TZON BARZEL (Yerushalmi Halachah 5 Daf 22a)

משנה אין מקבלין צאן ברזל מישראל מפני שהוא ריבית אבל מקבלין צאן ברזל מן העכו''ם ולוין מהן ומלוין אותן בריבית וכן בגר תושב


One may not accept tzon barzel from a Yisrael because it is ribis, but one may accept it from a gentile. One may borrow from them and lend to them with ribis and the same is true for a Ger Toshav.

מלוה הוא ישראל על מעותיו של עכו''ם מדעת העכו''ם [דף כ עמוד ב (עוז והדר)] אבל לא מדעת ישראל:


One may lend a Yisrael with the money of a gentile with the gentile's agreement, but not with a Yisrael's agreement.

גמרא אי זהו צאן ברזל היו לפניו מאה צאן אמר לו הרי הן עשויות עליך במאה של זהב וולדן וחלבן וגיזתן שלך ואם מתו את חייב באחריותן ואת מעלה לי סלע של כל אחת ואחת משלך באחרונה אסור.


(Gemara): What is tzon barzel? If he had 100 sheep and he said, "They are evaluated for you (i.e. you now owe me an equivalent amount) for 100 gold coins and their offspring, their fats and their shearings are yours. But if they die you are responsible and at the end, you must pay me a selah for each of them'' - this is prohibited.

רבי ירמיה בעי תמן את מר צאן ברזל לראשון וכא את מר לשני


Question (R. Yirmiyah): There (in Maseches Bechoros) you said that tzon barzel goes to the first (original owner - if a gentile owned a mother and a Yisrael who is caring for the mother, had a right to any offspring born; the sheep still belong to the gentile), and here you said that it goes to the second (and is a prohibition of ribis)?

אמר ר' יוסי תמן שעיקר לראשון וולדן לראשון ברם הכא עיקרן לשני וולדן לשני.


Answer (R. Yosi): There, the mother belongs to the gentile and the offspring does too (and the Yisrael is just caring for them and receiving a portion). Here, the sheep and the offspring have become the property of the shepherd.

רבי ירמיה בעי תמן את מר נושא שכר חייב על האונסין אסור וכא את מר נושא שכר חייב על האונסין מותר.


Question (R. Yirmiyah): There (in a Beraisa found in Bava Metzia Bavli 69b that teaches that if one gave a cow to his friend in order to divide the earnings, the recipient can say to him that he views the cow as being worth 30 dinars, which is the current price at the time that he receives it and that he will pay him a selah for it per month) - you say that since a paid watchman is liable for accidental loss, it becomes like a loan and there is a prohibition of ribis. However, here (in our Mishnah) you say that even though he is liable for accidental damage, it is permitted...?

לא פעמים שמתנה שומר חנם להיות כשואל:


Answer: In our Mishnah, the recipient became responsible for both accidental loss and depreciation in value; therefore, he cannot be considered a watchman who became a borrower, since even a borrower is not responsible for depreciation. Therefore, it is considered a loan and it is prohibited. However, in the Beraisa, he did not accept responsibility for depreciation; therefore, it is considered a watchman who became a borrower, rather than a loan and its therefore permitted.