(a)Onkelus bar Kelonimus converted. The Kaiser sent troops to return him. He expounded verses and persuaded them to convert.

1.Kaiser sent more troops; he instructed them not to talk to Onkelus. As they were taking him, he said 'I will just say one thing. A deputy holds a lamp for an official, an official holds for a mayor, a mayor for a governor, and a governor for a king. Does the king hold for anyone?

2.The troops: No.

3.Onkelus: Hash-m held a lamp for Yisrael - "va'Shem Holech... b'Amud Esh Leha'ir Lahem."

4.The troops all converted.

5.Kaiser sent more troops. He instructed them not to talk to Onkelus at all. While they were taking him, he saw a Mezuzah; he put his hand on it and asked them what it is.

6.The troops: You tell us.

7.Onkelus: A mortal king sits inside, and his servants guard him from outside. Hash-m's servants are inside, and He guards them from the outside - "Hash-m Yishmor Tzeisecha u'Vo'echa."

8.The troops converted. Kaiser did not send more troops.

(b)(Rav Yehudah): "Shnei Goyim b'Vitnech" is written "Geiyim" (exalted ones). This alludes to Antoninus and Rebbi (who descend from Esav and Yakov). Lettuce, gourds and radishes were always on their tables, in all seasons.

1.Radishes cut the food (in the stomach, to aid digestion), lettuce turns the food over, and gourds expand the intestines (to help one eat more).

(c)Question: Tana d'Vei R. Yishmael taught that "Kishu'in" (gourds) are Kashe (harsh) to the body like a sword!

(d)Answer: Small gourds are helpful. Large gourds are harmful.


(a)(Mishnah - R. Meir): The day he (the king) was born, the day he (the king's father) died... (Chachamim forbid the day of death only if they burned his Kelim.)

(b)Inference: R. Meir does not distinguish whether or not they burned (his Kelim when he died). He always forbids the day. He holds that burning is not a Nochri statute, and Chachamim hold that it is a Nochri statute!

(c)Question (Beraisa): We burn after a king dies. This is not forbidden due to 'ways of the Emori (Nochrim)';

1.If it were a Nochri statute, this should be forbidden - "uv'Chukoseihem Lo Selechu"! (Presumably, this Beraisa is like the majority opinion, i.e. Chachamim - Ritva.)

(d)Answer: Rather, all agree that it is not a Nochri statute. Rather, it shows honor to the king;

1.R. Meir holds that they serve idolatry whether or not they burned. Chachamim hold that they serve idolatry only if they burned, for then the death is meaningful to them.

(e)(Beraisa): We burn after a king dies. This is not forbidden due to 'ways of the Emori' - "uv'Misrefos Avosecha ha'Melachim...";

1.Just like we burn for a king, also for a Nasi.

2.We burn his bed and the Kelim he used.

3.When Raban Gamliel died, Onkelus burned 70 Manos of (silver coins of) Tzur.

4.Question: We said that we burn (only) his bed and the Kelim he used!

5.Correction: Rather, he burned Kelim worth 70 Manos.

(f)Question: Is it really true that we do not destroy anything else?!

1.(Beraisa): We are Oker (cut animals' legs) when the king dies. This is not forbidden due to 'ways of the Emori.'

(g)Answer (Rav Papa): That refers to the horse he rode on (it is like a Keli he used).

(h)Question: We do this also for Tahor animals (which people do not ride on)!

1.(Beraisa): Ikur that makes an animal Treifah is forbidden. If it does not make it Treifah, it is permitted (Rashi; Tosfos - when Ikur makes the animal a Tereifah, one may not eat it means that but one may benefit from it. When it does not make the animal a Tereifah, one may even eat it. This refers to Kosher animals, for Treifah applies only to Kosher animals.)

2.Ikur does not make an animal Treifah if it is done below the knee.


(i)Answer (Rav Papa): That refers to a calf used to pull a wagon.


(a)(Mishnah): The day he shaves his beard...

(b)Question: Does the Mishnah mean the day that he shaves his beard and (Rashi - the day he) cuts his hair but leaves his Beloris, or the day that he shaves his beard and (Rashi - the day he) cuts his Beloris?

(c)Answer: Both are forbidden.

1.(Beraisa #1): The day he shaves his beard and the day he leaves his Beloris (are forbidden).

2.(Beraisa #2): The day he shaves his beard and the day he cuts his Beloris. (Rashi explains like this. Tosfos says that this is one Beraisa,which forbids the day he shaves his beard and leaves his Beloris, and the day he shaves his beard and cuts his Beloris.)

(d)(Rav Yehudah): Romi has another festival: once in 70 years, they put a healthy man (to represent Esav) on top of a lame man (Yakov); 'Esav' wears the clothes of Adam ha'Rishon, has the skin of R. Yishmael over his face, and the weight of a Zuz of Paz (a very rare type of gold) hanging from his neck;

1.They cover the market with carbuncle, and announce in front of him: the prediction (of the redemption of Yisrael) of the master (Rashi - Yakov; Tosfos - Yitzchak) is false; the brother (Yakov) of our master (is) a swindler; one who missed seeing this will not see it (he is not likely to live another 70 years); the swindler did not gain by his swindle (taking the blessings); woe to this one (Esav), when this one (Yakov) will rise.

2.(Rav Ashi): They inadvertently said the truth!

i.They meant to say 'a swindler is the brother of our master; the way they said implies, the brother of our master, the swindler.

(e)Question: Why did the Mishnah omit this festival?

(f)Answer: It lists only festivals that occur every year.

(g)Question: These are the festivals of Romi. What are the festivals of Peras?

(h)Answer: They are Mutradi, Turski, Muharanki, and Moharin.

1.The festivals of Bavel are Muharanki, Aknisei, Bechanuni, and the 10th of Adar.

(i)(R. Chanan bar Rav Chisda): There are five fixed idolatry houses: Beis Bel in Bavel, Beis Nevo in Kursi, Tarasa in Mefeg, Tzerifa in Ashkelon, and Nashra in Arabia.

(j)(Rav Dimi): Also Yarid in Ein Bechi and Nidvacha (some say Nisrava) in Ako.

(k)Question (R. Chanan bar Rav Chisda): What is the significance of saying that they are fixed?

(l)Answer (Rav Chisda): People sacrifice to them every day of the year.

(m)(Shmuel): In Chutz la'Aretz, only the day of the festival is forbidden (but not three days before it).

(n)Question: Even the day of the festival is permitted!

1.On the merchants' festival, Rav Yehudah allowed Rav Berona to sell wine and Rav Gidal to sell wheat.

(o)Answer: The merchants' festival is different, for it is not a fixed annual festival.


(a)(Mishnah): When a city celebrates a festival, one may do business outside the city;

1.When the outskirts celebrate a festival, one may do business with the city.

(b)One may travel to the city only if the road also leads to another city (if not, people will suspect that he is going to sacrifice with them).

(c)(Gemara) Version #1 - Question: What is considered outside the city?

(d)Answer (Reish Lakish): Even the market of Azah is considered outside Azah (even though it is very close).