[5a - 47 lines; 5b - 54 lines]

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We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any OTHER important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos.

[1] Rashi 5b DH Toref Nafsho ד"ה טורף נפשו:

"Asher Garamta Lecha" אשר גרמת לך

The word "Lecha" לך seems to be unnecessary (M. KORNFELD)


1)[line 2]חד פסוקא דרחמיCHAD PESUKA D'RACHAMEI- [at least] one verse of mercy

2)[line 5]ירגיזYARGIZ- he should incite

3)[line 6]"רגזו ואל תחטאו אמרו בלבבכם על משכבכם ודמו סלה""RIGZU V'AL TECHETA'U, IMRU VI'LEVAVCHEM AL MISHKAVCHEM V'DOMU, SELAH"- "Tremble, and do not sin; talk with your own heart on your bed, and be still, Selah" (Tehilim 4:5).

4)[line 12]"ואתנה לך את לוחות האבן והתורה והמצוה אשר כתבתי להורותם""VA'ETNAH LECHA ES LUCHOS HA'EVEN VEHA'TORAH VEHA'MITZVAH ASHER KASAVTI L'HOROSAM"- "[And HaSh-m said to Moshe, 'Come up to Me into the mount, and be there;] and I will give you tablets of stone, and the Torah, and commandments which I have written; that you may teach them" (Shemos 24:12).

5)[line 14]מקראMIKRA- the verses of the Torah

6a)[line 14]משנהMISHNAH- the Oral Law, the Mishnayos of Torah shebe'Al Peh

b)[line 14]גמראGEMARA (TALMUD)

The earlier generations (of Tana'im) would base the Halachah on their own understanding of the Mishnah, which they recorded in the text of the Mishnayos. The later generations (the Amora'im) ruled in Halachic matters based on their evaluation of all of the different interpretations of the Mishnah. This empirical evaluation is known as Gemara or Talmud. (As a result, we follow the Halachah set down by the later generations, and not the Halachah stated in the Mishnah.)

7)[line 16]חרב של שתי פיותCHEREV SHEL SHTEI FIYOS- a double-edged sword

8)[line 16]"רוממות אל בגרונם, וחרב פיפיות בידם""ROMEMOS KEL BI'GERONAM, V'CHEREV PIFIYOS B'YADAM"- "Let the high praises of HaSh-m be in their mouth, and a double-edged sword in their hand" (Tehilim 149:6).

9)[line 19]מזיקין בדילין הימנוMAZIKIN BEDEILIN HEIMENU- demons keep away from him

10)[line 19]"ובני רשף יגביהו עוף""U'VENEI RESHEF YAGBIHU UF"- "and the sons of Reshef (demons) will fly high" (Iyov 5:7) - The Gemara interprets this phrase homiletically as, "and the sons of Reshef will be lifted [away] by the Torah."

11)[line 19]"התעיף עיניך בו ואיננו""HA'SA'IF EINECHA BO V'EINENU"- "If you blink your eyes at it, it is gone, [for riches suddenly make themselves wings; they fly away like an eagle towards the sky]" (Mishlei 23:5).

12)[line 20]"מזי רעב ולחמי רשף וקטב מרירי ושן בהמת אשלח בם עם חמת זחלי עפר""MEZEI RA'AV U'LCHUMEI RESHEF V'KETEV MERIRI V'SHEN BEHEMOS ASHALECH BAM IM CHAMAS ZOCHALEI AFAR"- "[They will be] bloated by famine, attacked by demons, and cut down by evil spirits; I will also send the teeth of beasts upon them with the poison of things that crawl in the dust (i.e. snakes)" (Devarim 32:24).

13)[line 25]יסורין מכועריןYISURIN MECHU'ARIN- terrible afflictions

14)[line 25]עוכריןOCHRIN- and they damage; do harm

15)[line 25]"נאלמתי דומיה החשיתי מטוב וכאבי נעכר""NE'ELAMTI DUMIYAH, HECHESHESI MI'TOV, U'CHEIVI NE'KAR"- "I became mute with silence, I was silenced from Good (the Torah), and therefore my pain was intensified" (Tehilim 39:3).

16)[line 26]"כי לקח טוב נתתי לכם תורתי אל תעזובו""KI LEKACH TOV NASATI LACHEM, TORASI AL TA'AZOVU"- "For I give you good doctrine, do not forsake My Torah" (Mishlei 4:2) - The word "Lekach" implies a sale or purchase.

17)[line 29]יפשפש במעשיוYEFASHFESH B'MA'ASAV- he should examine his deeds (and do Teshuvah for his sins — RASHI to Eruvin 13b)

18)[line 29]"נחפשה דרכינו ונחקורה""NACHPESAH DERACHEINU V'NACHKORAH"- "Let us search and try our ways, and turn back to HaSh-m" (Eichah 3:40).

19)[line 30]יתלה בבטול תורהYITLEH B'VITUL TORAH- he should assume that his afflictions are due to the time that he wasted when he could have been learning Torah

20)[line 32]מדכאו ביסוריןMEDAK'O B'YISURIN- He plagues him with afflictions

21)[line 32]"וה' חפץ דכאו החלי אם תשים אשם נפשו""VA'SH-M CHAFETZ DAK'O HECHELI, IM TASIM ASHAM NAFSHO..."- "And HaSh-m desired to oppress him with disease, if his soul shall consider it a recompense for guilt..." (Yeshayah 53:10).

22)[line 33]"אם תשים אשם נפשו", מה אשם לדעת אף יסורין לדעת"IM TASIM ASHAM NAFSHO," MAH ASHAM L'DA'AS, AF YISURIN L'DA'AS- a person must accept the afflictions upon himself willingly for them to be a recompense for his guilt

23)[line 39]אל תקרי "תלמדנו" אלא "תלמדנו"AL TIKRI "SELAMDENU" ELA "SILMEDENU"- do not read "[and from Your Torah] You shall teach him," but rather read, "and this is learned [from Your Torah]

24)[line 39]שן ועיןSHEN V'AYIN

(a)If the owner of an Eved Kena'ani (a Nochri slave) hits his slave and wounds him by taking out the slave's eye or permanent tooth, the slave becomes entitled to his freedom (Shemos 21:26-27). The owner must intentionally wound him, but need not intend to wound him specifically in the eye or tooth (Kidushin 24b).

(b)The same applies if the master dismembers one of the slave's 24 Roshei Evarim (limb-tips) that do not regenerate if they are dismembered. The 24 Roshei Evarim are the ten fingers, ten toes, nose, ears and the male Ever (RASHI to Gitin 42b). The Gemara (Kidushin 24a-25a) adds more limbs for which this Halachah applies.

(c)The requirement to free the slave under such circumstances is considered a Kenas (a penalty or fine) which is imposed upon the master for unjustly wounding his slave (Bava Kama 74b; see Rashi to Gitin, top of 21b). Therefore, if the owner admits that he is guilty of taking out his slave's tooth or eye, he need not free the slave, as is the case with all Kenasos to which the sinner admits his guilt (Bava Kama ibid.).

25)[line 40]ממרקיןMEMARKIN- cleanses

26)[line 41]"ולא תשבית מלח ברית""V'LO SASHBIS MELACH BRIS"- "[And every sacrifice of your flour offering shall you season with salt;] nor shall you allow the salt of the covenant of HaSh-m to be lacking [from your flour offering; with all your offerings you shall offer salt]" (Vayikra 2:13).


27)[line 10]נגעיםNEGA'IM

(a)When a Jew develops a mark on his body the size of a Gris (a Cilician bean, approximately the size of a dime) that looks like the skin disease of Tzara'as, a Kohen must be summoned to ascertain whether or not it is a Nega Tzara'as. The Kohen inspects the mark during the day, but not in bright sunshine and not under conditions that obstruct the sunlight, such as a cloudy day or a darkened room. Our Gemara quotes the Mishnah (Nega'im 2:4) that states that it is only considered a Nega if it is visible while the man is standing in the way that a man normally stands.

(b)For a full discussion of Tzara'as, see Background to Nidah 19:15a.

28)[line 16]דין גרמא דעשיראה בירDEIN GARMA D'ASIRA'AH BIR- (a) this is the bone of my tenth deceased son (RASHI); (b) this is the tooth of my tenth deceased son (RABEINU CHANANEL); (c) this is a bone from the tenth meal that was given to comfort me the tenth time I was a mourner (ARUCH) (In this manner, Rebbi Yochanan comforted mourners.)

29)[line 19]חלשCHALASH- became sick

30)[line 19]על לגביה ר' יוחנןAL L'GABEI REBBI YOCHANAN- Rebbi Yochanan went to visit him

31)[line 25]חבושCHAVUSH- a prisoner

32)[line 26]דהוה קא גני בבית אפלD'HAVAH KA GANI B'VAYIS AFEL- that he was staying (lit. sleeping) in a dark room

33)[line 27]גלייה לדרעיהGALYEI L'DAR'EI- he revealed his arm

34)[line 27]נפל נהוראNAFAL NEHORA- light appeared (from the reflection of his beautiful, shining arm)

35)[line 29]לא אפשתLO AFSHAS- you did not learn a great amount (as much as you wanted)

36)[line 33]להאי שופרא דבלי בעפראL'HAI SHUFRA D'VALI B'AR'A- (a) for this beauty that will decay into the ground, i.e. R. Yochanan, who was noted for his beauty; (b) for this beautiful object that is wasting in the ground, i.e. the Beis ha'Mikdash — see MAHARSHA

37)[line 37]תקיפו ליה ארבע מאה דני דחמראTEKIFU LEI ARBA ME'AH DANEI D'CHAMRA- four hundred of his casks of wine spoiled

38)[line 39]לעיין מר במיליהL'AYEIN MAR B'MILEI- the master (Rav Huna) should check into his deeds

39)[line 41]לא יהיב מר שבישא לאריסיהLO YAHIV MAR SHAVISHA L'ARISEI- the master did not give his hired laborer his portion of grapevine branches

40)[line 43]בתר גנבא גנוב, וטעמא טעיםBASAR GANAVA GENOV, V'TA'AMA TA'IM- if you steal from a thief, you have a taste of theft

41)[line 44]הדר חלא והוה חמראHADAR CHALA V'HAVAH CHAMRA- the vinegar turned back to wine

42)[line 44]אייקר חלאAYAKAR CHALA- vinegar went up in value

43)[line 45]ואיזדבן בדמי דחמראIZDABEN B'DEMEI CHAMRA- and it was sold for the price of wine

44)[line 48]סמוך למטתיSAMUCH L'MITASI- next to my bed, i.e. after I wake up, I do not get involved in any other dealings before I pray

45)[line 50]"וצפונך תמלא בטנם ישבעו בנים""U'TZFUNCHA TEMALEI VITNAM YISBE'U VANIM"- "[From men, by your hand, O HaSh-m, from men whose portion in life is of the world,] and whose belly you fill with your treasure; who have many children, [and who leave their abundance to their babes]" (Tehilim 17:14).

46)[line 52]טורפין לו תפלתו בפניוTORFIN LO TEFILASO B'FANAV- they tear up his prayer in his face

47)[line 53]"טרף נפשו באפו הלמענך תעזב ארץ ויעתק צור ממקומו""TOREF NAFSHO B'APO, HA'LEMA'ANCHA TE'AZAV ERETZ, V'YE'ETAK TZUR MI'MEKOMO"- "(You Iyov, who) tears himself in his anger. Shall the ear be forsaken because of you?! Or shall the Rock (the Creator) be removed from His place?!" (Iyov 18:4) - The Gemara interprets this verse homiletically as, "You who causes that they tear up his prayer in his face, do you think that the Shechinah will leave and be removed from Its place (from where your friend prays before It")?

48)[last line]"צור ילדך תשי""TZUR YELADCHA TESHI"- "Of the Rock that fathered you you are unmindful, [and have forgotten HaSh-m Who formed you]" (Devarim 32:18).