A SALE AND A GIFT (Yerushalmi Halachah 8 Daf 14b)

במה דברים אמורים במוכר אבל <לא> בנותן מתנה נותן את כולם.


The Mishnah taught: When is this? When he sells it, but when he gives it as a gift, he gives everything.

מה בין מוכר ומה בין נותן מתנה


Question: What is the difference between a sale and a gift?

[דף טו עמוד א] רבי בא בר טבליי בשם רב שכן דרך הנותן מתנה להיות נותן בעין יפה.


Answer #1 (R. Ba bar Tivlai citing Rav): Gifts are given with a generous eye.

רבי שמואל בר נחמן בשם ר' יונתן שכן דרך הלקוחות להיות מדקדקין.


Answer #2 (R. Shmuel bar Nachman citing R. Yochanan): Buyers are particular to clarify what he is buying (so if he did not ask, he loses out).

ומה ביניהון


Question: Where would there be a difference between these two answers?

הקדש מאן דמר שכן דרך הנותן מתנה להיות נותן בעין יפה אף המקדיש בעין יפה מקדיש ומאן דמר שכן דרך הלקוחות להיות מדקדקין מה אמר במקדיש.


Answer: Consecrating items to the Temple. Answer #1 also applies to consecrating; answer #2 is not relevant (as there is no buyer). So what is the law about consecrating?

[ר' לעזר שאל על כל התורה הושבה או על הראשונה הושבה]


Question (R. Elazar): This rule that only gifts are given with a generous eye (see above, daf 69 (h)) does it apply to all of the cases of the Mishnah, such as when he sells a field, that it does not include the stones and the canes (69 (a) 1.) and in addition, it applies to the case of the path (69 (g); or, does this rule only apply to the original case of the stones and canes but not to the case of the path? (Note: This text is added by the Ramban and many others.)

נישמעינה מהדא האחין שחלקו יש להן דרך זה על גבי זה.


Answer (Beraisa): If brothers divided (their father's) estate, they have access paths in each other's fields. (When one brother receives the field, the other brother retains the right to an access path since he gives it with a stingy eye. Since in the Mishnah, brothers and gifts were taught together, the Beraisa shows that the comparison was only for the earlier cases of the stones etc. but not for the path, as brothers divide with a stingy eye, unlike a gift.)

ואית דבעי מימר כן אמר רבי לעזר האחין שחלקו זכו בשדה זכו בכולן המחזיק בניכסי הגר קנה החזיק בשדה החזיק בכולן הקדיש את השדה הקדיש את כולן.


Some say: R. Elazar answered (his own question) from that Mishnah - If brothers divided their father's estate, when they acquire their land in the courtyard, they acquire everything. If a person took possession of the property of a convert, when he acquires the land, he acquires everything. If a person consecrated his field, he consecrated everything.

ר' שמעון אומר המקדיש את השדה <לא> הקדיש החרוב המורכב ושקמה הישנה


Our Mishnah taught (R. Shimon): (See above 69 (k)) If a person consecrated a field, he consecrated the older carob and sycamore trees.

מפני שיונקין משל הקדש


Reasoning: Since they gain nutrients from the ground they must be consecrated or he will be transgressing.

מפני ששייר לו דרך


Question: If he consecrated these trees, did he also consecrate their access paths?

אם לא שייר לו דרך אף הן יונקין משל הקדש:


Answer: Yes, because if not, the trees are not gaining nutrients from consecrated land, but rather from his own land.