(a)(Gemara) Question: What are Itzterobelin?

(b)Answer #1: They are Turnisa (Rashi - cedar trees; Tosfos - ivy).

(c)Objection (Beraisa): (At first, people did not apply the laws of Shemitah to the following species. Later.) Chachamim taught that Shemitah applies also to Alchsin ((pistacio?) nuts), Itzterobelin, Muchsasin (a type of figs) (and - Tosfos deletes this) Benos Shu'ach;

1.Shemitah does not apply to Turnisa!

2.(Beraisa): Shemitah applies to what has roots (Rashi - that endure the winter; Tosfos - in the ground), but not to anything else.

(d)Answer #2 (Rav Safra): Rather, they are galllnuts.

(e)(Mishnah): Benos Shu'ach.

(f)(Rabah bar bar Chanah): These are (a species of) white figs.

(g)(Mishnah): And Petoteros.

(h)(Rabah bar bar Chanah): This (is not a species by itself. Rather, this) teaches that Itzterobelin and Benos Shu'ach are forbidden only when the stems are attached.

(i)(Mishnah): Frankincense.

(j)(R. Yitzchak): This refers to clear frankincense (a specific kind of frankincense).

(k)(Beraisa): Regarding all of these, one may sell a whole bundle.

1.Question: What is considered a bundle?

2.Answer (R. Yehudah ben Beseira): A bundle is at least three Manos (in weight).

(l)Question: We should be concerned lest the Nochri sell to others, and they will offer it to idolatry!

(m)Answer (Abaye): We are commanded "Lifnei Iver..." (do not cause someone to sin), but not (Rosh - regarding Nochrim) 'Lifnei Lifnei' (do not cause someone to cause someone else to sin).


(a)(Mishnah): White chickens.

(b)(R. Yonah): If a Nochri is crying out 'who has a chicken (to sell)', one may sell him a white chicken;

1.If he asks 'who has a white chicken', it is forbidden.

(c)Question (Mishnah): R. Yehudah permits selling a white chicken among many chickens.

1.Question: What is the case?

i.If the Nochri was asking 'who has a white chicken', it should be forbidden!

2.Answer: Rather, he was asking 'who has a chicken', and R. Yehudah permits selling only a white chicken among other chickens;

i.This implies that the first Tana forbids even selling a white chicken among other chickens!

(d)Answer (Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak): No, he was asking for a white chicken and chickens of other colors (Rashi; Tosfos - he pointed at the chickens he wanted, and one was white).

(e)Support (Beraisa - R. Yehudah): It is forbidden to sell a white chicken if the Nochri specifically requested it;

1.If he wanted two chickens, and one of them was white, it is permitted;

2.Even if wanted only a white chicken, if he was making a banquet for his son or if someone in his family was sick, it is permitted.

3.Question (Mishnah): If he was making a feast in honor of his son's wedding, only that day and that Nochri are forbidden. (On that day, even things that are not special for idolatry are forbidden to sell to him!)

4.Answer (R. Yitzchak bar Rav Mesharshiya): The Beraisa discusses a mere party, but not a wedding feast.

(f)(Mishnah): All other things are permitted if Stam, but forbidden if specified.

(g)Question: What do Stam and 'specified' mean?

(h)Answer #1: Stam is when he asks for white wheat. 'Specified' is when he says 'for idolatry.'


(i)Objection: In both cases, the law is obvious!

(j)Answer #2: Rather, Stam is when he asks for wheat, and specified is when he asks for white wheat.

(k)Inference: Regarding chickens, even Stam (he asked for chickens), one may not give white chickens!

(l)Rejection (and defense of Answer #1): Really, Stam is when he asks for white wheat, and specified is when he says 'for idolatry.' The Chidush is when he specifies;

1.One might have thought that he really doesn't need it for idolatry (since normally it is not offered). The man is an avid idolater. He himself gives a discount to anyone buying for idolatry, and he assumes that everyone does the same. The Mishnah teaches that this is not so.

(m)Question #1 (Rav Ashi): If he asks for a white chicken missing a limb, may we sell him a complete white chicken?

1.Since he asked for a defective chicken, he does not intend for idolatry;

2.Or, perhaps he is scheming to make us think that he does not want it for idolatry!

(n)Question: If you will say that he is scheming, if he asked for a white chicken, but bought black and red chickens (may we then sell a white chicken)?

1.Since we see that he does not want them for idolatry, it is permitted;

2.Or, perhaps he is scheming to make us think this!

(o)This question is not resolved.


(a)(Mishnah): R. Meir forbids selling a good Dekel, Chatzav, and Niklas to a Nochri.

(b)Rav Chisda: Avraham Avinu learned 400 Perakim in tractate Avodah Zarah. We only have five, and we do not understand all of them!

(c)Avimi: What don't you understand?

(d)Rav Chisda: R. Meir forbids selling a good Dekel. This implies that we may sell bad date trees;

1.Contradiction (Mishnah): We may not sell to them anything attached to the ground.

2.Answer (Avimi): 'Good Dekel' refers to the fruits of a good date tree.

(e)(Rav Huna): 'Good Dekel' refers to the fruits of a good date tree. 'Chatzav' is a species of dates (Rashi; Aruch - sugar cane).

(f)(Rav Dimi): 'Niklas' is Koraiti.

(g)Abaye: This does not help me. I didn't know what is Niklas, nor what is Koraiti!

(h)Rav Dimi: When you get to Eretz Yisrael, people can show you Koraiti (but they would not know what is Niklas).


(a)(Mishnah): In a place where the custom is to sell small animals (i.e. that do not work, such as goats and sheep) to Nochrim, we may sell; in a place where the custom is not to sell, it is forbidden.

(b)In all places one may not sell large animals, calves and foals, healthy or lame;

(c)R. Yehudah permits selling a lame animal;

(d)Ben Beseira permits selling a horse.

(e)(Gemara): Inference: Selling small animals depends on the local custom. It is not intrinsically forbidden.

(f)Contradiction (Mishnah): One may not leave an animal with a Nochri innkeeper, for they are suspected of bestiality.

(g)Answer #1 (Rav): In a place where (Nochrim are not suspected, so) selling is permitted, one may also leave animals with them. In a place where (Nochrim are suspected, so) selling is forbidden, it is also forbidden to leave animals with them.