[4a - 45 lines; 4b - 35 lines]

1)[line 1]רואין את העליונותRO'IN ES HA'ELYONOS- we view the upper [figs pressed into the top of the Igulim]

2)[line 1]פרודותPERUDOS- detached [and mixed with the lower pressed figs]

3)[line 2]והתחתונות מעלות את העליונותVEHA'TACHTONOS MA'ALOS ES HA'ELYONOS- and the [figs in the] lower [parts of the Igulim] serve to nullify those at the top [of the Igulim, since all together there are more than one hundred times the number of figs that are not Terumah than those that are]

4)[line 3]מאהME'AH- one hundred [aside from the figs that are Terumah]

5a)[line 3]פומיןPUMIN- mouths [of vessels]; i.e., individual

b)[line 4]שוליםSHULAYIM- bottoms [of vessels]

6)[line 7]אפילו יש שם שלש מאות פומין לא יעלוAFILU YESH SHAM SHALOSH ME'OS PUMIN LO YA'ALU- even if there are three hundred individual vessels, the figs of Terumah will not be nullified. This is the Tana to whom Rav Papa referred to earlier. Even though the Terumah under discussion is mid'Rabanan, it is not nullified no matter the number of like objects since each is individually significant.

7)[line 18]פשיטא דהיא ואמה שריאPESHITAH D'HI V'IMA SHARYA- it is obvious that [once Rebbi Eliezer rules that the egg is permitted to be eaten on Yom Tov, meaning that he rules like Beis Shamai of our Mishnah, that] both it and its mother are permitted [to be eaten]

8)[line 21]אגב אמהAGAV IMEI- along with its mother; i.e. it may be consumed only if its mother may be consumed as well

9)[line 21]שלקחה סתםSHE'LAKCHAH STAM- that he purchased with no specific intent [regarding whether he planned on eating it or keeping it to lay eggs]

10)[line 22]הובררהHUVRERAH- it has been determined

11)[line 24]גוזמאGUZMA- an overstatement. In order to stress that he ruled according to the opinion of Beis Shamai, Acherim said in the name of Rebbi Eliezer that both the hen and the egg may be eaten, even though not all of this information is necessary.

12)[line 26]אפרוחEFRO'ACH- a chick

13)[line 29]דרבי אליעזר בן יעקבD'REBBI ELIEZER BEN YAAKOV- that which Rebbi Eliezer ben Yaakov [ruled that a chick so newly hatched that it has not yet opened its eyes is not kosher (6b)]

14)[line 30]לא פליגיLO PELIGI- they do not disagree [that it is not kosher]

15)[line 31]שבת ויום טובSHABBOS V'YOM TOV- Shabbos and Yom Tov [that fall adjacent to one another, in either order]

16)[line 32]קדושה אחת היא ... שתי קדושות הןKEDUSHAH ACHAS HI ... SHTEI KEDUSHOS HEN- see Background to 3:11

17)[line 34]הכנה דרבהHACHANAH D'RABAH- see Background to 2:28

18)[line 37]אושפיזכניהUSHPEZICHNEI- his landlord

19)[line 38]לאטווינהו האידנאL'ATVINHU HA'IDNA- to roast them now [on Yom Tov]

20)[line 39]מאי דעתיך?MAI DAITACH?- what is your reasoning [when you assume that the egg may be eaten on Shabbos tomorrow]?

21)[line 40]לגומעהL'GOM'AH- to swallow it [raw]

22)[line 40]ביומיהB'YOMEI- [to eat or move it] on its day (i.e., the one upon which it is laid)

23)[line 40]והתניאVEHA'TANYA- This Beraisa is offered as proof of the Gemara's thesis.

24a)[line 44]זילZIL- go

b)[line 44]ותאV'SA- and come back

25)[last line]מוקי אמורא עלויהMOKI AMORA ILAVEI- appoint a Meturgeman over himself [whose job is to a) repeat the lesson of the Rav, which included Halachic rulings, in a louder voice (RASHI to Berachos 56a); b) translate the lesson of the Rav, which included Halachic rulings, from Hebrew into the vernacular (RASHI to Yoma 20b)]

26)[last line]מיומא טבא לחבריהMI'YOMA TAVA L'CHAVREI- from [after eating a meal that included at least a Revi'is of wine on] Yom Tov until the next day

27)[last line]משום שכרותMISHUM SHICHRUS- due to drunkenness [that may impede his ability to think clearly enough to issue the correct ruling]


28a)[line 1]איכו השתאIKU HASHTA- had I told [ruled] immediately

b)[line 1]אשתלאיISHTELA'I- I would have forgotten [the correct ruling]

29)[line 3]בהני תלתB'HANI TELAS- in these three [possible situations of two successive days during which one may not perform Melachah (see Background to 3:11}]

30)[line 4]שנשרו מן הדקלSHE'NASHRU MIN HA'DEKEL- that fell from a palm tree

31)[line 5]להסיקןL'HASIKAN- to burn them

32)[line 5]ואל תשיבני ביצהV'AL TESHIVEINI BEITZAH- and do not ask upon this ruling of mine from [that which] an egg [laid on Shabbos may be eaten on the following day, even if it is Yom Tov]

33a)[line 6]ביומאB'YOMA- on the day [upon which it is laid]

b)[line 9]ביומייהוB'YOMAIHU- on the day [upon which they fall off of the tree]

34)[line 13]מהפךMEHAPECH- stoke [the coals of]

35)[line 14]בהיתרא קא מהפךB'HEITERAH KA MEHAPECH- he is stoking coals of that which is permitted [as even the branches which fell off on Yom Tov are permitted as a result of being nullified in the majority]

36)[line 16]אין מבטלין איסור לכתחלהEIN MEVATLIN ISUR L'CHATCHILAH

(a)The status of a mixture containing that which may not be eaten and that which may depends on the ratio of the two elements; see Background to 3:21:a.

(b)That which a prohibited object is nullified when in a mixture containing the proper ratio of permitted to prohibited amounts applies only when the prohibited object was inadvertently mixed with the permitted objects. One may not intentionally mix the two. Most Rishonim explain that this prohibition is mid'Rabanan (see SHACH YD 99:7). The RA'AVAD (TEMIM DE'IM #239, cited by RAN Chulin 97a), however, rules that this is prohibited mid'Oraisa.

(c)If one intentionally mixes that which is prohibited with that which is permitted so as to nullify it, the entire mixture becomes prohibited to he who mixed it (or to he for whom it was mixed). This ruling is mid'Rabanan in origin (RAMBAM Hilchos Kil'ayim 2:1; YD 99:5). In certain exceptional cases, this rule does not apply, and that which was intentionally mixed is permitted even though it was forbidden to do so. Our Gemara teaches that according to some, it is permitted to intentionally mix together such items when that which is prohibited is forbidden mid'Rabanan. Furthermore, this is permitted when benefit is derived from prohibited object only after it has changed form, such as when one benefits from the coals of wood that had been forbidden.

37)[line 17]בדרבנןBED'RABANAN- when it comes to [a prohibition such as Muktzah] which is [forbidden] mid'Rabanan

38)[line 20]בעיניהB'EINEI- extant in its original form

39)[line 21]מקלא קלי איסוראMIKLA KALI ISURA- that which is forbidden is burned [by the time that one derives benefit from it]

40)[line 22]של גליותSHEL GALUYOS- that [occurs] outside of Eretz Yisrael

41)[line 24]מבדילMAVDIL- recited Havdalah

42)[line 25]ספוקי מספקא ליהSEFUKEI MESAFKA LEI- was unsure [if the reason why two days of Yom Tov are celebrated outside of Eretz Yisrael is due to a Rabbinic decree (see top of 5a), in which case they would have the status of Kedushah Achas, or if it is due to that which those who live there are unsure of which of the two days is Yom Tov and which is a weekday, in which case they would have the status of Shtei Kedushos]

43)[line 26]ידעינן בקביעא דירחאYAD'INAN BI'KEVI'A D'YARCHA- we know [for a certainty] when the new moon will appear

44)[line 27]משיאין משואותMASI'IN MASU'OS- [messengers of Beis Din] would lift lit torches. If Rosh Chodesh had been proclaimed on the earlier of the two possible days, then these messengers would ascend to the peaks of certain mountains that night. Other messengers waited atop other mountains stretching between Yerushalayim and Bavel. The first messenger would set in motion a chain reaction signaling to every Jew, no matter where he lived, that the month had begun. If no fire appeared, then Rosh Chodesh was the next day. This system was employed only at the onset of months containing holidays, so that Klal Yisrael would know which day(s) to celebrate (Mishnah, Rosh Hashanah 22b).

45)[line 28]משקלקלו הכותיםMISHE'KILKELU HA'KUSIM

(a)The King of Ashur brought the people of Kusa to Eretz Yisrael and settled them in the Shomron. They converted to Judaism after they found themselves under attack from lions. The Chachamim disagree as to whether their conversion was an honest and valid one, or whether it was prompted only by feelings of self-preservation and the Kusim remained Nochrim.

(b)After the times of the Mishnah, they were found worshipping an image of a dove. At that point, the Chachamim unanimously gave them the status of Nochrim (Chulin 6a).

(c)The Kusim sabotaged the fire signal system by lighting fires atop the mountains even when Rosh Chodesh had not been proclaimed.

46)[line 31]ואתי לאקלקוליV'ASI L'AKALKULEI- and [Klal Yisrael] may fall into disarray [losing the knowledge of how to determine the timing of the new moon. This could result in a calamity such as the consumption of eating Chametz on Pesach.]

47)[last line]עדות החדשEDUS HA'CHODESH

(a)The Jewish calendar is a lunar one. Each month begins with the new moon, and the middle of the month is marked by the full moon. All Jewish holidays are determined by date, and are therefore dependant upon when the new moon appears.

(b)The day upon which each month began was determined by the seventy-one member Sanhedrin (the "Supreme Court") which convened in the Lishkas ha'Gazis (a hewn chamber in the Beis ha'Mikdash). When witnesses observed a new moon, they would travel to the Sanhedrin (or a Beis Din appointed by the Sanhedrin), where they would then undergo a cross-examination. Beis Din would announce the beginning of the new month if they were convinced of the accuracy of the testimony.

(c)From the time that the Sanhedrin was disbanded, the lunar calendar has been set according to astronomical calculations. The RAMBAM explains that a Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai teaches us to operate thusly when there is no Sanhedrin to accept testimony (Hilchos Kidush ha'Chodesh 5:2).

48)[last line]נשתהוNISHTAHU- delayed