[16a - 36 lines; 16b - 45 lines]

1a)[line 4]סרנא דפחראSARNA D'FACHARA- a potter's wheel (which is turned by hand or by foot; see BACH YD 7) (see illustration in SEFER SICHAS CHULIN, p. 17)

b)[line 5]סרנא דמיאSARNA D'MAYA- a water wheel (which is turned by the flow of water)

2a)[line 6]כח ראשוןKO'ACH RISHON- primary force (this refers to the force of the initial surge of water that flows forth and starts the wheel turning when the Shochet removes the barrier from in front of the water)

b)[line 6]כח שניKO'ACH SHENI- secondary force (this refers to the force of the subsequent flow of water that flows forth after the Shochet removed the barrier from in front of the water)

3)[line 8]דכפתיה לחבריהD'CHAFTEI L'CHAVREI- who tied up his fellow man

4)[line 8]ואשקיל עליה בידקא דמיאV'ASHKIL ALEI BIDKA D'MAYA- and he (the killer) released upon him (the victim) a flood of water

5)[line 9]גירי דידיה הוא דאהני ביהGIREI DIDEI HU D'AHANI VEI- his direct actions (lit. arrows) were effectual [in causing the victim to drown]

6)[line 10]כח ראשוןKO'ACH RISHON- primary force (that is, as a direct result of the killer's removal of the barrier from in front of the water, the initial surge of water fell upon the victim and killed him)

7)[line 10]בכח שניKO'ACH SHENI- secondary force (that is, when the killer removed the barrier from in front of the water, the initial surge of water did not fall on the victim, but rather it had travel some distance before it reached him)

8)[line 10]גרמא בעלמא הואGERAMA B'ALMA HU - it is only an indirect cause [of death] (GERAMA B'NEZAKIN PATUR)

(a)There are two manners of causing indirect damage. The less direct manner is known as "Gerama," for which even Rebbi Meir (Kesuvos 86a) does not hold a person liable. The more direct manner is known as "Garmi," for which Rebbi Meir holds a person liable. (The Rishonim argue as to the definition of "more direct.")

(b)A person who ties up another person who then dies of hunger, or, in the case of our Gemara, dies as a result of drowning, is considered to have killed the victim in an indirect manner, and is not liable for murder and cannot be punished in Beis Din. However, he is Chayav bi'Yedei Shamayim for his evil act.

9)[line 13]"... ויקח את המאכלת לשחט את בנו""YA'YIKACH ES HA'MA'ACHELES LISHCHOT"- "And he took the knife to slaughter" (Bereishis 22:10) - a knife for Shechitah is called a Ma'acheles (a) because it "eats" ("Ocheles") the meat (RASHI to Bereishis 22:10, first explanation); or (b) because it renders meat fit for eating by ritual slaughter (RASHI ibid., second explanation); or (c) this knife mentioned in the story of Akeidas Yitzchak is called a "Ma'acheles," since Benei Yisrael "eat" the reward that Avraham received for passing the test of the Akeidah (RASHI ibid., third explanation)

10)[line 15]"וי''ו" דכתיב אאופתא"VAV" DI'CHESIV A'UFTA- it is a letter "Vav" written on a branch of wood (the surface of which is not smooth, and a "Vav" written on it appears to be broken up; so, too, the words of Rebbi have no basis)

11)[line 19]המשתחוה לביתHA'MISHTACHAVEH L'VAYIS- one who worships his house

12)[line 20]"[אבד תאבדון את כל המקומות אשר עבדו שם הגוים אשר אתם יורשים אתם את] אלקיהם על ההרים [הרמים ועל הגבעות ותחת כל עץ רענן]""[ABED TE'ABDUN ES KOL HA'MEKOMOS ASHER AVDU SHAM HA'GOYIM ASHER ATEM YORSHIM OSAM ES] ELOHEHEM, AL HE'HARIM [HA'RAMIM, V'AL HA'GEVA'OS, V'SACHAS KOL ETZ RA'ANAN.]"- "[You shall completely destroy all of the places where the nations which you shall possess served] their gods, upon the high mountains, [and upon the hills, and under every leafy tree.]" (Devarim 12:2) - The Gemara derives from this verse that only the idols that are "upon the high mountains" become prohibited as objects of Avodah Zarah, but the mountains themselves do not become prohibited. Hence, an object that is attached ("Mechubar") to the ground and that was always attached and was never manipulated by human hands does not become prohibited (Avodah Zarah 45a).

13)[line 22]הכופה קערהHA'KOFEH KE'ARAH- one who turns over a bowl [onto a wall]

14)[line 22]בשביל שתודחBISHVIL SHE'TUDACH- in order that it (the bowl) be cleaned (by the water that falls on it)

15)[line 23]הרי זה בכי יותןHAREI ZEH B'CHI YUTAN - this is considered "Ki Yutan" and can become Tamei (HECHSHER / KI YUTAN)

See Background to Chulin 13:5.

16)[line 23]שלא ילקה הכותלSHE'LO YILKEH HA'KOSEL- so that the wall will not be damaged (by water falling on it)

17)[line 29]תברא! מי ששנה זו לא שנה זוTAVRA! MI SHE'SHANAH ZU LO SHANAH ZU- (a) There is a contradiction (between the two Mishnayos)! The Tana who taught one did not teach the other (RASHI; rather, the Tana of the first statement maintains that a wall, made from stones that were detached and then attached to the ground, is considered "Talush," detached, and the Tana of the second statement maintains that such an object is considered "Mechubar," attached to the ground); (b) Tavra is a word used as an oath (TOSFOS to Kesuvos 75b DH Tavra, citing RABEINU CHANANEL)

18a)[line 30]כותל מערהKOSEL ME'ARAH- the wall of a cave (carved out from stones that were never detached from the ground)

b)[line 31]כותל בניןKOSEL BINYAN- the wall of a building (made from stones that were detached and then attached to form a wall)


19)[line 7]דלא מבטל ליהD'LO MEVATEL LEI- he does not annul it (that is, he does not leave the knife imbedded in the wall indefinitely, and thus it does not attain the status of Mechubar)

20)[line 17]לצדדין קתניLI'TZEDADIN KETANI- the two statements are dealing with different cases (the statement that permits the Shechitah when the knife is below and the neck is above refers to when the knife is detached; the statement that permits the Shechitah when the knife is above and the neck is below refers to even when the knife is attached)

21)[line 19]דקלילD'KALIL- [the Beraisa is referring to a bird] which is light (and there is no concern that its neck will press against the blade)

22)[line 22]אין מחתכין בה בשרEIN MECHATCHIN BAH BASAR- we do not cut meat with it (because of its tendency to splinter into small, danger pieces)

23)[line 23]אין מחצצין בה שיניםEIN MECHATZETZIN BAH SHINAYIM- we do not pick the teeth with it

24)[line 23]אין מקנחים בהEIN MEKANCHIM BAH- we do not wipe with it (the Gemara will explain exactly what we do not wipe)

25)[line 26]סימונא דאגמאSIMUNA D'AGMA- (O.F. lesche) - the sedge-twigs of the swamp (a rush-like or flag-like plant or reed that grows in wet places which, when dried, is sharp and does not splinter)

26)[line 27]קרבי דגיםKIRVEI DAGIM- the innards of fish

27)[line 27]זיגיZIGEI- (O.F. cler) clear, transparent (and if a splinter breaks off, it will be seen easily)

28)[line 28]רכיךRACHICH- it is soft (and will not break off splinters from the reed)

29)[line 30]המקנח בדבר שהאור שולטת בוHA'MEKANE'ACH B'DAVAR SHEHA'UR SHOLETES BO- one who cleans himself (after eliminating) with an object that is flammable

30)[line 30]שיניו נושרותSHINAV NOSHROS- his rectal muscles (lit. teeth) are damaged (lit. fall out)

31)[line 31]קינוח פי מכהKINU'ACH PI MAKAH- the cleaning of the opening of a wound

32)[line 33]ואפילו עוףVA'AFILU OF- [all requires slaughtering] and even fowl

33)[line 35]"כי ירחיב ה' אלקיך את גבולך כאשר דבר לך ואמרת אכלה בשר [כיתאוה נפשך לאכול בשר בכל אות נפשך תאכל בשר]""KI YARCHIV HASH-M ELOKECHA ES GEVULCHA KA'ASHER DIBER LACH V'AMARTA OCHLAH VASAR [KI SE'AVEH NAFSHECHA LE'ECHOL BASAR, B'CHOL AVAS NAFSHECHA TOCHAL BASAR.]"- "When HaSh-m your G-d will expand your boundary as He has told you, and you say, 'I want to eat meat,' [because your soul craves to eat meat, then you may eat meat according to the craving of your soul.]" (Devarim 12:20)

34)[line 37]בשר תאוהBESAR TA'AVAH- ordinary, non-sanctified meat (lit. meat of craving, referring to meat of Chulin that one eats to satisfy his desire for meat, without having to bring the animal as a Korban)