SHEVUOS 46 - Two weeks of study material have been dedicated by Mrs. Estanne Abraham Fawer to honor the Yahrzeit of her father, Rav Mordechai ben Eliezer Zvi (Rabbi Morton Weiner) Z'L, who passed away on 18 Teves 5760. May the merit of supporting and advancing Dafyomi study -- which was so important to him -- during the weeks of his Yahrzeit serve as an Iluy for his Neshamah.

[46a - 46 lines; 46b - 39 lines]

1)[line 3]שלחו ליה מבי רב לשמואלSHALCHU LEI MI'BEI RAV L'SHMUEL- they sent to him, from the house of Rav, [the following question] to Shmuel

2)[line 6]קציצה ודאי מידכר דכיריKETZIZAH VADAI MIDKAR DECHIREI- people certainly remember the agreed-upon wages

3)[line 8]המוציא מחבירו עליו הראיהHA'MOTZI ME'CHAVEIRO ALAV HA'RE'AYAH

The general rule in monetary claims is that the burden of proof rests with the one who wishes to extract payment or other items of value from the other person. Hence, when ownership is in doubt, all money or real estate remains with the one who has possession.

4)[line 9]פקעPAKA- [if he does not bring a proof, then] he has no claim

5)[line 10]לצדדין קתניLI'TZEDADIN KETANI- the two statements are dealing with different cases. In order to resolve a difficulty, the statement of a Tana may be interpreted as refering partially to one case and partially to another. The Gemara here interprets the Beraisa to mean that if the worker can bring proof, then he collects, and if he cannot bring proof, then the owner swears and the worker loses.

6)[line 19]נוטהNOTEH- leans

7)[line 20]אחמורי קא מחמירACHMURI KA MACHMIR- Rebbi Yehudah is stringent [because he allows the worker to collect only when the employer partially admits]

8)[line 39]ותקנתא לתקנתא לא עבדינןV'TAKANTA L'TAKANTA LO AVDINAN- lit. and an enactment for an enactment we do not make. Rebbi Yehudah maintains that when there is a Torah obligation to swear, the Chachamim enacted that the worker swears and collects. If the employer does not need to swear mid'Oraisa but only mid'Rabanan, the Chachamim did not make a second enactment for the worker.

9)[line 42]מאן דנקיט נרגא בידיהMAN D'NAKIT NARGA B'YADEI- one who takes an ax in his hand

10)[line 42]איזיל ואקטליה לדקלא דפלניאEIZIL V'IKTELEI L'DEKALA D'PLANYA- "I will go and cut down Ploni's date-palm tree"

11)[line 44]דגזיםD'GAZIM- that he made a mere overstatement, a figure of speech that need not be taken literally

12)[line 45]כלים הניטלין תחת כנפיוKELIM HA'NITALIN TACHAS KENAFAV- vessels hidden under his garment


13)[line 5]להטמיןLE'HATMIN- to hide

14)[line 7]איניש דלא צניעINISH D'LO TZENI'A- a person who is not modest

15)[line 8]היינו אורחיהHAINU ORCHEI- this is his manner (that is, it is common for a modest person to hide things under his clothes, even if other people would carry such things openly)

16)[line 9]שאוליןSHE'ULIN- they are borrowed

17)[line 10]לא מחזקינן לאו כל כמיניה לאחזוקי איניש בגנביLAV KOL KEMINEI; LA'ACHZUKEI INISH B'GANVI LO MECHAZKINAN- he is not believed; we do not make such a presumption to assume that a person is a thief

18)[line 16]זוגא דסרבלאZUGA D'SARBELA- scissors (used by people who comb garments)

19)[line 16]וספרא דאגדתאV'SAFRA D'AGADETA- and a book of Agadah (homiletic, non-Halachic parts of Torah)

20a)[line 19]שכירוSECHIRO- his hired laborer

b)[line 19]ולקיטוV'LEKITO- and his hired household helper (Rashi in Bava Kama 104a, in the name of his teacher); (b) a hired laborer at reaping and harvesting time (Rashi in Eruvin 64a and Kesuvos 57b)

21)[line 21]בכסא דכספאB'KASA D'KASPA- with a silver cup

22)[line 21]איניש דאמידINISH D'AMID- [we assess if] he is a person who has enough money [to own a silver cup]

23)[line 27]נתחכךNIS'CHAKACH- he scratched himself

24)[line 28]נשיכה בגבוNESHICHAH B'GABO- a bite on his back

25)[line 28]אציליה ידיוATZILEI YADAV- his elbows

26)[line 34]שבועת ביטויSHEVU'AS BITUY- See Background to 2:1.