1) THE "SONG OF THE DAY" ON SPECIAL DAYS
QUESTION: The Beraisa discusses the various Shirim that are recited on the different days of Chol ha'Mo'ed Sukos. RASHI writes that the Beraisa refers to the Shir that is recited at the time the Korban Musaf is offered (as opposed to the Shir at the time the Korban Tamid is offered).
Rashi explains that the Beraisa cannot refer to the Shir of the Korban Tamid, because if the Beraisa refers to that Shir, then the Gemara has no proof from the Beraisa that on Shabbos Chol ha'Mo'ed only one Shir is recited during Musaf: when the Beraisa says that on Shabbos Chol ha'Mo'ed only one Shir is recited, it refers only to the Shir of the Tamid, but at the time of the Musaf two Shirim are sung. It must be that the Beraisa refers to the Shir of the Korban Musaf, and it teaches that only one Shir is sung for the two Musafim.
How, though, does the Gemara know that the Beraisa refers to the Shir of the Korban Musaf? It seems that the Gemara takes for granted that there is no special Shir for the Tamid on Chol ha'Mo'ed. The only unique Shir on Chol ha'Mo'ed is the one recited at the time of the Korban Musaf.
However, this contradicts the Gemara in Rosh Hashanah (30b and 31a). The Gemara there states that it happened once, at the end of the month of Elul, that witnesses who came to testify about the sighting of the new moon arrived late in the day, after the afternoon Tamid had been offered. The Leviyim, unaware that the day was going to be declared Rosh Hashanah, mistakenly sang the weekday Shir at the time of the Tamid and not the special Shir for Rosh Hashanah which they were supposed to sing. The Gemara there then lists the unique Shirim of Rosh Hashanah and of Shabbos which are recited with "each of the three Korbanos" -- the two Temidim and the Musaf!
The Gemara there clearly says that the Shir of the Korban Tamid on the festival differs from the Shir on a weekday. How is the Gemara there to be reconciled with the Gemara here which implies that the Shir of the Korban Tamid does not change on the festival? (MINCHAS CHINUCH #312)
(a) The MINCHAS CHINUCH explains that the Shir of the Korban Tamid differs only on a day that is sanctified and on which Melachah is forbidden, such as Rosh Hashanah, Shabbos, and Yom Tov. In contrast, on Chol ha'Mo'ed and Rosh Chodesh, days on which Melachah is permitted, the normal Shir of the Tamid is recited. Since the Beraisa here refers only to Chol ha'Mo'ed, the special Shir that it discusses must be the Shir of the Korban Musaf.
The TUREI EVEN (Rosh Hashanah 30b) seems to follow the same logic as the Minchas Chinuch, because he says that on Rosh Chodesh there is no special Shir for the Korban Tamid.
(b) The Minchas Chinuch cites the RAMA MI'PANO (in Asarah Ma'amaros, Ma'amar "Em Kol Chai" 2:19), who says that the Shir of the Tamid differs only on Rosh Chodesh and Rosh Hashanah. He gives the same reason that the Gemara (54b) gives to explain why the Shir of the Korban Musaf of Rosh Chodesh that occurs on Shabbos takes precedence over the Shir of the Musaf of Shabbos: it is to publicly affirm that Beis Din is correct in their determination of the date of Rosh Chodesh. Similarly, on Rosh Chodesh the Shir of the Tamid is changed to show the people that the Beis Din is correct in their declaration of the day as Rosh Chodesh. On Rosh Hashanah, too, the Rabanan enacted that a special Shir be recited at the time of the Tamid in order to publicize that Beis Din is correct in their establishment of the new month.
(This might be the intention of the RE'AH in Beitzah (4b) and the RAMBAM (Hilchos Kidush ha'Chodesh 3:5) as well. They write that the same mishap that occurred on Rosh Hashanah (when the witnesses came late in the afternoon of Rosh Hashanah and the Leviyim sang the wrong Shir for the afternoon Tamid) could occur on any Rosh Chodesh, "since every Rosh Chodesh has not only a Korban Musaf, but a special Shir [for the afternoon Tamid].")
(c) RAV YOSEF SHALOM ELYASHIV shlit'a (quoted in He'oros b'Maseches Sukah) suggests that Rosh Hashanah is unique among all the festivals. The Rabanan instituted that a special Shir be recited on Rosh Hashanah at the time the Korban Tamid is offered due to the day's special status as the Day of Judgment. That Shir (Tehilim 29), which mentions Matan Torah, was instituted "in order to mention the merit of the Shofar blasts of Matan Torah" (Rashi to Rosh Hashanah 30b, DH Kol). The Rabanan did not establish a special Shir for the Korban Tamid of any other festivals.
Although Shabbos also has a special Shir for the afternoon Tamid (as the Gemara says in Rosh Hashanah 30a), that Shir is recited because Shabbos is separate from the other days of the week, and thus it deserves its own Shirim for both the morning Tamid and the afternoon Tamid.
It is interesting to note that the TUR (OC 133) and ORCHOS CHAYIM (cited by the BEIS YOSEF OC 133) write that we do not recite the daily Shir Shel Yom after Minchah, because no Shir was recited at the time of the afternoon Tamid. Support for their words is found in the HAGAHAOS MAIMONIYOS (Hilchos Tefilah 3:5). He proves that the Shir said with the Korban Tamid was said only during the day and not at night from the fact that "no Shir was said after the afternoon Tamid, even though some time remained before nightfall." (No Shir was said at that time presumably because it was so close to nightfall.)
Their view is clearly contradicted by the Gemara in Rosh Hashanah cited above, which states that a Shir is recited for the afternoon Tamid. The RAMBAM (Hilchos Temidim u'Musafim 6:9, 11) also writes that the procedure done for the afternoon Tamid is the same as the procedure done for the morning Tamid, which implies that the same Shir is recited for the afternoon Tamid. (The SEDER OLAM (ch. 14) also mentions which Shir was recited in the morning and which Shir in the afternoon during the period in which the Aron ha'Kodesh was in Ir David, before the Beis ha'Mikdash was built.)
The MAGEN AVRAHAM (OC 132:4) cites the ALSHICH who explains that the Tur agrees that a Shir is recited in the afternoon. When the Tur says that there is no Shir, he means that the Shir is not "Me'akev" -- the service is valid even without the Shir. The PRI MEGADIM challenges this answer. There is no basis to suggest that the morning Tamid would be invalid without the Shir, such that the Tur would need to teach that the afternoon service would be valid without the Shir.
The PERISHAH (133:9) suggests that perhaps the Tur understands that the Shir of the afternoon Tamid was entirely voluntary. However, the Gemara in Rosh Hashanah seems to refute this suggestion as well, because the Gemara says that it would have been improper (a "Kilkul") to offer the afternoon Tamid without singing any Shir.
The Magen Avraham himself suggests that the Tur means only that at times no Shir was said with the afternoon Tamid, such as when the Nesachim were offered after nightfall (the Shir is said when the Nesachim are offered, but the Shir may not be said at night), as TOSFOS in Rosh Hashanah (30b, DH v'Niskalkelu) writes.
2) AGADAH: SEVENTY COWS, SEVENTY NATIONS, AND ONE GOAT
The Mishnah discusses the number of Parim (cows) that were brought as a Korban Olah each day of Sukos. The VILNA GA'ON (Kol Eliyahu #100) points out that the difference in the number of Parim brought each day sheds light on a discrepancy in the verses in the Torah (Bamidbar 29:16-34) that describe the Se'ir (goat) that was brought as a Korban Chatas each day of Sukos.
The verses which refer to days one, two, and four of Sukos describe the goat as a "Se'ir Izim." In contrast, the verses which refer to days three, five, six, and seven refer to the goat merely as a "Se'ir." What is the reason for this strange difference?
The Zohar (Tikunei Zohar) teaches that the seventy nations of the world are under the authority of either Yishmael or Esav. There are 35 nations under the authority of Yishmael, and 35 nations under Esav. (See Insights to Avodah Zarah 2:4
, Sotah 13:1:c.)
In addition, the Zohar teaches that the term "Se'ir Izim" alludes to Yishmael, who was "Az" (brazen), and the word "Se'ir" alone alludes to Esav, who was an "Ish Sa'ir" (Bereishis 27:11). (Reference is also made in the Selichos of the Seventeenth of Tamuz to the "Tzefir" -- which is always used by the verse with the modifying word "Izim," as in "Tzefir Izim" -- and to the "Se'ir," which refer to Yishmael and Esav, respectively.)
The Korbanos of Sukos atone for the seventy nations, 35 of which are under the dominion of Yishmael and 35 of which are under the dominion of Esav. The Korbanos of the first day are brought for the nations under the dominion of Yishmael, who was the older of the two. On the first and second days, when the cows that are offered atone for the nations under Yishmael's dominion, the Chatas-offering is also brought for those nations. Since the Chatas-offering of the first two days are brought for the nations under Yishmael, the verse which describes that offering calls it "Se'ir Izim," an allusion to Yishmael.
In contrast, the verse that describes the offerings of the third day does not say "Se'ir Izim." This is because that day's offerings are not brought for the nations under Yishmael (because if they were, there would be too many offerings for Yishmael's nations -- 13 are brought on the first day, 12 on the second day, and 11 on the third day, for a total of 36). The rest of the Korbanos for the nations under Yishmael are brought on the fourth day, when 10 Parim are offered, which brings the total number to 35 Parim for the 35 nations (13 on the first day, 12 on the second day, and 10 on the fourth day).
The Korbanos of the other days -- the third, fifth, sixth, and seventh -- total 35 Parim (11, 9, 8, 7), which correspond to the 35 nations under Esav's dominion. For that reason, the verses which describe the Korbanos of those days say only "Se'ir," an allusion to Esav.
3) ONE WHO EATS THE KORBAN HA'OMER
QUESTION: The Mishnah lists the Korbanos of the festival which are shared by the Kohanim of all of the Mishmaros, as well as the Korbanos which are offered and eaten only by the Mishmar of that week. The general rule is that any Korban which is offered because of the festival is shared by all of the Mishmaros, and any Korban which is not related to the festival is offered (and eaten) by the Kohanim of the Mishmar of that week. The only exception is the Lechem ha'Panim, which is not related to the festival but nevertheless is eaten by the Kohanim of all of the Mishmaros, as derived from a verse (56a).
The Mishnah mentions an example of a situation in which two different flour-offerings are divided among all of the Kohanim during the festival. When Shavuos occurs on Shabbos, the Shtei ha'Lechem (of Shavuos) and the Lechem ha'Panim (of Shabbos) are distributed among all of the Mishmaros. When the loaves are given out, each Kohen is told that he is being given a portion of the Shtei ha'Lechem (Chametz) and a portion of the Lechem ha'Panim (Matzah), in order to make it clear that no Korban is being allocated in place of another Korban.
Why does the Mishnah choose the Shtei ha'Lechem as an example of a second type of flour-offering that is distributed to all of the Kohanim? It should choose instead the Korban ha'Omer as an example, in a case in which the sixteenth of Nisan occurs on Shabbos, because the Korban ha'Omer is brought fifty days before the Shtei ha'Lechem. The Korban ha'Omer consists of barley flour, and the Lechem ha'Panim consists of wheat flour. The two must be distributed equally, and one may not take the place of the other, and thus the recipient must be informed that he is being given "your barley portion (the Korban ha'Omer) and your wheat portion (the Lechem ha'Panim)."
In addition, the RAMBAM (Hilchos Klei ha'Mikdash 4:5) lists all of the items that are distributed among all of the Kohanim on the festival, but he makes no mention of the Korban ha'Omer. The MISHNEH L'MELECH asks why the Rambam omits the Korban ha'Omer, and he leaves this question unanswered.
(a) The ARUCH LA'NER suggests that the verse cited by the Gemara (55b) teaches that the only Korbanos divided among all of the Mishmaros are the Korbanos that are brought primarily on the first day of the festival (even though they may be brought during the other days if they were not brought on the first day). This is derived from the Derashah that teaches that all of the Kohanim share the Korbanos "when all of Yisrael enter through one gate [in order to be together in one city, Yerushalayim]," and the only time that the people enter the city is on the first day of Yom Tov. In contrast, the primary day for the Korban ha'Omer is the second day of the festival. The Korbanos which are distributed to all of the Mishmaros are those for which one must come to Yerushalayim. One does not need to come to Yerushalayim for the Korban ha'Omer. In fact, the Torah permits one to return home on the morning of the first day of Chol ha'Mo'ed before the Omer is offered (Rosh Hashanah 5a).
(Based on this approach, the Aruch la'Ner suggests that perhaps the portions of the Chazeh and Shok (the parts of a Korban Shelamim that are given to a Kohen for his personal consumption) of the Korbenos Shalmei Simchah offered on the other days of the festival are not distributed to all of the Mishmaros, because people are not required to stay in Yerushalayim until the end of the festival. Although each day's Korban Musaf is divided among all of the Mishmaros, the Aruch la'Ner contends that the Musaf is different, because "Hukshu Kol ha'Musafim Zeh l'Zeh.")
(b) RAV MORDECHAI RABIN (of Yerushalayim, formerly of London) explains that the Korban ha'Omer differs from the other Korbanos distributed on the festival. The Korban ha'Omer is not offered because of the festival of Pesach. It is offered because of the day of the sixteenth of Nisan. Although that day happens to be the second day of Pesach, the Korban itself is unrelated to Pesach. Since the Korban ha'Omer is not offered because of the festival per se, it is given only to the Mishmar of that week. That is why the Mishnah does not mention it among the Korbanos which are divided among all of the Kohanim.
In contrast, the Shtei ha'Lechem, and all of the other Korbanos listed in the Mishnah, are offered specifically because of the Yom Tov. (Even though the Torah says that the Shtei ha'Lechem is offered on the fiftieth day after the Omer, which implies that it is not offered because of Shavuos but because of the fiftieth day after the sixteenth of Nisan, nevertheless the fact that the Torah itself defines Shavuos as the fiftieth day after the Omer shows that the Shtei ha'Lechem is considered a Korban offered because of the festival.)
This approach was actually suggested by RAV YECHEZKEL ABRAMSKY zt'l (in CHAZON YECHEZKEL, Chidushim on Shabbos 134), who points out that when the Torah (in Parshas Pinchas) discusses the Korbenos Musaf of the various festivals, it mentions the Shtei ha'Lechem as well, but it makes no mention of the Korban ha'Omer. (In fact, the Torah even calls Shavuos, "Yom ha'Bikurim," because of the Shtei ha'Lechem, which is offered from the first harvest of the wheat crop on that day.) This demonstrates that the Shtei ha'Lechem is a Korban of the festival, while the Korban ha'Omer is not.