BENEFITING FROM LABOR DONE ON SHABBOS
Answer #4 (to Question 1:d, 14a - Rav Ashi): The Mishnah is like R. Yehudah's opinion about Melachah done on Shabbos (b'Shogeg).
(Beraisa - R. Meir): If one cooks on Shabbos, if he was Shogeg, he (and others) may eat the food (immediately). If he was Mezid, he (and others) may not eat the food (on Shabbos);
R. Yehudah says, if he was Shogeg, he (and others) may eat the food after Shabbos. If he was Mezid, he may never eat the food (but others may);
R. Yochanan ha'Sandlar says, if he was Shogeg, he may never eat the food, but others may eat it after Shabbos. If he was Mezid, no one may ever eat the food.
Question: Perhaps the Mishnah is like R. Meir, and it discusses one who was Mezid!
Answer: The Mishnah discusses Shabbos and Yom Kipur, to teach that they are the same. Just like on Yom Kipur he may not eat it, whether or not he was Mezid, also on Shabbos.
Question: We cannot say that he was Shogeg. It says that he is Chayav Misah!
Answer: It means that even though he would be Chayav Misah if he was Mezid, since he was Shogeg, the Shechitah is Kosher.
Question: Perhaps the Mishnah is like R. Yochanan ha'Sandlar, who says that whether he was Shogeg or Mezid, the food is forbidden?
Answer: R. Yochanan ha'Sandlar distinguishes. After Shabbos, only others may eat the food. The Mishnah says 'the Shechitah is Kosher.' This implies that anyone may eat.
THE FINAL RULING
A reciter of Beraisos: If one cooked on Shabbos, if he was Shogeg, he may eat the food. If he was Mezid, he may not eat it.
Rav silenced him.
Question: Why did Rav do this?
Suggestion: He did so because Rav holds like R. Yehudah, and the reciter holds like R. Meir.
Rejection #1: That is no reason to silence him!
Rejection #2: Rav does not hold like R. Yehudah!
(Rav Chanan bar Ami): Rav would rule to his Talmidim like R. Meir. In public he ruled like R. Yehudah, due to ignoramuses. (If they heard that the Halachah follows R. Meir, they might invent new leniencies.)
Suggestion: Perhaps the reciter said this in the public class; therefore, Rav had to silence him.
Rejection: There would be no need. People listen to the man broadcasting the Chacham's words, and not to a reciter teaching on his own.
Answer (Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak): The reciter said if one slaughters on Shabbos, if he was Shogeg, he may eat the meat. If he was Mezid, he may not;
Rav objected, for R. Meir permits only food cooked on Shabbos, since it could have been eaten raw, but not meat slaughtered on Shabbos, for one could not eat it without Shechitah.
Question: The Mishnah forbids meat slaughtered on Shabbos, and Rabanan said that Rav establishes the Mishnah like R. Yehudah. This implies that R. Meir would permit it!
Answer: R. Meir permits only when one (in the household) was (dangerously) sick when Shabbos began. (They planned to slaughter for him if necessary.)
Question: If so, it was permitted to slaughter. Why does R. Yehudah forbid the meat?
Answer: The case is, he became healthy again before the Shechitah; like Rav Acha bar Ada taught.
(Rav Acha bar Rav Ada bar Ahavah citing Rav): If one slaughters for a sick person (on Shabbos), a healthy person may not eat from the meat. If one cooks for a sick person, a healthy person may eat the food.
Question: Why are these different?
Answer: One could not eat the meat without Shechitah. Food could have been eaten raw.
(Rav Papa): Sometimes when one slaughters for a sick person, a healthy person may eat from the meat, for example, one was sick when Shabbos began;
Sometimes when one cooks for a sick person, a healthy person may not eat the food, e.g. he detached (Rashi; Tosfos - cooked) gourds.
(Rav Dimi of Nehardai): The Halachah is, if one slaughters for a sick person, a healthy person may eat from the meat raw.
Question: What is the reason?
Answer: Since the animal must be slaughtered to eat even a k'Zayis (a small amount), there is no concern lest he slaughters also for the sake of healthy people.
(Rav Dimi of Nehardai): If one cooks for a sick person, a healthy person may not eat the food.
This is a decree, lest he come to cook extra for healthy people.
WHICH INSTRUMENTS ARE KOSHER FOR SHECHITAH?
If one slaughters with a hand scythe, rock or reed, the Shechitah is valid.
Anyone may slaughter, at any time, with anything, except for a sickle, saw, teeth, or fingernail, for these tear the Simanim.
(Gemara): 'If one slaughters' connotes b'Di'eved.
Question: Granted, one should not slaughter with a hand scythe, lest he come to slaughter with the side that is not smooth;
However, a rock or reed is Kosher l'Chatchilah!
(Beraisa): One may slaughter with anything, e.g. a rock, glass, or a reed.
Answer: It is b'Di'eved when they are attached (to the ground). When they are detached it is l'Chatchilah.
(Rav Kahana): If one slaughters with something attached, Rebbi disqualifies the Shechitah, and R. Chiya is Machshir.
Rav Kahana said only that R. Chiya is Machshir b'Di'eved, but not l'Chatchilah.
Question: Does R. Chiya really say that it is b'Di'eved?!
(Beraisa): We may slaughter with anything, be it detached or attached, whether the knife is above the animal's neck or below it.
Question: The Beraisa is not like Rebbi, nor like R. Chiya!
R. Chiya permits the Shechitah only b'Di'eved; and Rebbi disqualifies it even b'Di'eved!
Answer (to both questions): Really, the Beraisa is like R. Chiya. He permits it l'Chatchilah;
Rav Kahana taught the argument about b'Di'eved, to teach that Rebbi disqualifies the Shechitah even b'Di'eved.
Question: Our Mishnah permits only b'Di'eved. This is unlike Rebbi (he forbids even b'Di'eved), and unlike R. Chiya (he permits l'Chatchilah)!
Answer: (Indeed, Answer (g) is correct.) R. Chiya permits l'Chatchilah. Our Mishnah is like Rebbi.
Question: Rav Kahana taught that Rebbi disqualifies even b'Di'eved!
Answer: Rav Kahana discusses when the knife was always attached. The Mishnah is Machshir b'Di'eved when the knife was originally detached and later attached.
(Beraisa): If one slaughters with a (knife on a) wheel, it is Kosher. Shechitah with an attached knife is Kosher. If he stuck a knife in the wall and slaughtered, it is Kosher;
If a reed grew on its own, or a rock jutted out from a wall (e.g. in a cave, similar to the reed, which grew by itself) and he slaughtered with it, it is invalid.