WHY WE DO NOT LEARN FROM BECHOR
Version #1 (our text, Rashi) Summation of question: There are eight similarities to a Bechor. We should learn from it!
Version #2 - Answer #1: There are fewer (six) similarities to a Bechor (the Aruch's text omits "animals received for a gift" and "in front"; Ritva - jointly owned animals and (animals received for) a gift are counted like one). Therefore, we learn from Ma'aser. (end of Version #2)
Answer (Aruch - Answer #2): The decisive similarity is that it does not apply to firstborns.
ONLY SHEEP'S WOOL IS GIVEN
(Mishnah): Reishis ha'Gez applies only to sheep.
Question: What is the source of this?
Answer (Rav Chisda): We learn "Gizah-Gizah" from Iyov;
Just like there it refers to sheep - "umi'Gez Kevasai Yischamam" - also here.
Question: Why don't we learn "Gizah-Gizah" from Bechor (that it applies even to oxen)!
(Beraisa) Question: "Lo Sa'avod bi'Vechor Shorecha v'Lo Sagoz Bechor Tzonecha" - what is the source to forbid working with a Bechor Seh or shearing a Bechor ox?
Answer: "Lo Sa'avod... v'Lo Sagoz." (We apply what is said about each to the other.)
Answer: "Titen Lo" - give something that the Kohen can wear, but not ox hair, which is used to make sackcloth.
Question: Goats' wool (which one plucks off goats) can be used for garments. Reishis ha'Gez should apply to it!
Answer #1: The Torah discusses only Gizah (shearing), but not plucking.
Rejection: R. Yosi (below, 3:c-e) is the Tana who distinguishes between words that refer to detaching, and he says that the normal method (for each species) is included!
Answer #2: This is like R. Yehoshua ben Levi, who expounds "La'amod Leshares" - it must be fitting for the Techeles of the Kohanim's garments, i.e. sheep's wool.
Question: What do we learn from "Gizah-Gizah"?
Answer (Beraisa - Tana d'Vei R. Yishmael): Reishis ha'Gez does not apply to sheep whose wool is too hard to make garments (that give warmth) - "umi'Gez Kevasai Yischamam."
OTHER WAYS OF TAKING OF THE WOOL
(Beraisa #1): If one shears goats or washes sheep (this causes wool to come off), Reishis ha'Gez does not apply;
Contradiction (Beraisa #2): If one shears goats, he is exempt from Reishis ha'Gez. If he washes sheep, he is liable.
Answer: Beraisa #1 is R. Yosi, Beraisa #2 is Chachamim.
(Beraisa): (One must leave for the poor) "Leket Ketzircha" (what falls during harvesting), but not Leket of Kituf (plucking);
R. Yosi says, "Leket" refers only to what comes through Ketzirah.
Question: The first Tana also says so!
Answer: The entire Beraisa is R. Yosi. He says "this is because 'Leket' refers only to what comes through Ketzirah.'
(Rav Acha brei d'Rava): R. Yosi admits that "Katzir" includes the normal method;
(Beraisa - R. Yosi) Question: The Torah says "Katzir". What is the source to include uprooting?
Answer: It says "Liktzor";
Question: What is the source to include plucking?
Answer: It says "b'Kutzrecha."
Support (Ravina - Mishnah - R. Yosi): If there are rows of onions between patches of vegetables, (the vegetables are an interruption, so) Pe'ah must be left for each row. (Even though onions are not harvested with a scythe, Pe'ah must be left, for the normal way of detaching is included);
Chachamim say, one Pe'ah may be left for all the rows.
THE AMOUNT OF SHEEP THAT IS LIABLE
(Mishnah) Question: What is the quantity (from which Gez must be given)?
Question: We understand Beis Shamai. Two sheep are called "Tzon";
What is Beis Hillel's reason (to say five)?
Answer #1 (Rav Kahana): "V'Chamesh Tzon Asuyos" - two Mitzvos apply to a group of five sheep, i.e. Reishis ha'Gez and Matanos.
Suggestion: Perhaps the Mitzvos are Bechor and Matanos!
Rejection: Even one Bechor Seh is Kodesh.
Objection: Matanos apply to a single sheep! (We cannot say that two Mitzvos apply only when there are five.)
Answer #2 (Rav Ashi): "Asuyos" means, they obligate their owner in a Mitzvah that did not apply to less than five. (This must be Reishis ha'Gez.)
(Beraisa - Tana d'Vei R. Yishmael b'Rebbi Yosi): The Mitzvah applies to four, for four are called "Tzon" - "v'Arba Tzon Tachas ha'Seh."
(Beraisa - Rebbi): Even if Beis Shamai and Beis Hillel learned from Torah verses, and R. Yosi learned from Nevi'im, we would follow R. Yosi;
Really, Beis Shamai and Beis Hillel learned from Nevi'im, and R. Yosi learned from Torah. All the more so, we should follow R. Yosi!
Question: (Presumably, the preference for R. Yosi is because he is Machri'a (a mediating opinion).) A third opinion (Rashi - it introduces an idea that the first two opinions never mentioned; Aruch - of a Tana smaller than the first two) is not a Hachra'ah!
Answer (R. Yochanan): The reason to follow R. Yosi is because his law is a tradition from Chagai, Zecharyah and Malachi (the last Nevi'im).
THE AMOUNT OF SHEARINGS THAT IS LIABLE
(Mishnah): R. Dosa ben Hurkanus says... (Chachamim say, he is liable for any amount.)
Question: What do Chachamim call "any amount"?
Answer #1 (Rav): It must be a Maneh (25 Sela'im, about a pound) and a half (from all five sheep combined).
Answer #2 (Shmuel): It must be 60 Sela'im. He gives one Sela to the Kohen.
Answer #3 (R. Yochanan): It must be six Sela'im. He gives five to the Kohen, and keeps one.
Answer #4 (Ula): It is any amount, no matter how small.
(Mishnah): One must give to the Kohen five Sela'im of Yehudah (this is ten of Galil).
Question #1: This refutes Shmuel (who said he gives one to the Kohen) and Ula (who says that any amount is liable)!
Question #2: This is also difficult for Rav!
(Rav and Shmuel): One must give (or regarding Pe'ah, leave) one part in 60 of the following - Gez, Terumah, and Pe'ah. (According to Rav, one must give from a Maneh and a half. A 60th part of this is less than a Sela!)
Answer (to both questions - Rav and Shmuel): The Mishnah teaches that if a Yisrael has much shearings and wants to give them to more than one Kohen, he must give to each Kohen five Sela'im.
THE QUANTITIES OF VARIOUS MATANOS
(Rav and Shmuel): One must give (or leave) one part in 60 of Gez, Terumah, and Pe'ah.
Question (Mishnah): A generous separation of Terumah is one part in 40... (Rashi - why do Rav and Shmuel suggest giving like a stingy person? Tosfos - the Mishnah teaches that one may give one part in 60. They did not need to teach this!)
Answer #1: They teach that mid'Oraisa, one must give one in 60. Mid'Rabanan, one should give one in 40.
Rejection: Shmuel himself taught that even one blade of wheat exempts the entire stack (mid'Oraisa)!
Answer #2: Mid'Oraisa, one blade exempts the entire stack;
Regarding Terumah mid'Oraisa (grain, wine and oil), Chachamim enacted that one should give one in 40;
Regarding (other) produce that is liable mid'Rabanan, Chachamim require one to give one in 60.
Question (Mishnah): There is no Shi'ur (fixed quantity) for the following: Pe'ah, Bikurim, and the (cost of) the Olah and Shelamim that each man must bring on each festival.
Answer: Mid'Oraisa, there is no Shi'ur for Pe'ah. Mid'Rabanan, it is one in 60.
Question: A Mishnah teaches this!
(Mishnah): Even though Pe'ah has no Shi'ur mid'Oraisa, (mid'Rabanan) one must leave one in 60.
Answer: The Mishnah teaches the law in Eretz Yisrael. Rav and Shmuel teach the law in Chutz la'Aretz.
Isi bar Hini was teaching his son "five Rechelim (sheep)... "
R. Yochanan: Why don't you teach "Rechelos"?
Isi: The Torah uses this form (when relating Yakov's gift to Esav) - "Rechelim Masayim."
Isi called Rav 'Aba (that was Rav's real name), the tall one.' R. Yochanan rebuked him for not prefixing a title of respect:
R. Yochanan: Rav used to speak in learning with Rebbi. I was 17 rows in back. I could not follow it!
Question (Isi bar Hini): How much shearings obligate giving Reishis ha'Gez?
Answer (R. Yochanan): Sixty Sela'im are liable.
Question (Isi): The Mishnah says 'any amount'!
Answer (R. Yochanan): I know the true meaning of the Mishnah. (It is "any amount" compared to R. Dosa, who said a much larger quantity.)
Version #1A (Rashi) (Rav Dimi): Rav, and R. Yochanan in the name of R. Yanai, say that one part in 60 must be given for Reishis ha'Gez.
Version #1B (Rashi) (Rav Dimi): Rav, and R. Yochanan in the name of R. Yanai, say that 60 Sela'im of shearings obligate giving Reishis ha'Gez.
Version #2 (our text) (Rav Dimi): Rav says that 60 Sela'im are liable to Reishis ha'Gez. R. Yochanan says in the name of R. Yanai that six are liable.