WHO MAY CIRCUMCISE?
Answer #2: Do not switch the opinions. The case is, the Mohel is a professional;
(Rav Dimi): A professional Nochri Mohel may circumcise a Yisrael (he is concerned for his reputation, so he will circumcise properly).
Objection: Does R. Yehudah really permit using a Kusi Mohel?!
(Beraisa - R. Yehudah): A Yisrael may circumcise a Kusi.
A Kusi may not circumcise a Yisrael, for they circumcise for the sake of Har Grizim (their idolatry);
R. Yosi: Circumcision need not be Lishmah (for the sake of the Mitzvah)!
Conclusion: Really, the opinions must be switched;
(This led to a contradiction in R. Yehudah's opinion. To resolve it,) we attribute Beraisa #1 to R. Yehudah ha'Nasi (Rebbi), for another Beraisa explicitly expounds this way in his name.
(Beraisa - Rebbi): Circumcision by a Nochri is invalid - "v'Atah Es Brisi Tishmor."
(Rav Chisda): R. Yehudah learns that circumcision must be Lishmah from "la'Shem Himol";
R. Yosi learns from "Himol Yimol" that circumcision is valid, even if it was not Lishmah.
Question: What does R. Yosi learn from "la'Shem Himol"?
Answer: The verse says "Pesach la'Shem Himol..." He explains that "la'Shem" refers to Korban Pesach, and teaches that it must be offered Lishmah.
Question: What does R. Yehudah learn from "Himol Yimol"?
The Torah speaks the way people speak. (He does not expound the double expression.)
Question: What is the source that circumcision by a Nochri is invalid?
Answer #1 (Daro bar Papa): Hash-m told Avraham "v'Atah Es Brisi Tishmor (v'Zar'echa Acharecha)."
Answer #2 (R. Yochanan): "Himol Yimol" (one who is circumcised may circumcise).
Question: What is the difference between these answers?
Answer #1: They argue about a circumcised Nochri (e.g. Gavnunim, a nation that circumcises. They were not commanded about circumcision).
Rejection (Mishnah): If one vowed 'any benefit I get from uncircumcised people is Konam (forbidden like a Korban)', he may benefit from (even) uncircumcised Yisraelim. He may not benefit from (even) circumcised Nochrim.
We learn that even circumcised Nochrim are considered uncircumcised!
Answer #2: Rather, they argue about a Yisrael whose brothers died through circumcision (he is exempt from circumcision due to the danger, until we determine that it is no longer dangerous);
He is commanded about circumcision, but he is uncircumcised.
Rejection (Mishnah): If one vowed 'any benefit I get from circumcised people is Konam', he may not benefit from (even) uncircumcised Yisraelim, he may benefit from (even) circumcised Nochrim.
We learn that even uncircumcised Yisraelim are considered circumcised!
Answer #3: Rather, they argue about a Yisraelis;
She is not commanded about circumcision, but she is considered circumcised.
Question: Surely a woman may circumcise! "Va'Tikach Tziporah Tzor.."!
Answer #1: We may read it 'va'Tukach' (she told someone else to take the rock and circumcise).
Question: It says "va'Tichros" (feminine)!
Answer: We may read it 'va'Tichras' - she had someone else cut.
Answer #2: She started the circumcision, and Moshe finished it.
BEING HEALED BY NOCHRIM
(Mishnah): One may use a Nochri for monetary cures (this will be explained), but not for cures of Nefashos (lives);
R. Meir says, one may not get a haircut from a Nochri in any place;
Chachamim permit this in a Reshus ha'Rabim, but not in private.
(Gemara) Question: What are monetary cures, and what are cures of Nefashos?
Suggestion: Monetary cures are when the Nochri is paid. Cures of Nefashos are for free.
Rejection: If so, the Mishnah should say 'one may pay a Nochri to cure him, but he may not be cured by a Nochri for free'!
Answer #1: Monetary cures are when there is no danger. Nefashos cures are when there is danger.
Question: Rav Yehudah taught that we may not even use a Nochri to heal the wound after bloodletting (which is not dangerous)!
Answer #2: Monetary cures are of the Yisrael's animal. Nefashos cures are of the Yisrael himself.
According to this, we understand Rav Yehudah's law.
(Rav Chisda): If a Nochri doctor says 'this drug will help you, but this one will harm you', one may rely on him.
The Nochri assumes that the patient will ask others, too. (Since he did not ask the Nochri to heal him, he is testing him.) He does not want to ruin his reputation.
(R. Yochanan): If a sick Yisrael might die, he may not be cured by a Nochri. If he surely will die (if not treated and no Yisrael can treat him), he may be cured by a Nochri.
Question: Perhaps the Nochri will make him die quicker. We should try to preserve the short time he has to live!
Answer: (If we have a chance to save his life) we are not concerned for (risking) the short time he has to live.
Question: What is the source of this?
Answer: "Ba'Ir va'Masnu... Fo va'Masnu... v'Nipelah El Machaneh Aram Im Yichayunu Nichyeh v'Im Yemisunu va'Masnu."
Sincethey would die anyway, they were not concerned for a short time to live.
BEING HEALED BY MINIM
Question (Beraisa): One may not talk at length with Minim, nor be cured by them, even if he has only a short time to live;
Ben Dama, the nephew of R. Yishmael was bitten by a snake. Yakov of Sichniya (a Min) came to cure him. R. Yishmael would not let him.
Ben Dama: A verse proves that it is permitted!
He died before giving his proof.
R. Yishmael: Happy are you! You died in Taharah, and you did not transgress Chachamim's words - "u'Poretz Gader (one who transgresses a Rabbinical decree) Yishechenu Nachash."
Answer: We are more stringent about Minim, lest one be drawn to heresy.
Question: He was going to die from a snakebite anyway. Had the Min cured him, even though he would be bitten by another snake, perhaps he would also be cured from that!
Answer: There is no cure for one bitten for transgressing the words of Chachamim.
Question: What proof did Ben Dama want to bring?
Answer: "Va'Chai Bahem" - one should not die through observing the Mitzvos.
R. Yishmael disagreed, for that does not apply in public.
(Beraisa - R. Yishmael): If one is threatened 'serve idolatry or be killed', he should transgress and live - "va'Chai Bahem", one should not die through observing the Mitzvos;
Suggestion: Perhaps that applies even in public (in front of 10 Yisraelim)!
Rejection: "V'Lo Sechalelu Es Shem Kodshi."