even if he is a Kohen, as long as the animal belongs to a Yisrael.

אבל אם היתה שלו אפילו למכור רחמנא פטריה אלא דמדרבנן גזרו כשהוא טבח ליתן מתנות כהונה אפילו הבהמה שלו שלא ירגילו טבחי ישראל לשתף כהנים עמהם ליפטר מן המתנות


Explanation #1 (cont.): If the animal was his, even if it was only to be able to sell it, the Torah said he is exempt from Matanos. However, the Rabbanan decreed that if the Kohen is a butcher he should give Matanos even though it is his animal, in order that Yisrael butchers should not always take on Kohen partners in order to exempt themselves from Matanos.

ועד ג' שבתות דאיכא למימר דדידיה שחיט לא גזרו רבנן ואוקמוה על דין תורה ומכאן ואילך גזרו וכי קבע מסחתא מיד מוכח דלאו לדידיה שחיט ולכך גזרו לאלתר כדמוכח בסמוך


Explanation #1 (cont.): For three weeks it is possible to say that he is slaughtering his own animals, and therefore the Rabbanan did not decree that he has to give Matanos during this time, and they left the Torah law in its place. After three weeks they decreed that he must give Matanos. However, if he opens a store, it is clear right away that he is not slaughtering for himself, and they therefore decreed immediately that he must give Matanos as is apparent later in our Gemara.

ולא כפי' הקונטרס דפירש דחייב מה"ת בשוחט למכור


Explanation #2: This is unlike the opinion of Rashi who explains that the Kohen is obligated according to Torah law to give Matanos when he is slaughtering in order to sell.

דא"כ שנים או שלשה שבתות אמאי פטור אטו שלשה שבתות כתיבי בקרא


Question #1: If Rashi is correct, why is he exempt for two or three weeks? Does the Pasuk say he can sell privately for three weeks?!

ועוד אי מן התורה א"א שלא היה יודע ר' טבלא דבר זה


Question #2: Additionally, if this is a Torah law, it would be impossible that Rebbi Tavla would not know it!

אלא ודאי תקנת חכמים היא כדפירשנו ור' טבלא לא הוה שמיע ליה הך תקנתא עד דאמר ליה ר"נ


Explanation #1: Rather, it is clearly a Rabbinic decree as we have explained above (a1). Rebbi Tavla did not know this Rabbinic decree until he was informed of it by Rav Nachman.



תוספות ד"ה כאילו

(SUMMARY: Tosfos explains that it is practically like eating Tevel.)

ממש דמתנות ילפינן נתינה נתינה מתרומה בפ' ראשית הגז (לקמן דף קלו.)


Explanation: It is practically as if he is eating actual Tevel, as we derive a Gezeirah Shaveh from Terumah to Matanos, as stated by the Gemara later (137a).



תוספות ד"ה אין נאכלין

(SUMMARY: Tosfos explains that while a Kohen can prepare Korbanos for eating in any way he wants, if all things are equal he should roast it.)

וא"ת דבפ' כל התדיר (זבחים דף צ:) אמרי' ובכולן רשאין הכהנים לשנות באכילה לאוכלן צלויין שלוקין מבושלין ואמר בגמרא טעמא משום דכתיב בהו למשחה פירוש לגדולה כדרך שהמלכים אוכלין


Question: The Gemara in Zevachim (90b) says that Kohanim are allowed to eat Kodshim in any way they want, whether it is roasted or cooked. The Gemara says (ibid.) that this is because the Pasuk says, "l'Mashchah" meaning for greatness, in a way that kings eat! (How can we reconcile this with our Gemara?)

ונראה דודאי כמו שטוב לו ונהנה יותר מצי אכיל להו אבל אדם שטוב לו צלי כשלוק ומבושל יאכל צלי שהוא דרך גדולה יותר


Answer: It appears that a Kohen can eat Korbanos in any way that he likes to eat it. However, a person who likes roasted meat the same as cooked meat should eat it roasted, as it is a fancier way to prepare meat than cooking it.



תוספות ד"ה ולאו מילתא

(SUMMARY: Tosfos notes that the Gemara could have given another reason why one can give Matanos to a Kohen who is not an expert in the laws.)

הוה מצי למימר מדאמרינן בריש פירקין המחזיקין בתורת ה' יש להם מנת משמע מחזיק אפילו שאין בקי


Observation: The Gemara could have said that this is evident from the statement in the beginning of our chapter that those who hold onto the Torah of Hash-m have a portion. This implies that one who holds onto the Torah has a portion, even if he is not an expert.