[25a - 38 lines; 25b - 34 lines]

1)[line 2]מגבוMI'GABO - from [Tum'ah that touches] its outer surface (THE PRINCIPLES OF TUM'OS AND TAHAROS)

(a)LEVELS OF TUM'AH - Chazal learned from the verses in the Torah (in Parshas Shemini and Parshas Chukas) the various levels of Tum'ah. There are six levels of Tum'ah: 1. Avi Avos ha'Tum'ah; 2. Av ha'Tum'ah; 3. Rishon l'Tum'ah; 4. Sheni l'Tum'ah; 5. Shelishi l'Tum'ah; 6. Revi'i l'Tum'ah. Something that touches a person or object that is at a particular level of Tum'ah becomes Tamei at one level down from the original Tum'ah. The exception to this rule is metal utensils that touch an Avi Avos ha'Tum'ah or an Av ha'Tum'ah, which become Tamei at the same level of Tum'ah as the object they touched. (However, they cannot in turn cause other metal utensils to become Tamei at their same level of Tum'ah.)

(b)WHICH TUM'OS APPLY TO WHICH ITEMS - Metal utensils can become Avi Avos ha'Tum'ah, Av ha'Tum'ah or Rishon l'Tum'ah (see Insights to Pesachim 14b), but not any lower level. People and all other utensils except for earthenware utensils can become Av ha'Tum'ah or Rishon l'Tum'ah, but not any lower level - except that Chazal decreed that the hands can sometimes become Sheni l'Tum'ah. Earthenware utensils can only become Rishon l'Tum'ah, and not any other level of Tum'ah. Food and liquids can become Rishon l'Tum'ah, Sheni, Shelishi and Revi'i, but not any higher level.

(c)TERUMAH AND KODSHIM PESULIM - Terumah that is Temei'ah at the level of a Shelishi l'Tum'ah becomes Pesulah and may not be eaten. Similarly, Kodshim that become Temei'im at the level of a Revi'i l'Tum'ah become Pesulim. If Terumah receives Tum'ah from a normal Sheni l'Tum'ah, it can in turn Metamei Kodshim to make them a Revi'i and as such Pesulim. However, if Terumah receives Tum'ah from a Tevul Yom (who is also considered a Sheni l'Tum'ah), it cannot be Metamei Kodshim. For this reason it is called "Terumah Pesulah" and not "Terumah Temei'ah." Kodshim that are a Revi'i l'Tum'ah are called Pesulim and not Temei'im because they cannot be Metamei anything else (except for Mei Chatas, which, by Rabbinic institution, can become a Chamishi l'Tum'ah). (See Charts to Pesachim #2 for the details of the laws of Tum'ah mentioned above and further laws as well.)

2)[line 5]"וכל כלי פתוח אשר אין צמיד פתיל עליו טמא הוא""V'CHOL KLI FASU'ACH ASHER EIN TZAMID PASIL ALAV TAMEI HU."- "And every open [earthenware] utensil that does not have a tight seal on it is Tamei." (Bamidbar 19:15)

3)[line 14]ארבעה (תוכו) [קראי] כתיביARBA'AH (TOCHO) [KERA'EI] KESIVEI- four [teachings are learned from the two] words ["Tocho" that] are written [in the verse - Vayikra 11:33, from the word "Tocho," that could have been written as "Toch," and from the word "b'Socho," that could have been written as "b'Soch"] (RASHI)

4)[line 14]תוכו, תוך [תוכו]; תוכו, תוך [תוכו]TOCHO, TOCH [TOCHO]; TOCHO, TOCH [TOCHO]- the word "Tocho" contains two Derashos: one from the word "Toch" and one from the word "Tocho"; the word "b'Socho" contains two Derashos: one from the word "Soch" and one from the word "b'Socho" (see previous entry; the Girsa is from DIKDUKEI SOFRIM #4)

5a)[line 15]חד לגופיהCHAD L'GUFEI- one for its simple meaning (that food and drinks become Temei'im in the airspace of Kelei Cheres, even if they did not touch its sides)

b)[line 15]חד לג''שCHAD LI'GEZEIRAH SHAVAH- one for the Gezeirah Shavah (Chulin 24b) that teaches that an object of Tum'ah can cause an earthenware utensil, the airspace of which it enters, to become Tamei

c)[line 15]חד תוכו של זה ולא תוכו של אחרCHAD TOCHO SHEL ZEH V'LO TOCHO SHEL ACHER- one to teach that the principle of Tum'ah that applies to the airspace of utensils only applies to Klei Cheres and not to any other utensils (e.g. metal utensils do not receive Tum'ah when a Sheretz enters their airspace, unless it actually touches the sides of the utensil)

d)[line 16]חד תוכו ולא תוך תוכו ואפילו כלי שטף [מציל]CHAD TOCHO V'LO TOCH TOCHO VA'AFILU KLI SHETEF [MATZIL] (KELI CHERES: TUMA'ASO)

(a)See Background to Chulin 24:33.

(b)Our Gemara brings the fourth teaching that is learned from the words "Tocho" and "b'Socho," that deals with a utensil (even a metal utensil), the closed part of which is inserted into a Keli Cheres while the mouth of it lies above the mouth of the Keli Cheres. Any food or drink items that are in the inserted utensil remain Tahor because they are "Toch Tocho," "inside of the inside." The verse (Vayikra 11:33) states that the items that become Temei'im are "b'Tocho," i.e. only inside of it, and not in "Toch Tocho," i.e. inside of something that is inside of the Keli Cheres.

(c)The word "Shetef" denotes all utensils that can be immersed in a Mikvah to make them Tahor. This includes metal and wooden utensils, clothing, leather goods and sacks. They are called Klei Shetef based on the words of the verses, "and if it is cooked in a copper utensil, it must be emptied and immersed ("v'Shutaf") in a Mikvah" (Vayikra 6:21) and "If it is a wooden utensil, it must be immersed ("Yishatef") in a Mikvah" (Vayikra 15:12).

6a)[line 29]גולמי כלי עץGOLMEI KLEI ETZ- unfinished wooden utensils


(a)The Torah states that wooden utensils can become Temei'im if they are touched by a person or object that is an Av ha'Tum'ah, of if they are under the same Ohel as a dead person (Vayikra 11:32, Bamidbar 31:20). However, since the Torah compares a wooden object that becomes Tamei to a sack ("Sak"), the wooden object must have certain qualities in common with a sack in order to become Tamei.

(b)Among these qualities are:

1.The object must have a receptacle, i.e. an area in which it can contain other objects, as opposed to a flat board (with the exception of a "Tavla ha'Mis'hapeches" - see Background to Menachos 96:34:c). Objects that do not have receptacles are called "Peshutei Klei Etz."

2.It must not be large enough to hold 40 Se'ah, for if it is that large it cannot be transported when filled, as opposed to a sack, which is made to be transported either empty or full.

3.It must be an object that is sometimes transported, and not one that is always stationary. If it is left stationary, it is called a "Keli he'Asuy l'Nachas" and is not Mekabel Tum'ah.

7)[line 34]לשוףLA'SHUF- to smooth or polish [wood, as is done with the horsetail plant (O.F. asprele)]

8)[line 34]לשבץL'SHABETZ- to adorn with (usually) square designs [in wood]

9)[line 34]לגררL'GARER- to plane, scrape, shave

10)[line 34]לכרכבL'CHARKEV- to carve round designs; to apply ornamental designs of a lathe worker

11)[line 35]להטיח בטונסL'HATI'ACH B'TUNES- to polish with the skin of a tunny-fish (to sandpaper)

12)[line 35]מחוסר כןMECHUSAR KAN- missing a base, stand

13)[line 35]אוגןOGEN- the border or rim of a utensil

14)[line 35]אוזןOZEN- (O.F. anse) the handle

15)[line 36]חטיטהCHATITAH- hollowing out

16)[line 37]דחק קפיזא בקבאD'CHAK KEFIZA B'KAVA- one who hollows out a measure that holds three Lugin into a block of wood intended for a Kav measure (four Lugin) (there are different opinions as to the measure known as a Kefiza, see Midos v'Shi'urei Torah, C. P. Benish, Benei Brak, 5760, p.232)


17)[line 1]לשוףLA'SHUF- to file [iron utensils] using a metal file (O.F. lime)

18)[line 1]לשבץL'SHABETZ- to adorn with (usually) square designs [in metal]

19)[line 1]לגררL'GARER- to file [gold and silver utensils] using a fine metal file (O.F. gratuisier)

20)[line 1]לכרכרL'CHARKER- to adorn with niellowork (O.F. neel), which is a craft where metal is decorated with engravings, which are afterward filled with a black enamel-like mixture of sulfur with silver, copper and lead

21)[line 1]להקיש בקורנסL'HAKISH B'KURNAS- to even out surface imperfections with a smith's hammer (O.F. martel - a hammer) (RASHI)

22)[line 6]כלי עצםKLEI ETZEM- utensils made from animal bones or teeth

23)[line 10]"... וְכָל מַעֲשֵׂה עִזִּים ... תִּתְחַטָּאוּ.""... V'CHOL MA'ASEH IZIM... TISCHATA'U."- "... and all items made from goats' (i.e., hair, hoofs, bones, etc.) ... you shall purify." (Bamidbar 31:20)

24a)[line 11]קרניםKARNAYIM- horns

b)[line 12]טלפיםTELAFIM- hoofs

25a)[line 12]בהמהBEHEMAH- a farm animal; livestock (such as a cow or a sheep)

b)[line 12]חיהCHAYAH- an undomesticated animal (such as a gazelle or a deer)

26)[line 13]פרט לעופותPRAT L'OFOS- to exclude utensils made from the talons of birds such as the griffon vulture (O.F. grifon)

27a)[line 14]שקדים המריםSHEKEDIM HA'MARIM- bitter almonds

b)[line 15]מתוקיםMESUKIM- sweet [almonds]

28)[line 16]שקדים המרים קטנים חייביןSHEKEDIM HA'MARIM KETANIM CHAYAVIN- one is obligated to separate Terumos and Ma'asros (see below, entry #33) from unripe bitter almonds, since they are edible before they ripen; one is not obligated to separate Terumos and Ma'asros from unripe sweet almonds, however, since they are not normally eaten in this fashion

29)[line 21]צפוריTZIPORI- a city in the lower Galilee, approximately midway between Tiberias and Haifa. It was the center of Jewish activity after the destruction of the second Beis ha'Mikdash, and it was the seat of the Sanhedrin when the Sanhedrin moved from Beis She'arim, before it moved to Tiberias (where it eventually was disbanded). It became the center of Jewish activity when Rebbi's health needs required that he move there, where the air was fresh (see Kesuvos 103b, Rosh Hashanah 31b).

30)[line 23]יכול למתקן ע''י האורYACHOL L'MASKAN AL YEDEI HA'UR- it is possible to sweeten them by [roasting them in] a fire

31)[line 24]תמדTEMED- (O.F. bufet) the liquid obtained from soaking grape pits or dregs in water, which is used as an inferior wine

32)[line 24]עד שלא החמיץAD SHE'LO HECHEMITZ- before it ferments


(a)After a crop that is grown in Eretz Yisrael is harvested and brought to the owner's house or yard, he must separate Terumah Gedolah from the crop and give it to a Kohen. Although the Torah does not specify the amount to be given, the Rabanan set the requirement at one fiftieth of the total crop. After Terumah is removed from the produce, one tenth of the produce that remains must be designated "Ma'aser Rishon," and given to a Levi. The Levi, in turn, must separate one tenth of his Ma'aser Rishon as Terumas Ma'aser, to be given to a Kohen, as it states in Bamidbar 18:26.

(b)The produce may not be eaten until both Terumos have been separated from it. Until the Terumos have been separated, the produce is called Tevel. The punishment for eating Tevel is Misah b'Yedei Shamayim (Sanhedrin 83a).

(c)A second tithe is given every year after Ma'aser Rishon has been separated. The tithe that is separated in the third and sixth years of the 7-year Shemitah cycle is called Ma'aser Ani and is given to the poor.

(d)The tithe that is separated during the first, second, fourth and fifth years is called Ma'aser Sheni. The Torah requires that Ma'aser Sheni be brought to Yerushalayim and eaten there by its owner. Anyone who eats Ma'aser Sheni produce outside of the walls of Yerushalayim (without Pidyon, redemption - see (e) below) receives Malkus (RAMBAM Hilchos Ma'aser Sheni 2:5). Once the Ma'aser Sheni produce enters the walls of Yerushalayim, it may not be redeemed. It is considered "Niklat," "captured" by the walls.

(e)Alternatively, Ma'aser Sheni produce may be redeemed (Pidyon), in which case the money used to redeem it is brought to Yerushalayim. If the owner himself redeems the produce, he must add an additional fifth (of the ensuing total, or a quarter of the original value). The food that is bought with this money in Yerushalayim becomes Kodesh like Ma'aser Sheni and must be eaten b'Taharah. Ma'aser Sheni that was redeemed by anyone besides the owner is exempt from the additional fifth.

(f)There is a limitation as to the foods that may be purchased with Ma'aser Sheni money. Only foods that are classified as "Pri mi'Pri" (items that has been produced from something that has been produced) and "Gedulei Karka" (foodstuffs that are grown from the ground) are permitted. These limitations exclude the purchase of salt and water (and possibly mushrooms - Eruvin 27b).


Drawn water is called Mayim She'uvin. Only water that never entered a utensil (non-drawn water) may be used to fill a Mikvah. (Once there are already 40 Se'in of non-drawn water in the Mikvah, drawn water may be added. However, if before there are 40 Se'ah in the Mikvah, three Lugin of drawn water fall into it, they render the Mikvah invalid.) Temed that has not fermented is considered ordinary water, and three Lugin of it will invalidate a Mikvah.

35)[line 27]האחין השותפיןHA'ACHIN HA'SHUTAFIN- brothers who are partners, i.e. who inherit their father's estate

36)[line 28]כשחייבין בקלבון פטורין ממעשר בהמה כשחייבין במעשר בהמה פטורין מן הקלבוןKESHE'CHAYAVIN B'KALBON PETURIN MI'MA'ASER BEHEMAH; KESHE'CHAYAVIN B'MA'ASER BEHEMAH PETURIN MIN HA'KALBON (KALBON / MA'ASER BEHEMAH)

(a)KALBON - In the time of the Mikdash, everyone was obligated to give a half-Shekel to the Beis ha'Mikdash for the purchase of the public sacrifices (see Background to Menachos 52:6). Usually, each person would have to give an additional small amount called a Kalbon (which was the equivalent of 1/24 of a half-Shekel).

(b)The Tiferes Yisrael explains why the Kalbon was added. At times the Gaba'im of Hekdesh would need to exchange the half-Shekels into whole Shekels or vice-versa. The Kalbon was added in order that Hekdesh should not suffer a loss due to the exchange rate. This explanation is based on the words of RASHI (Beitzah 39b DH keshe'Chayavin). Rashi adds that two brothers who are partners (i.e. after they take their shares of the inheritance and then decide to become partners in these possessions) must give two Kalbonos.

(c)The RAMBAM explains the necessity of adding a Kalbon somewhat differently. Since everyone was obligated to bring a half-Shekel, the Rambam tells us, half-Shekels were in great demand. Therefore, a Shekel was worth less than two half-Shekels. If two people would give one whole Shekel, they would have to add a Kalbon to make up for that loss. Accordingly, if two brothers would bring one whole Shekel together, they would give only one Kalbon. If they would each bring a half-Shekel, they would not add anything.

(d)MA'SER BEHEMAH - Every year, a person must collect all of the Kosher animals that were born during that year into a corral. As they leave the corral through a narrow opening, one by one, the owner counts them and marks every tenth one as Ma'aser Behemah. The Mitzvah of Ma'aser Behemah is stated in Vayikra (27:32), "v'Chol Ma'asar Bakar va'Tzon, Kol Asher Ya'avor Tachas ha'Shavet, ha'Asiri Yiheyeh Kodesh la'Sh-m." - "And all of the herds and flocks shall be tithed as they are counted under the rod, every tenth one being consecrated to HaSh-m."

(e)Ma'aser Behemah is eaten by its owner. If it has no Mum (blemish or defect), it is offered as a Korban on the Mizbe'ach and eaten by its owner in Yerushalayim. If it has a Mum, the owner may slaughter and eat it anywhere.

(f)Brothers who take their shares of the inheritance and then decide to become partners in these possessions are exempt from Ma'aser Behemah, as is the case with all partners, since the verse specifies individuals: "Yiheyeh Lach" (Bamidbar 18:15, see Bechoros 56b).

37)[line 31]המתמדHA'METAMED- a person who makes Temed (O.F. bufet), inferior wine made from fermented grape pits or grape dregs soaked in water

38a)[line 31]נתן מים במדהNASAN MAYIM B'MIDAH- he poured in a specific measure of water

b)[line 31]ומצא כדי מדתוU'MATZA KEDEI MIDASO- and he found that the amount of Temed that resulted was equal to the measure of water that he poured in

39)[line 32]פטורPATUR- he is exempt [from separating Terumos and Ma'asros for it, since it is considered to be merely water]