A JEW WORKING FOR AN IDOLATER (Yerushalmi Halachah 1 Daf 2a)
אומנים ישראל שהיו עושין עם הנכרי באידן בתוך ביתו אסור בתוך בתיהן מותר
(Beraisa): If Jewish craftsmen were working for an idolater on the day of his festival, to work in the idolater's home is prohibited; to work in their home is permitted.
רבי שמעון בן אלעזר אומר במה דברים אמורים בתלוש מן הקרקע אבל במחובר לקרקע אסור.
(R. Shimon ben Elazar): When is it permitted? When he is working with detached items; but if with attached items (such as shaping still-attached rocks to be used for the idolater's construction), it is prohibited (since the noise of the work that he is preparing for the idolater is audible).
בעיר אחרת בין כך ובין כך מותר
(It is only prohibited when he is working in the idolater's town, but) in a different town, either way it is permitted.
מהו בין כך ובין כך מותר
Question: What is meant by 'either way it is permitted'?
בין בתלוש בין במחובר בין בשכיר בין בקיבולת.
Answer: Whether attached or detached; whether working as a hired day worker or as a contractor. (Since the idolater does not see the Jew working for him, he will not go and thank his idol.)
אמר רבי לא בין בתלוש בין במחובר ובלבד בקיבולת.
(R. Ila disagrees): Whether attached or detached, as long as it is as a contractor.
רבי שמעון בר (ברסנה)[כרסנה] בשם ר' אחא בשבת ובאבל ובע"ז הלכה כר' שמעון בן אלעזר.
(R. Shimon bar Carsasa citing R. Acha): In Shabbos, in mourner and in idolatry, the Halachah follows R. Shimon ben Elazar. (Shabbos - refers to the law that a gentile doing Melacha for a Jew on Shabbos is prohibited in the Jew's home and permitted in the gentile's home. Mourner - refers to the law that it is permitted for others to do Melacha in their homes for the mourner, as long as it is as a contractor rather than a daily hired worker. Idolatry - as discussed earlier.) The Halacha follows R. Shimon ben Elazar as long as it is done as a contractor rather than as a daily hired worker.
חברייא אמרי טעמא דרבי ישמעאל משום בריה דמועדא.
(Chevraya): The reason of R. Yishmael that for three days after the festival one may not have business dealings with them, is because during that time, they are still celebrating, and it is called the 'Ben Moed - the son of the festival'.
אמר רבי בא כיון שהוא יודע שאסור לך לישא וליתן עמו הוא ממעט בשמחת אידו.
Reason #2 (R. Ba): Since he knows that a Jew may not do business with him even during the three days after his festival, his joy is reduced. (He is concerned that on the days following his festival, since the Jew will not do business with him, he will not have enough money, so he reduces the amount he spends on celebrating the festival.)
מה מפקת מביניהון למכור לו דברים שאינן מתקיימין על דעת חברייא אסור על דעת רבי בא מותר.
What is the practical difference between them? If during the three days after the festival it is permitted to sell him items that would not last until the festival (if they would have been given during the three days before it). According to Chevraya it is prohibited (as it is still considered the festival); according to R. Ba it is permitted (as the three days after the festival are no more stringent that the three days before it, when it is permitted to give him items that will not last until the festival.)
א"ר יודן קרייא מסייע למה דאמרי חברייא וביום עשרים וארבעה לחדש (השביעי)[הזה] נאספו בני ישראל בצום ובכי ובשקים ואדמה עליהם.
(R. Yudan): A pasuk about the repentance done at the time of the return from Bavel, supports the Chevraya - (Nechemiah 9:1), "And on the 24th day of this month, the children of Israel gathered in fasting, (in crying) and in wearing sackcloth, with earth upon them."
ולמה לא אמר בעשרים ושלשה משום בריה דמועדא.
Why did they not do this on the 23rd of the month (which was the day after Succos)? Because it is customary to rejoice even on the day following the festival (Isru Chag) and fasting is forbidden.
אין נימא דהוה בשובתא לית יכיל דאת מחשב ואת משכח צומא רבא בחד בשובא.
And if you want to say that perhaps the 23rd fell on Shabbos, this cannot be, as it would mean that Yom Kippur of that year occurred on a Sunday, which Beis Din do not allow (and they extend the month of Elul to be 30 days to avoid it).
ומה בה ולית ר' חוניה מיקל למאן דמעבר ליה מן אתריה.
This would not be a reason, as didn't R. Chunia criticize those who extend Elul for this reason?
א"ר יוחנן בר מדייא אנא חשב יתה ולא הוה בשובתא:
(R. Yochanan bar Madaya): I made the calculation and the 23rd did not occur on Shabbos that year. Rather, it must be that they did not fast because it was the day that followed the festival.