[23a - 30 lines; 23b - 43 lines]
We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any OTHER important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos.
 Gemara 23a [line 8]:
The colon (two dots) should be removed, as it is in the middle of the Sugya.
 Gemara [line 16]:
The words "l'Neveilah she'Tei'aseh Shechutah" לנבילה שתיעשה שחוטה
should be corrected as suggested by Shitah Mekubetzes #5
(Rashi also had this corrected Girsa)
 Rashi 23a DH Mah Ta'am ד"ה מה טעם:
The words "l'Rabanan Keivan d'Batlah l'Rebbi Eliezer" לרבנן כיון דבטלה לרבי אליעזר
should be corrected as suggested by Shitah Mekubetzes #10, #11
 Rashi 23b DH Tzir Tahor ד"ה ציר טהור:
The words "she'Nafal l'Socho Mayim Kol she'Hu Tamei" שנפל לתוכו מים כל שהוא טמא
should be the beginning of a new Dibur
The words "l'Achar Hashakas Mei Am ha'Aretz" לאחר השקת מי עם הארץ should be "l'Achar Hashakah Mei Am ha'Aretz" לאחר השקה מי עם הארץ (and should be read with a pause after the word Hashakah) (this is the Girsa in Tosfos and in old manuscripts)
1a)[line 9]אפר כשרEFER KASHER- the ashes of the Parah Adumah which are Metaher a person who became Tamei from contact with a corpse
b)[line 9]אפר מקלהEFER MAKLEH- ashes from burned wood (or any other source) that are found in stoves and ovens; these ashes are ineffective in the purification process
2)[line 28]טומאה סרוחהTUM'AH SERUCHAH- an object that was Tamei but has decayed to such an extent (see next entry) that it no longer carries Tum'ah
3a)[line 29]טומאה חמורהTUM'AH CHAMURAH- the severe form of Tum'ah; (a) Tum'ah that can be Metamei people and utensils, such as Tum'as Neveilah (RASHI to Chulin 71a, TOSFOS here and to Nazir 50a); (b) Tum'as Masa (Tum'ah that is spread even through carrying the object that is Tamei) (RASHI here)
b)[line 29]עד לגרAD L'GER- [it loses its ability to be Metamei once it has decayed] to [the point that it is no longer fit to be eaten by] a Ger Toshav (a Nochri who has accepted upon himself the seven laws of a Ben Noach).
c)[line 29]וטומאה קלהV'TUM'AH KALAH- the less severe form of Tum'ah: (a) Tum'ah that can be Metamei only foods and drinks (RASHI to Chulin 71a, TOSFOS here and to Nazir 50a). When a Nevelah is not fit to be eaten by a person, it is only Metamei Tumas Ochlin, i.e. it is a Rishon and can make food that touches it into a Sheni. (b) Tum'as Maga (Tum'ah that is spread [only] through touching the object that is Tamei) (RASHI here). Normally, a Neveilah is Metamei b'Masa and b'Maga. When it is no longer fit for human consumption, but it is still fit for dogs to eat, it remains an Av ha'Tumah and is Metamei other objects, but only b'Maga. (c) The RASHBA in Chulin (71a) disagrees with both of these explanations. After it can no longer be eaten by people, a Neveilah is Tahor. When Bar Pada says that it retains Tum'ah Kalah, he means that if it touches an Av ha'Tum'ah now, it will become Tamei just like any other food.
d)[line 29]עד לכלבAD L'KELEV- [it loses its ability to be Metamei once it has decayed] to [the point that it is no longer fit to be eaten by even] a dog
4)[line 16]אגב אימיהAGAV IMEI- an animal was to be eaten when it was still in the womb of its mother
5)[line 22]עדמחצהA D MECHTZAH- the Am ha'Aretz is suspected of mixing water in the brine up to almost half (but not exactly half)
6)[line 28]המבכירותHA'MAVKIROS- the animals that have just given birth for the first time
7)[line 32]הלכתא בכוליה פירקין בר מפלוגתאHILCHESA B'CHULEI PIRKIN BAR MI'PELUGTA- the Halachah is like every Mishnah in this chapter (even when expressed by a individual opinion), except where there is [an explicit] argument
8)[line 33]כי ניים ושכיב רבKI NAYIM V'SHACHIV RAV- when Rav was dozing off and sleeping [he said this rule] (see Insights)