Question: How do we dry Kelim?
Answer #1 (Rav): We use water (this will be explained).
Answer #2 (Rabah bar bar Chanah): We use ashes.
Objection: Does Rav say that we use only water, and does Rabah bar bar Chanah say that we use only ashes?!
Answer: No. Each mentioned one, but he agrees that we also use the other;
They do not argue. When it is wet, we first apply ashes. When it is dry, we first apply water.
(In all the following versions, we always alternate between applications of water and ashes. When it is wet, we first apply ashes; when it is dry, we first apply water. The last application is always water, but sometimes this is not counted.)
Version #1 - Chachamim of Sura - (Rav): There are (a total of) two or three applications of water and ashes (depending on whether it was wet or dry, like we will explain)
(Shmuel): There are three or four applications.
Version #2 - Chachamim of Pumbadisa - (Rav): There are three or four applications;
(Shmuel): There are four or five applications. (End of Version #2)
They do not argue. One of them does not count the final application of water (but he admits that it must be done), the other counts it.
(Version A (Rashi's Rebbeyim): According to Chachamim of Pumbadisa, Rav and Shmuel do not argue with each other. Rav does not count the final application of water (but he admits that it must be done), and Shmuel counts it.
According to Chachamim of Sura, Rav and Shmuel both count the final application of water, and they argue with each other. Rav requires ashes (1) and water (2) when it is wet; when it is dry, he adds another application of water at the beginning. Shmuel agrees when it is dry, but if it was wet, he requires ashes (1), water (2), ashes (3), water (4). (See table on this Daf.)
Version B (Rashi's father): The Chachamim of Sura and Pumbadisa do not argue with each other. The former do not count the final application of water, but the latter do.
Version C (Tosfos): Chachamim of Sura and Pumbadisa argue with each other, but each of them holds that Rav and Shmuel do not argue with each other. Rav does not count the final application of water, and Shmuel counts it.)
'TAHARAH' AND 'HECHSHER' OF 'KELIM' USED WITH WINE OR OIL
Question: What is the law of Akalim (a net of poles tied around grapes or olives being pressed) of Nochrim?
Answer (R. Avahu - Beraisa): To be Metaher a Gas or olivepress (used with Tamei wine or oil), one must rinse the boards, brooms and tub (used to press, gather and hold the grapes or olives);
Akalim of shoots and of Kanvus (hemp) must be dried;
If it is of rush (marsh reeds), one must wait 12 months before using them.
R. Shimon ben Gamliel says, one must wait until the next season of pressing grapes or olives.
(Rambam - additionally, all these Kelim must be immersed; Me'iri - Kelim of wood (or other vegetation) without an interior cannot become Tamei, so it suffices to purge the Tamei liquids absorbed in them).
Question: What is the difference between the first Tana and R. Shimon ben Gamliel? (There is one pressing season per year, after the harvest.)
Answer: There can be more (or less) than 12 months if the grapes or olives are late (or early) to ripen.
R. Yosi says, one may be Metaher them immediately by Hag'alah (putting them in boiling water), or scalding through (pouring over them) water in which olives were cooked.
R. Shimon ben Gamliel says (in R. Yosi's name) that one may put them under a flow of water from a pipe or in a spring for an Onah (a period of time; this will be explained).
Just like we Kasher from Yayin Nesech, we are Metaher.
Objection: This Beraisa taught how to be Metaher, and not how to Kasher!
Correction: Rather, just like we Metaher, we Kasher from Yayin Nesech.
Question: What is an Onah?
Answer #1 (R. Chiya bar Aba citing R. Yochanan): It is a day (morning until evening) or a night.
Answer #2 (R. Chana Sheina citing R. Yochanan): It is 12 hours.
(R. Shmuel bar Yitzchak): All agree that it is always 12 hours. R. Chiya bar Aba refers to Nisan or Tishrei, when the day and night are each 12 hours.
(Rav Yehudah): Strainers of Nochrim:
If they are made of hair, it suffices to rinse them;
If they are made of wool, it suffices to dry them;
If they are made of linen, one must leave them for 12 months before using them;
If they have knots, one must untie them (before drying them - Rashi; Ramban - or before leaving them for 12 months).
Baskets for straining wine:
If they are made of ropes of date shoots, it suffices to rinse them;
If they are made of reeds, it suffices to dry them;
If they are made of linen, one must leave them for 12 months;
If they have knots, one must untie them.
(Rebbi or R. Chiya): If an ignoramus (who is Muchzak to be Tamei) touched grape clusters (resting in wine in a Gas), they and the surrounding clusters are Teme'im, and the rest of the Gas is Tahor;
(The other of Rebbi and R. Chiya): The entire Gas is Tamei.
Question: According to the first opinion, why is this different than a Sheretz found in a grinder?
(Mishnah): If a Sheretz was found in an olive-grinder, only what it touched is Tamei;
If oil was flowing around the olives, everything (touching the oil) is Tamei.
Answer: There, the Sheretz touched olives in the oil. Here, the ignoramus touched the branches, and they themselves do not touch the wine (rather, the grapes do).
Rabanan told R. Yirmeyah to follow the first opinion.
'KASHERING' 'KELIM' OF 'NOCHRIM'
(Mishnah): If one buys from a Nochri a utensil used for food:
If it does not need to be Kashered, it suffices to immerse it;
If boiling liquids are cooked in it, it is Kashered through Hag'alah;
If it is used to cook over a fire without liquid, Libun is needed (he makes it glowing hot);
A roasting spit or grill is Kashered through Libun.
A knife is Kashered by rubbing it on a sharpening stone.
(Gemara - Beraisa): All of these must be immersed in a Mikveh of 40 Sa'im (Ramban - after it is Kashered; Tosfos - before or after Kashering).
Question: What is the source of this?
Answer (Rava): "Kol Davar Asher Yavo ba'Esh Ta'aviru ba'Esh v'Taher" - the Torah requires an additional Taharah after Kashering.
Question (Bar Kapara): Since it says "b'Mei Nidah Yischata" (which refers to sprinkling with Mei Chatas (water on which ashes of the Parah Adumah were put)), perhaps one must sprinkle on it on the third and seventh day!
Answer: "Ach" excludes this (unless the Keli is Tamei Mes).
Question: If so, why does it say "b'Mei Nidah"?
Answer: This teaches that he must immerse it in water that a Nidah could immerse in, i.e. a Mikveh of 40 Sa'im.
The Torah needed to say "v'Taher", and also "b'Mei Nidah";
Had it said only "v'Taher", one might have thought that a Mikveh of any size suffices. "B'Mei Nidah" teaches that 40 Sa'im are needed;
Had it said only "b'Mei Nidah", one might have thought that the Keli may not be used until Ha'arev Shemesh (the night after immersion). "V'Taher" teaches that it is permitted immediately after immersion.
(Rav Nachman): Even new Kelim must be immersed, for after Libun, a used Keli is like new (yet the Torah requires immersion).
Question (Rav Sheshes): If so, even scissors used for cutting wool should require immersion!
Answer (Rav Nachman): The Parshah discusses only Kelim (similar to those used with fire, i.e. Kelim) used for food.
(Rav Nachman): The obligation to immerse is only when one buys from a Nochri, similar to the spoils of Midyan (which were taken to keep), but not if one borrows a Keli.
R. Yitzchak bar Yosef thought to immerse a Keli made of earth (that he bought from a Nochri).
R. Ya'akov: The Parshah discusses only metal Kelim. (Nothing else need be immersed.)
(Rav Ashi): Since glass Kelim can be (melted and) made again if they break, they resemble metal Kelim, and they require immersion.
(Rav Acha or Ravina): The law of an earthenware Keli plated with lead is like the law of the original Keli (earthenware, it need not be immersed);
(The other of Rav Acha and Ravina): It has the law of the plating (metal, it must be immersed).
The Halachah is, it has the law of the plating.
Question: If a Nochri gave a Keli for a security for a loan, is this considered like a sale?
Mar bar Rav Ashi: My father received a silver cup for a security, and he immersed it;
I do not know whether he holds that giving a security is (always) like a sale, or if he immersed it because he sensed that the Nochri would never pay, rather, he would let him keep it.
THE METHOD OF 'KASHERING'
(Beraisa): If a Yisrael buys a new Keli from a Nochri, it suffices to immerse it;
If he buys a used Keli:
If it was used with cold food, such as cups and flasks, he rinses and immerses it;
If it was used with hot liquids, such as pots and kettles, he does Hag'alah and immerses it;
If it is used to cook over a fire without liquid, such as spits and grills, he does Libun and immerses it.
(Beraisa #1): If he used it before immersing (Ramban; Tosfos - before rinsing), Hag'alah or Libun, the food is forbidden;
Contradiction (Beraisa #2): The food is permitted.
Resolution: The first Tana forbids Nosen Ta'am li'Fgam (we assume that it is not a Ben Yomo, i.e. the Nochri did not cook in it in the last 24 hours, so any absorbed taste is detrimental). The second Tana permits it.
Question: According to the opinion that permits Nosen Ta'am li'Fgam, why did the Torah require Kashering the Kelim taken from Midyan?
Answer (Rav Chiya bar Rav Huna): The Torah requires Kashering only a Ben Yomo. It is Nosen Ta'am li'Shvach.