[43a - 57 lines; 43b - 55 lines]

*********************GIRSA SECTION*********************

We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any other important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos.

[1] Gemara 43a [line 32]:

"va'Amai, Ho'il v'Hu Natal Yadav Techilah ba'Acharonah" ואמאי הואיל והוא נטל ידיו תחילה באחרונה

The Vilna Ga'on and Maharshal erase these words. They are also not found in Dikdukei Sofrim #40 and Beis Nasan, and do not appear in the Rif, Rashba, or Ritva.

[2] Gemara [line 54]:

The words "Bar Minei d'Rebbi Yehudah" בר מיני דרבי יהודה

should be "Bar Minei d'Rav Yehudah" בר מיני דרב יהודה

[3] Gemara 43b [line 11]:

"l'Hisna'os Bahen Bnei Adam" להתנאות בהן בני אדם

This is the Girsa in most of the Rishonim. The Girsa in Dikdukei Sofrim #4 is "Leihanos." (According to Rashi they have the same meaning.)


1)[line 13]קתדראותKATADRA'OS- soft seats, chairs with a back

2)[line 22]דעתייהו למיעקרDA'ATAIHU L'MEI'AKAR- their intention is to move from this place [and eat the meal in another place]

3)[line 32]איכא עדיף מיניהIKA ADIF MINEI- there is a person who is more worthy than he [of saying the Berachah over the incense]

4)[line 33]מסייע ליה לרבMESAYEI'A LEI L'RAV- This law supports Rav's ruling. That is, we see here that the one who recited the first Berachah of the meal recites the other communal Berachos as well. Similarly, in Rav's Halachah, the one who washed his hands first (of the last five to wash Mayim Acharonim) recites the Birkas ha'Mazon (RITVA). This is also the intent of RASHI DH ha'Notel.

5)[line 37]משי ידךMASHI YADACH- wash your hands

6)[line 38]מרתתMIRTAS- trembling with fear

7)[line 38]בר פחתי!BAR PACHASEI!- Son of great people!

8)[line 41]משתעלה תמרתוMISHE'TA'ALEH TIMRASO- from when its smoke will start to rise

9)[line 42]והא לא קא ארח!V'HA LO KA ARACH!- but he did not yet smell it!

10)[line 48]מושקMUSHAK- (O.F. musgue) musk, a secretion of the male musk-deer, which has a strong scent and is used in perfumes

11)[line 51]אפרסמוןAFARSEMON- (Gk. balsamon; O.F. balsme) balsam oil

12)[line 55]שמן ערבSHEMEN AREV- pleasant oil

13)[line 56]כשרתאKASHARTA- costus (Kosht), the root of an herb that grows in modern-day Kashmir

14a)[line 56]משחא כבישאMISHCHA KEVISHA- (a) oil that contains pieces of costus (RASHI); (b) oil from crushed sesame seeds, into which rosewater and aromatic tree bark are soaked. After enough time for the sesame oil to absorb the aroma of the spices, the entire mixture is ground (RABEINU CHANANEL)

b)[last line]משחא טחינאMISHCHA TECHINA- (a) oil that contains ground costus (RASHI); (b) oil from crushed sesame seeds, into which rosewater and aromatic tree bark are placed just before the entire mixture is ground (the oil does not absorb as much of the spices as in Mishcha Kevisha) (RABEINU CHANANEL)


15)[line 1]סמלקSIMLAK- jasmine

16)[line 3]חלפי דימאCHILFEI D'YAMA- (O.F. espig) aspic, spike-lavender

17)[line 5]"והיא העלתם הגגה ותטמנם בפשתי העץ [הערכות לה על הגג]""V'HI HE'ELASAM HA'GAGAH, V'TITMENEM B'PISHTEI HA'ETZ [HA'ARUCHOS LAH AL HA'GAG]" - " ... and she brought them (the spies) up to the roof, and she hid them among the stalks of flax [that she had arranged on the roof]" (Yehoshua 2:6) (RACHAV AND THE SPIES)

(a)Unlike Moshe Rabeinu who sent the twelve spies with much fanfare, Yehoshua made a point of sending the two spies, Kalev and Pinchas, discreetly. Also unlike the spies that Moshe Rabeinu sent to spy out the land, the spies that Yehoshua sent were complete Tzadikim who undertook their mission with total faith that HaSh-m would help the Jewish people conquer the land of Kena'an.

(b)Yehoshua gave them specific instructions to spy out Yericho, which, being a border town, was particularly well fortified. Kalev and Pinchas made this their first stop. Pretending to be potters, they stopped at the inn of Rachav the innkeeper (Chazal also translate "ha'Zonah" as harlot; as either an innkeeper or harlot, she would be a useful source of information, as she knew all the important men in the city).

(c)As soon as the two spies arrived, the locals recognized them for what they were and duly informed the king of Yericho of their arrival and their whereabouts. He sent officers with instructions to Rachav to hand over the spies into their custody.

(d)Meanwhile, Rachav — who believed in HaSh-m and whose sympathies lay with Bnei Yisrael — had taken the two men and hid them on the roof as described by the verse.

(e)In this way, Rachav managed to convince the king's officers that the two spies had already left and urged them to chase the spies. She told them that if they ran fast enough, they might still catch up with the spies before they reached the Jordan River.

(f)See Background to Erchin 32:8.

18a)[line 6]נרקום דגנוניתאNARKUM D'GANUNISA- garden narcissus

b)[line 7]דדבראD'DABRA- lit. of the fields; i.e., that grows wild

19)[line 8]סיגליSIGLEI- (O.F. violes) violets (RASHI)

20)[line 9]דמורחD'MORACH- who smells

21)[line 9]בחבושאB'CHAVUSHA- (O.F. codoinz) with a quince

22)[line 10]מלבלביMELAVLEVEI- bud

23)[line 15]"ילכו יונקותיו ויהי כזית הודו וריח לו כלבנון""YELCHU YONKOSAV, VI'YEHI CHA'ZAYIS HODO, V'REI'ACH LO KA'LEVANON"- "His branches shall spread, and his beauty shall be like the olive tree, and he shall have a fragrance like Lebanon." (Hoshea 14:7) - The fragrance of Lebanon refers to: (a) cedar trees of Lebanon (RASHI); (b) the incense used in the Beis ha'Mikdash, which contains Levonah (frankincense) (TARGUM YONASAN BEN UZIEL); (c) the fields of Lebanon, which contained many fragrant trees and shrubs (RADAK)

24a)[line 18]תלה ליה קורא לדבר אחרTALA LEI KORA L'DAVAR ACHER- Tie a delicate heart of palm around [the neck of] swine

b)[line 18]איהו דידיה עבידIHU DIDEI AVID- he will do [with it] what he normally does; i.e., he will dirty it. The parable apparently means that each artisan is the only one who does his specific job in the world.

25)[line 37]טחו בראש השמשTACHO B'ROSH HA'SHAMASH- he should wipe it on the butler's head

26)[line 40]המטולאיםHA'METULA'IM- that are patched

27)[line 45]חשדאCHESHADA- suspicion [of licentiousness]

28)[line 46]עידנאIDNA - a fixed time [for learning with his


29)[line 48]פנתאPANTA- (O.F. enpeigne) the upper [part of the shoe]

30)[line 49]גילדאGILDA- the sole

31)[line 54]קדושא דבי שמשיKIDUSHA D'VEI SHIMSHEI- Kidush of Friday night