[78a - 28 lines; 78b - 50 lines]

1)[line 6]תיקוTEIKU

The Pri Megadim (in his Igeres preceding his introduction to Orach Chaim, #9) quotes and discusses various explanations for the word Teiku:

1.It is sealed in its container ("Tik"). (ARUCH, Erech Tik)

2.Tehei Ka'i - "Let it (the question) stand." (MUSAF HA'ARUCH)

3.Tishbi Yetaretz Kushyos v'Ibayos - "Eliyahu ha'Navi will answer difficulties and questions." (TOSFOS YOM TOV, end of Eduyos)

2)[line 10]שבאתה חבילה לידוSHE'BA'ASAH CHAVILAH L'YADO- where the tools or other items (lit. pack) [of the workers] came into his hands (the hands of the homeowner)

3)[line 11]השוכר את החמורHA'SOCHER ES HA'CHAMOR (SOCHER)

The Socher, or the one who rents an animal or object, is one of the four watchmen mentioned in the Torah (see Background to Bava Metzia 41:20). There is a Machlokes Tana'im in Bava Metzia (93a) whether the Socher has the status of the Nosei Sachar, or the status of a Shomer Chinam. The Halachah follows the opinion that he has the status of a Nosei Sachar, and as such he is liable for damages in cases of Peshi'ah (negligence), theft or loss, but is not liable in a case of Ones (an unavoidable accident).

4)[line 12]בבקעהBIK'AH- a valley


(a)The Talmud uses the following standards for measuring distance:

1.3 Parsa'os = 24,000 Amos = 90 Ris = 12 Mil

2.1 Parsah = 8,000 Amos = 30 Ris = 4 Mil

3.1 Mil = 2,000 Amos = 7.5 Ris

4.1 Ris (or Rus) = 266.66 Amos

5.1 Amah = 2 Zerasos = 6 Tefachim

6.1 Zeres = 3 Tefachim

7.1 Tefach = 4 Etzba'os

(b)In modern-day units, the Mil is approximately 912, 960 or 1,152 meters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions.

6)[line 15]החליקהHECHELIKAH- it slipped

7)[line 16]הוחמהHUCHAMAH- it became overheated

8)[line 18]מחמת המעלהMACHMAS HA'MA'ALAH- due to the incline

9)[line 19]והבריקהHIVRIKAH- (a) it developed a cataract; (b) its hoof became infested with vermin (see below, entries #30-31)

10)[line 19]שנעשית אנגריאSHE'NA'ASEIS ANAGARYA- it was appropriated for the king's service

11)[line 19]אומר לו "הרי שלך לפניך"OMER LO "HAREI SHELCHA LEFANECHA"- he (the owner) says to him (the Socher), "Here is your [rental donkey] before you" (i.e. "Take it in its present condition," with regard to Hivrikah, or "Wait until the king's servants return or abandon it," with regard to Anagarya)

12)[line 20]חייב להעמיד לו חמורCHAYAV L'HA'AMID LO CHAMOR- he is required to provide him a replacement donkey

13)[line 23]שמתה מחמת אוירMESAH MACHMAS AVIR- it died (a) because of something in the air to which it was not accustomed (RASHI); (b) because of the weather pattern of that day (TOSFOS)

14)[line 26]אובצנאUVTZENA- exertion/exhaustion

15)[line 26]שהכישה נחשHIKISHAH NACHASH- it was bitten by a snake [that would not have been encountered in the place where he was supposed to drive the donkey]


16)[line 1]דצבעTZABA- the professional dyer

17)[line 2]הנותן צמר לצבע לצבוע לו אדום, וצבעו שחורHA'NOSEN TZEMER L'TZABA LITZBO'A LO ADOM, V'TZAV'O SHACHOR- a person gave his wool to a professional dyer to dye it red for him, and he dyed it black

18a)[line 5]השבחSHEVACH- the amount that the item increased in value from the time that it was given to the craftsman (RASHI to Bava Kama 100b and RABEINU YEHONASAN MI'LUNIL, cited in the Shitah Mekubetzes ibid.) (See Insights to Bava Kama 100:2 for the opinions of the other Rishonim.)

b)[line 5]היציאהYETZI'AH- the amount of money that the craftsman had to put into the item in order to cause the Shevach (the increase in value) (RASHI and RABEINU YEHONASAN MI'LUNIL, cited in the Shitah Mekubetzes ibid.) (See Insights to Bava Kama 100:2 for the opinions of the other Rishonim.)

19a)[line 9]מגבת פוריםMIGBAS PURIM- the collection for the holiday of Purim

b)[line 9]לפוריםL'PURIM- is given to the poor for the needs of their Purim Se'udah, a festive meal with wine eaten on Purim to commemorate the miracle (Esther 9:22; Megilah 2b)

20)[line 10]ואין מדקדקין בדברV'EIN MEDAKDEKIN BA'DAVAR- [all of the money collected is used and] the treasurers are not overly precise with the matter [and do not demand that the poor manage with a smaller allotment so that the extra money can be designated as normal Tzedakah]

21)[line 11]העגליםHA'AGALIM- [as many] calves [and other food as the money collected can buy]

22)[line 12]והמותר יפול לכיס של צדקהVEHA'MOSAR YIPOL L'CHIS SHEL TZEDAKAH- and the extra [food that is not eaten is sold and the money] is designated as normal Tzedakah

23)[line 14]רצועה לסנדלוRETZU'AH L'SANDALO- a strap for his sandal

24)[line 14]התנה במעמד אנשי העירHISNAH B'MA'AMAD ANSHEI HA'IR- he made a stipulation in the presence of the people of the city

25)[line 17]דאדעתא דפורים הוא דיהיב ליה; אדעתא דמידי אחרינא לא יהיב ליהA'DA'ATA D'PURIM HU D'YAHIV LEI; A'DA'ATA D'MIDI ACHARINA LO YAHIV LEI- he (the individual contributor) gave it with the intent that it be [used to buy food] for [the Se'udos] Purim [of the poor]; he did not give it for anything else. That is, this Tosefta (Megilah 1:5, according to the Hagahos ha'Gra #15) does not illustrate the opinion of Rebbi Meir that "Kol ha'Ma'avir Al Da'as Shel Ba'al ha'Bayis Nikra Gazlan." Using the money for something other than Se'udos Purim does not merely change the conditions of the donation (which is what happens when a person rents a donkey for the mountain and takes it into the valley); rather, the money is considered to never have left the possession of the donor when it is used for something else.

26a)[line 20]חלוקCHALUK- (O.F. chemise) an undershirt (RASHI to Shabbos 120a) or shirt worn under another garment (this word is Hebrew)

b)[line 21]טליתTALIS- a cloak (this word is Hebrew)

27a)[line 24]לבושאLEVUSHA- an undershirt or shirt (Aramaic)

b)[line 25]גלימאGELIMA- a cloak (Aramaic)

28a)[line 30]הכא תרגימוHACHA TARGIMU- here (in Bavel) they translate it as

b)[line 30]רבא אמרRAVA AMAR- the correct Girsa is רבי אבא אמר REBBI ABA AMAR, since "Hacha Targimu" almost always introduces an opinion or translation of an unnamed Amora in Bavel, followed by the opinion of an Amora in Eretz Yisrael (Ma'arava), such as Rebbi Aba here (Dikdukei Sofrim #10. This is also the Girsa of the ARUCH and the ROSH)

29)[line 30]נהוריתאNEHORISA- (O.F. maille) - a cataract (brought about by the wind - ARUCH)

30)[line 31]אבזקתAVZAKAS- atrophy or paralysis of the feet; a foot-disease in animals believed to arise from vermin in the hoofs

31)[line 31]אבזקת במילתא דמלכא!AVZAKAS B'MEILASA D'MALKA!- (a) Moths are in the royal wardrobe! (RASHI); (b) Vermin have infected the royal mules! (TOSFOS DH b'Meilasa - the word "פרדס" "Pardes" in this Tosfos should read "פרדות" "Perados" - all early printings) (A third version can be found in the ARUCH Erech Telei, alternate explanation)

32a)[line 32]בטלי כסףTELEI CHESAF- (lit. silver garments) (a) the linen garments (RASHI); (b) the white mules (TOSFOS)

b)[line 32]בטלי דהבTELEI DEHAV- (lit. golden garments) (a) the woolen garments (RASHI); (b) reddish-gold silk garments (TOSFOS to Kesuvos 68a DH Telei); (c) the red mules (TOSFOS)

33a)[line 33]וקטלוהKATLUHA- they killed him (the Girsa should be וקטלוהו KATLUHU - YA'AVETZ) [because of his degradation of the king]

b)[line 34]ושבקוהSHAVKUHA- they let him live (the Girsa should be ושבקוהו SHAVKUHU - YA'AVETZ) (because his degradation of the king was not quite as great as in the first version of the story)

34)[line 35]באנגריא חוזרתB'ANAGARYA CHOZERES- the donkey will be returned by the king's servants

35)[line 37]אם בדרך הליכה ניטלה, אומר לו "הרי שלך לפניך"IM B'DERECH HALICHAH NITLAH, OMER LO "HAREI SHELCHA LEFANECHA"- if it was taken away in the same direction in which he was going, the owner can say to him, "Here is your [rental donkey] before you" (i.e. "Follow it until the king's servants abandon it")

36)[line 39]שנשתטתהSHE'NISHTATESAH- it went mad, insane