PROBLEMS IN THE LUNGS (cont.)
(Rava): If two adjacent abscesses are found, it does not help to check.
If one abscess appears like two, we puncture one side of it. If the pus moves from one side to the other, this shows that it is a single abscess, it is Kosher;
If not, it is two abscesses, it is Tereifah.
(Rava): There are five chambers in the lungs, three on the right, and two on the left;
If there are fewer or more than this, or if they are out of place, it is Tereifah.
An animal with an extra chamber was brought in front of Mereimar. He ruled that it is Kosher.
Rav Acha told the owner to ask Mereimar to look again.
Mareimar: The Halachah is not like Rava regarding an extra chamber.
This is only if the extra chamber is in line with the others. If not, it is Tereifah.
An animal with an extra chamber (not in line with the others) was brought in front of Rav Ashi. He was about to rule that it is Tereifah.
Rav Huna bar Mar Avya: All healthy (alternatively - self-grazing) animals have this. Butchers call it the rose (colored) mini-chamber.
This is only if the extra chamber is inside the others. If it is outside, even if it is no bigger than a myrtle leaf it is Tereifah.
THE APPEARANCE OF THE LUNGS
(Rafram): If the lungs resemble spliced wood, it is Tereifah.
Version #1: This means that their color is like wood.
Version #2: This means that they feel (hard) like wood.
Some say that they are white like wood when inflated (this is like Version #1)
Some say that they are hard like wood (this is like Version #2).
Version #3: This means that they are smooth like wood, i.e. the chambers are not delineated.
(Rava): If the lungs are blue, it is Kosher. If they are black, it is Tereifah.
(R. Chanina): Black was originally red, but it was stricken.
From R. Noson we learn that Yarok and Adumah (red) are Kosher (for they will become healthy again. Stam Yarok is yellow. Green is normally called 'Yarok like leeks.' Rashi says that Adumah is the redness due to a ruptured blood vessel.)
(Beraisa - R. Noson): I met a woman who had lost two sons through circumcision. The third baby was Yarok. I counseled her to postpone the Bris until the blood was absorbed. The baby survived the Bris.
I met another woman who had lost two sons through Milah. Her third baby was red. I counseled her to postpone the Milah until he gets enough blood. The baby survived the Milah.
(Rav Kahana): If the lungs are like (the color of) a liver, it is Kosher; if they are like flesh, it is Tereifah.
(Rav Sama brei d'Rava): If the lungs are like hops, saffron or an egg, it is Tereifah.
Question: If so (yellow is Tereifah), in what case is Yarok Kosher?
Answer: If they are Yarok like leeks (green), it is Kosher.
(Ravina): If part of the lungs is stopped up, one cuts them:
If pus comes out, surely, this was clogging them, so it is Kosher;
If not, one puts a feather or spit on the clogged area. If it moves when one blows through the lungs, it is Kosher (air could get through). If not, it is Tereifah (the lungs were stricken).
HOLES IN THE LUNGS
(Rav Yosef): A scab over a wound in the lungs is of no significance (since it will break). It is Tereifah.
(Rav Yosef): If when one blows into the lungs, it sounds like air is escaping, he must check it.
If he knows from where the sound comes, he puts a feather, piece of straw or some spit there. If there really is a hole, it will move when he blows.
If he does not know from where the sound comes, he puts the lungs in a basin of lukewarm water and blows into the lungs.
One may not use hot water. This would constrict the hole.
One may not use cold water. This could cause the outer membrane to tear.
If he sees bubbles, there is a hole, so it is Tereifah;
If there are no bubbles, the noise was due to a tear in the inner membrane alone. It is Kosher.
(Ula): If the inside of the lungs pours like water, it is Kosher.
He must hold that an internal Chisaron (deficiency) in the lungs (that allows the contents to flow from one side to the other) does not make it Tereifah.
Question (R. Aba - Mishnah): If the lungs were punctured or Chaserim (it is Tereifah).
Question: What is the case of Chaserim?
Suggestion: They are Chaserim on the outside.
Rejection: We already know this case, for it is punctured!
Answer: Rather, there is an internal Chisaron.
Answer: Really, the Chisaron extends to the outside. R. Shimon taught this clause. He says that a punctured lung is Tereifah only if the hole extends to the main branch.
This is only if flesh of the lung is not missing. If flesh is missing, he agrees that it need not extend to the main branch.
R. Chananyah ruled that if the inside of the lungs pours like water, it is Kosher.
(Rava): This is only if the branches are intact.
Question: (Rav Acha brei d'Rava): How can one know that all the branches are intact?
Answer (Rav Ashi): One pours out the insides onto a lead-glazed bowl. If one sees white dots, branches were dissolved; if not, all are intact.
(Rav Nachman): If some of the interior of the lungs is missing but the membrane is intact, it is Kosher.
Support (Beraisa): If some of the interior of the lungs is missing but the membrane is intact, even if a Revi'is is missing, it is Kosher;
If the womb was removed, it is Kosher;
The Sanhedrin in Yavneh ruled that if the liver is wormy, it is Kosher.