BAVA METZIA 117 (23 Teves) - Dedicated l'Zecher Nishmas Nachum ben Shlomo Dovid Mosenkis, whose Yahrzeit is 23 Teves 5700, by his son, Shlomo Dovid (Sid) Mosenkis of Kew Gardens Hills, N.Y.
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BAVA METZIA 117 - Today's study material has been dedicated by Al and Sophie Ziegler of Har Nof, Yerushalayim, in honor of the Yahrzeit of Al's father, Bernard B. Ziegler - Binyamin Baruch ben Avraham (and Miryam), which occurs on 30 Menachem Av.

1)

AN OIL PRESS CARVED INTO A ROCK (Yerushalmi Halachah 4 Daf 36b)

משנה וכן בית הבד שהוא בנוי בסלע וגינת אחר על גביו ונפחת הרי בעל הגינה יורד וזורע למטן עד שיעשה לבית בדו כיפין

(a)

(Mishnah): Similarly, an oil press carved into a rock with another person's garden above it; if the ground of the garden collapsed, the garden owner may go down and plant below (inside the oil press) until the oil press owner builds supports above the oil press (for the garden owner to lay down soil).

הכותל והאילן שנפלו לרשות הרבים והזיקו פטורין מלשלם

(b)

If a wall or a tree fell into the public domain and caused damage, the owners are exempt from payment.

נתנו לו זמן לסתור את הכותל ולקוץ את האילן ונפלו בתוך הזמן פטור לאחר הזמן חייב:

(c)

If they were given (an amount of) time to demolish the wall or cut down the tree and they fell within that time, they are exempt; if they fell after that time, they are liable.

גמרא א"ר לעזר מעשה בדלית אחת שהיתה מודלה על פרסיקו של חבירו ונפשח הפרסק.

(d)

(Gemara) - R. Elazar: There was a case of a vine that was being supported by someone else's peach tree. The peach tree was uprooted leaving the vine without support.

ובא מעשה לפני ר' חייה הגדול ואמר לו צא והעמד לו פרסק.

(e)

The case came before R. Chiya the Great and he ruled that the peach tree owner must replace the tree.

א"ל ר' יוחנן ולא מתני' היא. וכן בית הבד שהוא בנוי בסלע וגינת אחר על גביו ונפחת. שמענו שאין כופין

(f)

R. Yochanan asked him, "Is this not found in (our Mishnah) - Similarly, an oil press carved into a rock with another person's garden above it; if the ground of the garden collapsed etc." - we learn from this that we do not force (the oil press owner to repair, as long as the garden owner can come and plant).

והתני ר' חייה כופין

(g)

Question: But R. Chiya taught in the Beraisa that we do force? (This Beraisa seem to clearly disagree with our Mishnah.)

נימר ולא פליגי מאן דמר כופין שהוא שם ומאן דמר אין כופין בשאין עומד שם.

(h)

Answer: There is no disagreement - the Beraisa refers to when he was present (in Beis Din so they ordered him to replace the peach tree); the Mishnah refers to when he was not present (e.g. he went overseas; therefore, we cannot force him and we instead allow the garden owner to come and plant).

נתנו לו זמן לקוץ.

(i)

The Mishnah taught: If they were given (an amount of) time (to demolish the wall or cut down the tree and they fell within that time, they are exempt.)

כמה הוא זמן

(j)

Question: How much time do they give?

ר' הושעיה אמר שלשים יום

(k)

Answer (R. Hoshiya): 30 days.

2)

A WALL THAT FELL AND LEAVING THINGS IN A PUBLIC PLACE (Yerushalmi Halachah 5 Daf 36b)

משנה מי שהיה כותלו סמוך לגינת חבירו ונפל אמר לו פנה את אבניך אמר לו הגיעוך אין שומעין לו

(a)

(Mishnah): If a person's wall was next to his neighbor's garden and the wall fell (into the garden) - if the garden owner asked him to remove them and the wall owner answered that if the garden owner will clear them, he can keep the stones, we do not listen to him.

משקיבל עליו אמר לו הילך את יציאותיך ואני נוטל את שלי אין שומעין לו

(b)

If the garden owner agreed, and after clearing them, the wall owner said, "Take payment for your efforts and I will take my stones back", we do not listen to him.

השוכר את הפועל לעשות עמו בתבן ובקש אמר לו תן לי שכרי אמר לו טול ממה שעשיתה בשכרך אין שומעין לו

(c)

If one hired a laborer to help him with straw and stubble; if the laborer asked for his wages and the employer said that he can take some of the produce as payment, we do not listen to him.

משקיבל עליו אמר לו הילך את שכרך ואני נוטל את שלי אין שומעין לו

(d)

If the laborer agreed and the employer later said, "Take your wages and I'll take what is mine", we do not listen to him.

המוציא זבלו לרשות הרבים המוציא מוציא והמזבל מזבל

(e)

If one takes out his manure to a public place, it should not be left there; rather, it should be ready immediately to take it to fertilize a field.

אין שורין טיט בר"ה ואין לובנין לבינים וגובלין טיט בר"ה אבל לא ללבינים הבונה בר"ה

(f)

One may not leave mud in a public place; one should also not dry out bricks there. However, one may mix mud in a public place (to be used for construction) but not bricks.

והמביא אבנים המביא מביא והבונה בונה ואם הזיק משלם מה שהזיק

(g)

One may only bring stones to a public place if they will be taken immediately for construction; and if they did damage, the owner is liable.

רבן שמעון בן גמליאל אומר אף מתקן הוא את מלאכתו לפני שלשים יום:

(h)

R. Shimon ben Gamliel: One may prepare them for use up to 30 days beforehand (and during that time he is not liable for damages).

גמרא תני פורק אדם זבלו בפתח חצירו בר"ה לפנותו מיד אבל לשהותו אסור בא אחר והוזק הרי זה חייב.

(i)

(Gemara) - Beraisa: A person may unload his manure in the public place at the entrance of his courtyard in order to remove it immediately, but he may not leave it there. If a person came and was injured by it, the owner is liable.

ר' יודה אומר בשעת הזבלים פורק אדם זבלו בפתח חצירו ברשות הרבים כדי שיתפרך ברגלי אדם ובהמה שלשים יום שעל מנת כן הנחיל יהושע לישראל את הארץ.

(j)

R. Yehudah: During the fertilizing season, a person may unload his manure in the public place at the entrance of his courtyard and leave it there for 30 days, in order for it to be crumbled up by peoples' and animals' feet. This is because it was one of the conditions that Yehoshua bin Nun made with the Jewish people in order for them to enter the land.

פורק אדם עפרו בפתח חצירו ברשות הרבים לשהותו ולהעלותו על גבי דימוס מיד לשהותו אסור בא אחר והוזק בו חייב.

(k)

A person may unload his dirt in the public place at the entrance of his courtyard, in order to immediately use it for construction purposes. However, he may not leave it there and if he did and someone was injured by it, he is liable.

לא יהא גובל בצד זה אלא במקום שבונהו.

(l)

He may not mix it (into cement) there; he must only do that next to where he is building.

פורק אדם אבניו בפתח חצירו ברשות הרבים לפנותן מיד לשהותן אסור בא אחר והוזק בהן חייב

(m)

A person may only unload his stones in the public place at the entrance of his courtyard for immediate use, but he may not leave them there. If he did and someone was injured by it, he is liable.

מסר החוצב לגמר הגמל חייב

(n)

If the stonecutter gave it to the camel driver, the camel driver is liable.

גמל לסתת הסתת חייב

(o)

If the camel driver gave it to the stonemason, the stonemason is liable.

סתת לסבל הסבל חייב.

(p)

If the stonemason gave it to a hauler, the hauler is liable.

העלה על גבי בימוס והיה מפקפק בה ונפלה האדרכל חייב.

(q)

If he lifted it onto the row (of bricks) and he was aligning it and it fell, the engineer is liable. (Some say that since the hauler took on the role of an engineer, he is liable.)

מסרה הסתת לסבל והוזק בין בסיתות בין באבן הסתת חייב.

(r)

If the stonemason gave it to the hauler and someone was injured by it, whether from the cuttings or from the stone, the stonemason is liable.

[דף לז עמוד א] הסתת לסבל והוזק בסיתות הסתת חייב

(s)

If the stonemason gave it to the hauler and someone was injured from the cuttings, the stonemason is liable.

באבן הסבל חייב.

1.

If he was injured by the rock itself, the hauler is liable.

עלתה וישבה בדימוס ונפלה פטור

(t)

If the rock was securely placed on the row and it fell, the engineer is exempt.

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