IF HALF IS SLAUGHTERED
Question #3 (Beraisa): If he slaughtered half the Kaneh, paused the time for a full Shechitah, and completed the Shechitah, it is Kosher.
If half is considered like the majority, once half the Kaneh was cut, the animal is Treifah. He cannot complete the Shechitah later!
Answer #1: The Beraisa discusses a bird, not an animal.
If half is like the majority, it was already slaughtered;
If half is not like the majority, the Shechitah did not yet begin (since the bird can live with a half-cut Kaneh, he may finish cutting. He did not pause during the actual Shechitah.)
Question #4 (Beraisa): If half the Kaneh was already cut, and he cut a drop more and completed the Shechitah, this is Kosher.
If half is like the majority, if half the Kaneh was cut, it was Treifah from the beginning!
Answer #1 (Rava): An animal or bird is not Treifah unless a visible majority is cut.
Objection (Abaye): This is illogical!
(In some places), a hole of any size makes a Treifah. When only a majority makes a Tereifah, you require a visible majority;
Shechitah always requires a majority. All the more so, it should require a visible majority! (How can Rav say that half suffices?)
Answer #2 (to questions 1-4): Rather, Rav and Rav Kahana both hold that half is not like a majority.
They argue about bringing the Korban Pesach when half of Yisrael are Teme'im.
(Rav): Half is like a majority. The Teme'im bring the Pesach b'Tum'ah;
(Rav Kahana): Half is not like a majority. The Teme'im must wait until Pesach Sheni.
Question: Why does Rav say that regarding Pesach, half is like a majority?
Answer: "A man, a man who will be Tamei" teaches that a man is pushed off (until Pesach Sheni), but not a congregation. (Even half is like a congregation.)
THE MISHNAH DISCUSSES CHULIN AND KODSHIM
(Mishnah): The majority of one Siman in a bird...
Question: The Mishnah already taught that the majority of a Siman is like the whole Siman!
Answer (R. Hoshaya): It must teach that this applies to Chulin and Kodshim;
Had it taught only about about Chulin. one might have thought that this is because the blood is not needed; but for Kodshim, we must throw the blood, so the entire Simanim must be cut (so all the blood will exude);
Had it taught only about about Kodshim, one might have thought that there, the majority must be cut because the blood is needed, but for Chulin, it suffices to cut half.
The Mishnah teaches that this is not so. The majority is necessary and sufficient for either.
Question: Which part of the Mishnah teaches about Chulin, and which teaches about Kodshim?
Answer (Rav Kahana): The Reisha teaches about Chulin, and the Seifa teaches about Kodshim.
Question: What is the source of this?
Answer #1: The Reisha says "if one slaughters." Had it referred to Kodshim, it would say "if one does Melikah"!
Question: The Seifa says "the Shechitah is Kosher." If this refers to Kodshim, it should say 'the Melikah is Kosher!'
Answer: Since animals were discussed just before this, it says Shechitah, which applies to Kodshim animals.
In the Reisha, after discussing birds, if it discussed Kodshim, it would have said 'ha'Molek'.
Answer #2 (Rav Simi bar Ashi): The Reisha says that one Siman suffices for birds. This is not true for all Kodshim. Both Simanim of Olas ha'Of must be cut.
Question: The Seifa says that most of one Siman suffices for birds. This is not true for all Kodshim. Both Simanim of Olas ha'Of must be cut!
Answer: 'Most of one Siman' means most of each Siman.
It would have been better to say 'most of both Simanim', but this does not apply to Chatas ha'Of, in which only one Siman is cut.
Answer #3 (Rav Papa): In the Reisha, R. Yehudah says that the veins must be cut, and Chachamim disagree.
If they discuss Chulin, it is reasonable that they disagree.
If they discussed Kodshim, why would Chachamim disagree? The blood must be collected!
Answer #4 (Rav Ashi): The next Mishnah (30b) says that if one slaughtered two animals together, this is Kosher, b'Di'eved.
Granted, this is b'Di'eved regarding Kodshim, like Rav Yosef taught;
(Rav Yosef): "Tizbach (you (singular) will slaughter)" - two people may not slaughter one Korban. "Tizbechehu (you will slaughter it (singular))" - one may not slaughter two Korbanos at once.
(Rav Kahana): (Even though we pronounce it "Tizbechuhu (you (plural) will slaughter)"), we expound based on how it is written in the Torah, "Tizbechehu".
This cannot refer to Chulin, for l'Chatchilah, one may slaughter two Chulin animals at one time! (Presumably, the Seifa of our Mishnah discusses the same case as the coming Mishnah).
The following shows that also Reish Lakish holds that the Reisha teaches Chulin, and the Seifa teaches Kodshim;
Question (Reish Lakish): Since we already learned that the majority of a Siman is like the full Siman, why must the Mishnah conclude that the majority of one Siman in a bird, or the majority of two Simanim in an animal, is enough?
Answer (Reish Lakish - Mishnah): They brought the Tamid (daily offering) to the Kohen Gadol (on Yom Kipur). He slaughters the majority of both Simanim, and someone else completes the Shechitah;
One might have thought that if the Shechitah is not completed, it is invalid. Therefore, our Mishnah teaches that the majority of one Siman in a bird, and two in an animal, suffices.
Question: How could Reish Lakish entertain the idea that incomplete Shechitah is invalid? If so, the Kohen Gadol would have to complete the Shechitah himself!
(Beraisa): All Avodah of Yom Kipur is valid only through the Kohen Gadol.
Answer: Reish Lakish suggested that if the Shechitah is not completed, it is invalid mid'Rabanan.
Question (Mishnah): The majority of one Siman for birds, and two Simanim for animals, is enough.
If there is not even an Isur mid'Rabanan not to complete the Shechitah, why do we complete it (through someone else on Yom Kipur)?
Answer: It is a Mitzvah to complete the Shechitah.
WHAT COMPRISES SHECHITAH?
(Reish Lakish): Only the last moment of Shechitah (when the majority of the Siman (in an animal, the second Siman) is cut) is considered Shechitah;
(R. Yochanan): The entire Shechitah (from the initial cut of a Siman until the end) is considered Shechitah.
(Rava): Both agree that if a Nochri slaughtered one Siman, and a Yisrael the second, the Shechitah is invalid, for the Nochri made it a Treifah.
In Olas ha'Of, if Melikah was done to one Siman at the bottom of the Mizbe'ach, and the second Siman was cut on top of the Mizbe'ach, all agree that this is invalid, for the Avodah of Chatas ha'Of was done to it below.
They argue only in a case that one Siman was slaughtered outside the Mikdash, and the second in the Mikdash.
R. Yochanan holds that the entire Shechitah is considered Shechitah, therefore he is liable for Shechutei Chutz (slaughtering a Korban outside the Mikdash);
Reish Lakish holds that only the last moment is considered Shechitah, therefore he is exempt.
(Rabah bar Simi): Rav Yosef argues with this!
(Rav Yosef): If one Siman was slaughtered outside the Mikdash, and the other Siman inside, all agree that he is liable, for one Siman suffices for Chatas ha'Of.
They argue when the minority of the Simanim were slaughtered outside the Mikdash, and the rest in the Mikdash.
R. Yochanan holds that the entire Shechitah is considered Shechitah, so he is liable for Shechutei Chutz;
Reish Lakish holds that only the last moment is considered Shechitah, so he is exempt.
Question (R. Zeira - Mishnah): Anyone who performs any Avodah of the Parah Adumah, from the beginning until the end, (he and) his clothes become Teme'im;
If he engages in another task while engaged in the Parah Adumah, he disqualifies the Parah.
If the Parah became disqualified during the Shechitah, (he and) his clothes do not become Tamei, whether his Avodah was before or after it became disqualified;
If the Parah became Pasul during the sprinkling (of its blood) --
If his Avodah was before the Pesul, they become Tamei;
If his Avodah was afterwards, they are Tahor.
(Culmination of question): If the entire Shechitah is considered Shechitah, also when it became Pasul during Shechitah, they should become Tamei if his Avodah was before the Pesul!
Answer (Rava): When it becomes Pasul during Shechitah, this reveals that the entire Shechitah was invalid from the beginning.
Question (Rava): According to Reish Lakish, only the end of Shechitah is considered Shechitah. The Mishnah should distinguish in a case when the Parah is valid (regarding two who slaughtered);
If two people slaughtered, only the one who finishes the Shechitah is Metamei his clothes!
Answer #1 (Rav Yosef): The Mishnah does not discuss that case, because two people may not slaughter it.
(Beraisa): "Tizbach" teaches that two may not slaughter one Korban. "Tizbechuhu" - one may not slaughter two Korbanos at once.
(Rav Kahana): Even though we read "Tizbechuhu", it is written "Tizbechehu".