[47a - 55 lines; 47b - 57 lines]
We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any other important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos.
 Gemara 47a [line 42]:
The words "v'Havah Ani v'Chazi Lei" והוה עני וחזי ליה
should be "v'Havah Ani v'Chazi Lei, Hashta Nami Chazi Lei" והוה עני וחזי ליה השתא נמי חזי ליה
as is found in Shabbos, Eruvin, and Sukah, and in Dikdukei Sofrim #3 and Beis Nasan. Alternatively, the Girsa should be "v'Havah Ani Chazi Lei" והוה עני חזי ליה, as is found in the Paris manuscript of the Talmud.
1)[line 20]עסיק ליה לבריהASIK LEI LI'VREI- married off his son
2a)[line 27]חטופהCHATUFAH- (a) pronounced with a Chataf under the Alef instead of a Kamatz, which sounds like "-'men" (RASHI); (b) interjected before the Berachah was completed (ARUCH)
b)[line 28]קטופהKETUFAH- (a) pronounced without the final Nun, which sounds like "Ame'-" (RASHI); (b) split into two parts: "A - men" (ARUCH) (see Daf-Audio)
c)[line 28]יתומהYESOMAH- (a) when the person does not know to which Berachah he is answering Amen (RASHI); (b) when the person did not hear the Berachah (with the exception of Birkas ha'Torah during the Torah reading — which apparently was the Berachah involved in the story of the synagogue of Alexandria) (ARUCH, citing Rav Nisim Ga'on); (c) when the word Amen is said a long time after the Berachah is completed (Abudarham). The most stringent version of the measurement of this time period is "Kedei Dibur" (approx. 1.6 or 2.2 seconds) (Pri Megadim Orach Chayim, Eshel Avraham 124:14). The Mishnah Berurah (OC 124:34), however, shows that saying Amen within Kedei Dibur of most of the congregation saying Amen is also acceptable. See Bi'ur Halachah (ibid.) DH Miyad.
3)[line 34]הוה קמסרהב ואכילHAVAH KAMESARHEV V'ACHIL- he was rushing to eat
4)[line 36]ארדיליאARDILAYA- types of boletes, such as mushrooms, morels and truffles
5)[line 36]גוזליאGOZALAYA- young birds
6)[line 44]האכסניאHA'ACHSANYA- (a) a Jewish army (RASHI here and to Shabbos 127b DH Achsanya, see Hagahos ha'Bach there); (b) a Jewish guest or a Nochri army (TOSFOS DH u'Ma'achilin)
7)[line 48]שבליםSHIBOLIN- ears of individual grain stalks
8)[line 47]הקדימו בשבליםHIKDIMO B'SHIBOLIM / HIKDIMO BI'KRI
(a)By Torah Law, a person is required to tithe his grain only if he harvests it in a normal manner. This includes removing the chaff in the field, piling up the grain there and bringing it through the front door of his house (Berachos 35b). He is then required to tithe his grain; it becomes "Hukba l'Ma'aser" (designated for tithing — see Background to Berachos 31:10b).
(b)He first separates Terumah Gedolah from the crop and gives it to a Kohen. Although the Torah does not specify the amount to be given, the Rabanan set the requirement at one fiftieth of the total crop. After Terumah is removed from the produce, one tenth of the produce that remains must be designated "Ma'aser Rishon," and given to a Levi. The Levi, in turn, must separate one tenth of his Ma'aser Rishon as Terumas Ma'aser, to be given to a Kohen, as it states in Bamidbar 18:26.
(c)If a Levi came to the field and claimed the Ma'aser Rishon from the stalks (Shibolim) before the grain was processed and separated from the stalks, the requirement to give Terumah Gedolah is canceled, as Reish Lakish (here) proves from the wording of the verse (Bamidbar ibid.).
(d)However, if a Levi came to the field and claimed the Ma'aser Rishon from the Kri (the pile of grain which was already processed and separated from the stalks), he must give Terumah Gedolah to a Kohen from his portion. The requirement to give Terumah Gedolah already exists as soon as the produce is classified as Dagan (i.e. as soon as it is processed), as the verse states, "Reishis Degancha... Titen Lo" - "You should give him the first [part that you separate] from your produce" (Devarim 18:4).
9)[last line]כריKRI- a pile, heap of grain
(a)See Background to Berachos 45:5:e.
(b)Similarly, if a person wants to redeem an object that he consecrated as Hekdesh, he must add the fifth on to the value and give it to the Hekdesh treasury. Hekdesh, as well as Ma'aser Sheni, that was redeemed by anyone else is exempt from the fifth.
11)[line 8]כותי חברKUSI CHAVER
(a)See Background to Berachos 45:7.
(b)A Chaver is one who is meticulous in his observance of Halachah. A person is called a Chaver if he accepts upon himself four things: 1. never to give Terumah and Ma'asros to an Am ha'Aretz; 2. never to prepare Taharos in the vicinity of an Am ha'Aretz; 3. to always eat Chulin b'Taharah; 4. to take Ma'aser from all produce that one eats, sells and buys (Tosefta Demai 2:2-3). The Gemara Bechoros 30b explains exactly how one goes about accepting this distinguished status.
(c)If an Am ha'Aretz attempted to become a Chaver, but then returned to his old ways, he becomes disqualified from becoming a Chaver forever. (See RASHI, TOSFOS, and RITVA to Bechoros ibid.)
12)[line 24]לא שמש תלמידי חכמיםLO SHIMESH TALMIDEI CHACHAMIM- he did not attend upon Talmidei Chachamim as a disciple, to learn the methods of the Gemara
13a)[line 26]ספראSIFRA- Toras Kohanim, one of the earliest commentaries on Vayikra, which, when stated anonymously, follows the opinion of Rebbi Yehudah b'Rebbi Ila'i. It is known as "Sifra d'Vei Rav," since: (a) students of every Beis Midrash ("Bei Rav") were well-versed in it (as opposed to the teachings of Rebbi Yishmael, which were known primarily by his personal students — RASHI to Chulin 66a); (b) it was written by the Amora named Rav (circa 220 C.E.), who collected the Beraisa'os that it contains (SEDER HA'DOROS citing the RAMBAM Hakdamah l'Zera'im, et al.)
b)[line 27]ספריSIFRI- One of the earliest commentaries on Bamidbar and Devarim, which, when stated anonymously, follows the opinion of Rebbi Shimon
c)[line 27]הלכתאHILCHESA- Mishnah
14)[line 32]משמע להוMASHMA LEHU- he did attend upon them as a disciple
15)[line 34]צורבא מרבנןTZURBA ME'RABANAN- (a) a young, intense Talmid Chacham; (b) a Talmid Chacham (RAMBAM Hilchos Sanhedrin 21:4, SHULCHAN ARUCH Choshen Mishpat 17:2)
16)[line 35]עציץ שאינו נקובATZITZ SHE'EINO NAKUV - a flower pot without a drainage hole [that receives no sustenance from the ground underneath] (ATZITZ SHE'EINO NAKUV)
(a)Certain Halachos apply only to items that are attached to the ground (such as the Isur of "Tolesh" on Shabbos) or that are not attached to the ground (such as the Isur of an item that was worshipped as Avodah Zarah, the Kinyan of Meshichah, Hechsher Zera'im or Tum'as Ochlim). In addition, a Halachah sometimes applies only to plants that are attached to the ground of Eretz Yisrael (such as Terumos and Ma'asros) or to plants that are planted in a specific field (such as Kil'ayim).
(b)Regarding all of the above-mentioned Halachos, the rule is that a plant planted in a flowerpot with a hole in it is considered to be planted in the earth below the flowerpot's hole. If the flowerpot does not have a hole in it, the plant is considered to be detached from the ground, and is equated with all other movable assets ("Metaltelim," or chattels). (This is the opinion of the Chachamim. Rebbi Shimon disagrees and equates a flowerpot with a hole in it to a flowerpot without a hole. He considers them both to be detached from the ground for all matters except for Hechsher Zera'im — Shabbos 95a.)
(c)If the flowerpot has a hole in the side, some consider it to be the same as a flowerpot with a hole in its bottom. Some distinguish between a flowerpot made of earthenware (Cheres) and one made of metal or stone, ruling that what grows in an earthenware flowerpot is considered to be attached to the ground even if the flowerpot has no hole (see Rishonim to Gitin 7b).
(d)A flowerpot without a drainage hole is only obligated mid'Rabanan to have Terumos and Ma'asros separated from it. It is prohibited to separate Ma'aser from an Atzitz she'Eino Nakuv for the sake of fulfilling the obligation of separating Ma'aser from an Atzitz Nakuv.
17)[line 38]אסימוןASIMON- (O.F. fladon) blank, metal disc from which a coin is stamped
18)[line 45]סניףSENIF- assistant. He makes it permissible to say the Zimun with the name of HaSh-m, as in the case of ten adults.
19)[line 49]מצוה הבאה בעבירהMITZVAH HA'BA'AH B'AVEIRAH
If a person transgresses an Aveirah in order to perform a Mitzvah, the Mitzvah is invalid. An example is stealing a Lulav in order to fulfill the Mitzvah of Lulav. The case brought in our Gemara is not exactly a Mitzvah ha'Ba'ah b'Aveirah. A freed slave counts towards a Minyan from the day after he is freed onward, without any remnant of the transgression. It stands to reason that his status on the day of being freed is likewise untainted. The Gemara is only making a casual association with this Halachah.
20a)[line 52]כי מכנפיKI MECHANFEI- when they are gathered together
b)[line 53]כי מבדריKI MEVADREI- when they are spread out
21)[line 55]קטן פורחKATAN PORE'ACH- (a) a boy who has bodily signs of adulthood (two pubic hairs), but has not reached the age of thirteen and one day (RASHI); (b) a boy within his thirteenth year who does not have fully-developed signs of adulthood (the two pubic hairs have not grown to the required size (TOSFOS, citing RABEINU CHANANEL)