[2a - 20 lines; 2b - 40 lines]

1)[line 1]שבועותSHEVU'OS (SHEVU'OS / SHEVU'AS BITUY)

(a)A person can take an oath, or a "Shevu'as Bituy," by swearing to do something or not to do something or by swearing that he did or did not do something in the past. If he does not keep his word, or if his oath regarding an action of the past is false, he transgresses the Torah's prohibition not to swear falsely (Vayikra 19:12 - RAMBAM Hilchos Shevu'os 1:3). If his oath was made regarding an action that he will or will not do in the future, he transgresses the Torah's prohibition not to violate one's word as well (Bamidbar 30:3, see Background to Nedarim 2:1a:a - KESEF MISHNEH to the Rambam ibid.). It is prohibited to take an unnecessary or ridiculous oath. Such a Shevu'ah is known as a "Shevu'as Shav," which the Torah prohibits in the Ten Commandments, Shemos 20:7. (See Rambam, Hilchos Shevu'os 1:4, for a description of the various categories of Shevu'as Shav and Background to Sanhedrin 27:14.)

(b)Shevu'os in which a person prohibits certain acts upon himself are similar to Nedarim (vows). However, as opposed to Nidrei Isur and Charamim, in which a person places a prohibition on a specific object (e.g. "this bread is prohibited"), when making Shevu'os a person places a prohibition upon himself which prohibits him from performing a certain action (e.g. "I am prohibited to eat this bread"), as the Gemara states in Nedarim 2b (see Background to Nedarim 2:1a:b, and Insights to Nedarim 2:3).

(c)Some Rishonim maintain that when expressing a Shevu'ah, one must mention a name of or a reference to Hash-m in order for the Shevu'ah to take effect (see RAN and Rishonim to Nedarim 2a).

(d)If one unintentionally transgresses his oath (Shevu'as Bituy), he is required to bring a Korban Shevu'ah. The Korban Shevu'ah is a Korban Oleh v'Yored, which varies based on the means of the penitent. If he is wealthy, he brings a female sheep or goat as a Chatas (Korban Ashir). If he cannot afford this, he brings two Torim (turtledoves) or two Benei Yonah common doves), one as an Olah and one as a Chatas (Korban Oleh v'Yored b'Dalus). If he cannot even afford the birds, he brings one tenth of an Eifah of fine flour as a Minchas Chatas (Korban Oleh v'Yored b'Dalei Dalus) (Vayikra 5:6-13). The Minchas Chatas is not mixed with oil, and Levonah (frankincense) is not sprinkled on top of it (Vayikra 5:11). When a non-Kohen brings a Minchas Chatas, a Kometz of the flour alone is burned on the Mizbe'ach and the Kohanim receive the Shirayim (the rest of the flour, which they must eat before the following sunrise - RAMBAM Hilchos Ma'aseh ha'Korbanos 10:7).

(e)If a person takes an oath prohibiting himself to do a certain act and he knowingly transgresses his oath, or if he knowingly takes a false oath that he did or did not do a certain act, he is punished with Malkus. However, if he swears to do something and does not do it, he does not get Malkus, since no action is involved (RAMBAM Hilchos Shevu'os 4:20). If one unintentionally makes a Shevu'as Shav, he is not punished. If he intentionally makes such a Shevu'ah, he is punished with Malkus (RAMBAM Hilchos Shevu'os 1:7).

(f)Using the example of eating a loaf of bread to illustrate the phrase "Shtayim she'Hen Arba" - "two that are four," the wording of the Shevu'os is, "I swear that: 1. I shall eat this loaf of bread"; 2. I shall not eat it"; 3. I ate it"; 4. I did not eat it." (RASHI)

2)[line 2]ידיעות הטומאהYEDI'OS HA'TUM'AH

(a)It is forbidden for a person to enter the Mikdash (see Background to Makos 12:33 for a discussion of the boundaries of the various areas in the Mikdash) if he touched an Av ha'Tumah (Bamidbar 5:2). Regarding a person who becomes Tamei the verse states, "b'Chol Kodesh Lo Siga," - "...she (a woman after childbirth) shall touch no consecrated thing" (Vayikra 12:4), from which the Gemara learns (Yevamos 75a, Makos 14b) that it is forbidden for a person who is Tamei to eat Kodshim. If a person who is Tamei eats the blood of Kodshim, he does not transgress this prohibition. (This is not to be confused with Tum'as Basar (see below, entry #14), which is also called "Tamei." Tum'as Basar means that the Kodshim, as opposed to the person eating it or offering it, became Tamei.)

(b)One who transgresses these prohibitions b'Shogeg (unintentionally) becomes obligated to bring a Korban Oleh v'Yored (see previous entry, (d)). If he transgresses them b'Meizid (intentionally) and witnesses saw him and he was warned (Hasra'ah) not to transgress, he is punished with Malkus (lashes). If he was not warned, the punishment for transgressing this Lav b'Mezid is Kares (Vayikra 12:4, 22:3-4, Bamidbar 5:3, 19:20) (SEFER HA'CHINUCH Mitzvah #167).

(c)In order to transgress these prohibitions, the sinner has to have known that he was Tamei before and after the transgression ("Yedi'os"), but had forgotten at the time he transgressed.

(d)The cases that illustrate the phrase "Shtayim she'Hen Arba" - "two that are four" are: 1. the person forgot that he was Tamei when he ate Kodshim; 2. the person forgot that he was Tamei when he went into the Azarah (courtyard) surrounding the Beis ha'Mikdash; 3. the person knew that he was Tamei, but forgot that what he was eating was Kodshim; 4. the person knew that he was Tamei, but forgot that he was in a place that had the sanctity of the Azarah (RASHI).

3)[line 3]יציאות השבתYETZI'OS HA'SHABBOS (SHABBOS: HOTZA'AH)

(a)HOTZA'AH - Hotza'ah is the general term for the last of the thirty-nine Avos Melachos of Shabbos. It involves either: 1. Hotza'ah, transferring objects from a Reshus ha'Yachid (private domain) to a Reshus ha'Rabim (public domain); 2. Hachnasah, transferring objects from a Reshus ha'Rabim to a Reshus ha'Yachid; 3. Ma'avir Arba Amos b'Reshus ha'Rabim, carrying an object from one place in Reshus ha'Rabim to another over a distance of at least four Amos; 4. Moshit, passing an object from one Reshus ha'Yachid to another through Reshus ha'Rabim (as described in the Mishnah in Shabbos 96a, see Background to Shabbos 96:3). These are all biblical prohibitions. (The Tana of our Mishnah uses the term "Yetzi'os" for both Hotza'os and Hachnasos.)

(b)AKIRAH & HANACHAH - In order to transgress the biblical prohibition of Hotza'ah, certain conditions must be met. The sinner must perform both an Akirah (initiation of movement) and a Hanachah (setting down the object to rest). If one person does the Akirah and another does the Hanachah, only a Rabbinic prohibition is involved, as the Gemara states in Shabbos 3a.

(c)Using the example of a poor person with a basket asking a homeowner to give him a loaf of bread to illustrate the phrase "Shtayim she'Hen Arba" - "two that are four," the cases are: 1. The poor person performs an Akirah on the loaf of bread from inside the house and is Meni'ach it in his basket that is at rest outside; 2. The homeowner performs an Akirah on the loaf of bread from inside his house and is Meni'ach it in the poor person's basket that is at rest outside; 3. The homeowner performs an Akirah on the poor person's basket that is outside of his house and is Meni'ach it in his house; 4. The poor person performs an Akirah on his basket that is outside of his house and is Meni'ach it in the house (RASHI).

4)[line 4]מראות נגעיםMAR'OS NEGA'IM (NIG'EI VASAR)

(a)When a Jew develops a mark on his body the size of a Gris (a Cilician bean, approximately the size of a dime) that looks like the skin disease of Tzara'as, a Kohen must be summoned to ascertain whether or not it is a Nega Tzara'as. (Depending on the type of mark, this is determined by different factors - see below, (b).) The Kohen inspects the mark during the day, but not in bright sunshine and not under conditions that obstruct the sunlight, such as a cloudy day or a darkened room. If it is indeed a Nega Tzara'as, the Kohen pronounces him Tamei, initiating a one or two-week period of quarantine or "Hesger" (depending on the type of blemish). During this period, he is known as a Metzora Musgar. If no "Simanei Tum'ah" (signs of Tum'ah - see Background to Bava Metzia 86:29) appear in the mark during that time, the Kohen pronounces the Metzora Musgar to have become Tahor. If Simanei Tum'ah do appear in the mark at the end of the first or second week of Hesger - or even when the Kohen first sees the Nega or after the Metzora has become Tahor - the Kohen pronounces him a Metzora Muchlat. A Metzora Muchlat remains Tamei until his Simanei Tum'ah go away, after which the Kohen pronounces him to have become Tahor.

(b)There are four types of blemishes that constitute Neg'ei Tzara'as (blemishes or marks of the skin disease Tzara'as) that affect a Jewish person: Nig'ei Basar; Shechin or Michvah; Nesek; Karachas or Gabachas. (For a detailed description of the Halachos of a Metzora, a person afflicted with Tzara'as, see Bava Metzia 86:29. For a full discussion of the process by which a Metzora becomes Tahor, see Background to Kidushin 35:24.)

(c)The phrase "Shenayim she'Hen Arba'ah" - "two that are four," refers to the four marks that make a person a Metzora through Nig'ei Basar, Shechin or Michvah and Karachas or Gabachas. They are: 1. Baheres, which is the color of snow; 2. Se'es, which is the color of clean, white newborn lamb's wool; 3. Sapachas of Baheres, which is the color of the plaster used to whitewash the Beis ha'Mikdash; 4. Sapachas of Se'es, which is the color of the white membrane found on the inside of an eggshell (RASHI).

5a)[line 5]ידיעהYEDI'AH- knowledge [of whether the person himself was Tamei or that he was eating Kodshim or that he was in the Azarah of the Bis ha'Mikdash]

b)[line 5]העלםHE'ELEM- a period of forgetfulness

6)[line 6]בעולה ויורדOLEH V'YORED

(a)A person brings a Korban Oleh v'Yored in three specific cases: Shevu'as ha'Edus (see Background to Bava Kama 105:29), Tum'as Mikdash v'Kodashav (see above, entry #2) and Shevu'as Bituy (see above, entry #1) (Vayikra 5:1-4).

(b)The Korban Oleh v'Yored is discussed above, in entry #1:d.

7)[line 7]שעיר הנעשה בפניםSA'IR HA'NA'ASAH BIFNIM - (lit. the goat that is done inside [of the Kodshei ha'Kodashim])

(a)On Yom ha'Kipurim, a Goral (lot) is performed by the Kohen Gadol to choose between two identical goats (Vayikra 16:7-10). One (the Sa'ir la'Sh-m) is offered as a Korban Chatas ha'Nisraf and its blood is sprinkled in the Kodesh ha'Kodashim (Vayikra 16:15); the other (the Sa'ir la'Azazel) is dispatched (Mishtale'ach) to Azazel (a hard rocky cliff), from which it is pushed off to its death (Vayikra 16:21-22).

(b)The blood of the Sa'ir la'Sh-m is also sprinkled on the Paroches and on the Mizbach ha'Ketores (Vayikra 16:16, 18-19). Its flesh is entirely burned in the place outside of the city where the ashes from the Mizbe'ach are deposited (Vayikra 16:27).

(c)Our Mishnah states that the Sa'ir la'Sh-m works along with the actual day of Yom ha'Kipurim to Toleh (hold back) the impending punishment of a person who sinned with Tum'as Mikdash v'Kodashav (see above, entry #2), when he initially knew about his Tum'ah (or the Kodshim or Mikdash) and subsequently forgot about it. (When he does find out about it, he brings a Korban Oleh v'Yored, as above.) In addition, it works along with the actual day of Yom ha'Kipurim to provide atonement for people who sin b'Mezid (intentionally) with Tum'as Mikdash v'Kodashav (Daf 2b).

8)[line 11]יום הכיפוריםYOM HA'KIPURIM- that is, the actual day of Yom ha'Kipurim provides the Teliyah, along with the Sa'ir ha'Na'aseh Bifnim

9)[line 8]עד שיודע לוAD SHE'YIVADA LO- until it becomes known to him

10)[line 11]שעיר הנעשה בחוץSA'IR HA'NA'ASAH BA'CHUTZ - (lit. the goat that is done outside [of the Beis ha'Mikdash])

(a)In Parshas Pinchas (Bamidbar 29:7-11), the Torah writes that the Korban Musaf of Yom ha'Kipurim consists of one bullock, one ram and seven sheep as an Olah and one goat as a Chatas.

(b)The goat (as well as the other Olah animals) is offered on the Mizbach ha'Chitzon (the outer Mizbe'ach) like other Chata'os Chitzonos (see Background to Sotah 32:25). The meat of the sacrifice is eaten by the Kohanim on the night after Yom ha'Kipurim (Mishnah Menachos 99b).

(c)Our Mishnah states that the Sa'ir ha'Na'aseh ba'Chutz works along with the actual day of Yom ha'Kipurim to provide atonement for a person who sinned with Tum'as Mikdash v'Kodashav (see above, entry #2), when he did not know initially about his Tum'ah (or the Kodshim or Mikdash) when he sinned. Only after he ate the Kodshim or entered the Mikdash while he was Tamei did he find out about his status of Tum'ah.

11)[line 12]מלבד חטאת הכפורים"MI'LEVAD CHATAS HA'KIPURIM"- "besides the [Korban] Chatas of the atonements" (Bamidbar 29:11)

12)[line 17]שעירי רגליםSE'IREI REGALIM

(a)A Sa'ir (male goat) is offered as a Korban Chatas on the festivals among the Korbenos Musaf that the Torah requires (Bamidbar 28:16-29:38). As with all Korbenos Chatas, it is Kodshei ha'Kodashim, and is eaten by male Kohanim on the day that it is slaughtered and the following night. This Korban is brought even on Shabbos.

(b)When offered on Shabbos, the Sa'ir may not be cooked until nightfall. Kohanim that choose to eat it raw before that time may do so (as in the Mishnah Menachos 99b).

(c)Our Mishnah states that there is an argument among the Tana'aim with regard to the atonement that these Korbanos provide:

1.According to Rebbi Yehudah and Rebbi Shimon, they provide atonement for a person who sinned with Tum'as Mikdash v'Kodashav (see above, entry #2), when he did not know initially about his Tum'ah (or the Kodshim or Mikdash) when he sinned, and he did not find out about it afterwards.

2.According to Rebbi Meir, they provide atonement for a person who sinned with Tum'as Mikdash v'Kodashav, when he did not know initially about his Tum'ah (or the Kodshim or Mikdash) when he sinned. Only after he ate the Kodshim or entered the Mikdash while he was Tamei did he find out about his status of Tum'ah. In addition, they provide atonement for a person who sinned with Tum'as Mikdash v'Kodashav, when he did not know initially about his Tum'ah (or the Kodshim or Mikdash) when he sinned, and he did not find out about it afterwards. Furthermore, they provide atonement for a person who was Tahor who ate Kodshim that were Temei'im (see below, entry #14).

3.According to Rebbi Shimon ben Yehudah in the name of Rebbi Shimon, they provide atonement for a person who sinned with Tum'as Mikdash v'Kodashav, when he did not know initially about his Tum'ah (or the Kodshim or Mikdash) when he sinned, and he did not find out about it afterwards. Furthermore, they provide atonement for a person who was Tahor who ate Kodshim that were Temei'im.

13)[line 17]שעירי ראשי חדשיםSE'IREI ROSHEI CHODASHIM

(a)A Sa'ir (male goat) is offered as a Korban Chatas on Rosh Chodesh among the Korbenos Musaf that the Torah requires (Bamidbar 28:11-15). As with all Korbenos Chatas, it is Kodshei ha'Kodashim, and is eaten by male Kohanim on the day that it is slaughtered and the following night. This Korban is brought even on Shabbos.

(b)When offered on Shabbos, the Sa'ir may not be cooked until nightfall. Kohanim that choose to eat it raw before that time may do so (as in the Mishnah Menachos 99b).

(c)Our Mishnah states that there is an argument among the Tana'aim with regard to the atonement that these Korbanos provide:

1.According to Rebbi Yehudah, they provide atonement for a person who sinned with Tum'as Mikdash v'Kodashav (see above, entry #2), when he did not know initially about his Tum'ah (or the Kodshim or Mikdash) when he sinned, and he did not find out about it afterwards.

2.According to Rebbi Shimon, they provide atonement for a person who was Tahor who ate Kodshim that were Temei'im (see next entry).

3.According to Rebbi Meir, they provide atonement for a person who sinned with Tum'as Mikdash v'Kodashav, when he did not know initially about his Tum'ah (or the Kodshim or Mikdash) when he sinned. Only after he ate the Kodshim or entered the Mikdash while he was Tamei did he find out about his status of Tum'ah. In addition, they provide atonement for a person who sinned with Tum'as Mikdash v'Kodashav, when he did not know initially about his Tum'ah (or the Kodshim or Mikdash) when he sinned, and he did not find out about it afterwards. Furthermore, they provide atonement for a person who was Tahor who ate Kodshim that were Temei'im.

4.According to Rebbi Shimon ben Yehudah in the name of Rebbi Shimon, they provide atonement for a person who was Tahor who ate Kodshim that were Temei'im.

2b----------------------------------------2b

14)[line 1]הטהור שאכל את הטמאTAHOR SHE'ACHAL ES HA'TAMEI (KODSHIM: TUM'AS BASAR)

(a)If an animal of Kodshim becomes Tamei, its meat is forbidden to be eaten as it states, "veha'Basar Asher Yiga b'Chol Tamei Lo Ye'achel" - "and the [sacrificial] meat that will touch any source of Tum'ah shall not be eaten" (Vayikra 7:19).

(b)If a person eats a k'Zayis of sacrificial meat that is Tamei b'Mezid (intentionally) after Hasra'ah (being forewarned), he is punished with Malkus (lashes). If he was not given Hasra'ah, he is not Chayav Kares (Pesachim 24b; SEFER HA'CHINUCH Mitzvah #145).

15)[line 2]טומאת מקדש וקדשיוTUM'AS MIKDASH V'KODASHAV

See above, entry #2.

16)[line 31]שעיר המשתלחSA'IR HA'MISHTALE'ACH

(a)See above, entry #7:a).

(b)A strip of crimson wool was tied between the horns of the Sa'ir ha'Mishtale'ach before it was led to Azazel. The person who takes the goat to Azazel becomes Tamei and is required to immerse his body and clothes in a Mikvah (Vayikra 16:26).

(c)Our Mishnah states the Sa'ir ha'Mishtale'ach provides atonement for all sins besides Tum'as Mikdash v'Kodashav. There is an argument among the Tana'aim with regard to for whom the Sa'ir ha'Mishtale'ach provides atonement:

1.According to Rebbi Yehudah, it provides atonement for all of the people, including the Kohanim.

2.According to Rebbi Shimon, it provides atonement for all of the people except the Kohanim.

17)[line 33]כהןמשוחKOHEN MASHU'ACH (KOHEN GADOL)

(a)A Kohen who becomes the Kohen Gadol must wear the eight vestments of the Kohen Gadol and do the Avodah for seven consecutive days to indicate his consecration, as stated in Shemos 29:30 "Shiv'as Yamim..." (RAMBAM Hilchos Klei ha'Mikdash 4:13)

(b)The eight vestments are 1. Tzitz (forehead-plate), 2. Efod (apron), 3. Choshen (breastplate), 4. Me'il (robe), 5. Kutones (long shirt), 6. Michnasayim (breeches), 7. Avnet (belt), 8. Mitznefes (turban).

(c)The vestments of the ordinary Kohanim are 1. Kutones (long shirt), 2. Michnasayim (breeches), 3. Avnet (belt), 4. Migba'as (hat).

(d)The Kohen Gadol is also known as the Kohen Mashu'ach since he was anointed with the Shemen ha'Mishchah (Shemos 30:22-33), the oil made by Moshe Rabeinu for anointing the Mishkan and its vessels, the Kohanim Gedolim and the kings of the Davidic dynasty.

(e)Before the destruction of the first Beis Ha'Mikdash, King Yoshiyahu ordered the Aron to be hidden to prevent its capture (Divrei ha'Yamim II 35:3). The jar of Manna (Shemos 16:32-34), Aharon's staff (Bamidbar 16:16-26) and the Shemen ha'Mishchah were also hidden together with the Aron (Yoma 52b). As a result, there was no Shemen ha'Mishchah with which to anoint the Kohanim Gedolim during the final years of the first Beis ha'Mikdash and all of the years of the second Beis Ha'Mikdash. The Kohanim Gedolim at the time of the second Beis ha'Mikdash are called Merubeh Begadim because they were consecrated solely by wearing the Bigdei Kehunah for seven days.

18)[line 34]הפרHA'PAR (PARO SHEL KOHEN GADOL HA'KAREV B'YOM HA'KIPURIM)

(a)In Parshas Acharei Mos (Vayikra 16:3-6), Aharon is commanded to offer on Yom ha'Kipurim a bull as a Chatas and a ram as an Olah from his own money. From the money of the Tzibur (the populace, the people of Yisrael), he is commanded to offer two goats as Korbenos Chatas (one goat was sacrificed and one was sent to Azazel) and one ram as an Olah. The offering of these Korbanos form the major part of the Yom ha'Kipurim service that the Kohen Gadol must perform every year.

(b)After performing Viduy (see next entry), the Kohen Gadol sprinkles the blood of the bull in the Kodesh ha'Kodashim (Vayikra 16:14), on the Paroches (ibid. 16:16) and on the Mizbach ha'Ketores (ibid. 16:18). Its flesh is entirely burned in the place outside of Yerushalayim where the ashes from the Mizbe'ach are deposited. The remainder of its blood is poured on the western Yesod of the Mizbach ha'Chitzon, but omitting this last procedure does not prevent atonement, because during the rest of the year, pouring the blood on the Yesod is not a requirement for atonement.

(c)Our Mishnah states that the Paro Shel Kohen Gadol provides atonement for sins of the Kohanim. There is an argument among the Tana'aim with regard to the atonement that it provides:

1.According to Rebbi Yehudah, it provides atonement for sins of Tum'as Mikdash v'Kodashav.

2.According to Rebbi Shimon, the sprinkling of its blood provides atonement for sins of Tum'as Mikdash v'Kodashav. The Viduy of the Kohen Gadol (see next entry) provides atonement for all sins besides Tum'as Mikdash v'Kodashav.

19)[line 38]וידויוVIDUYO (VIDUYO SHEL KOHEN GADOL B'YOM HA'KIPURIM)

On Yom ha'Kipurim the Kohen Gadol performs Semichah on his bull while confessing his sins before he slaughters it. He likewise performs Semichah on the Sa'ir of Benei Yisrael that will be sent to Azazel while confessing the sins of the people.

20)[last line]חייב על הראשCHAYAV AL HA'ROSH (HAKAFAS HA'ROSH)

(a)It is forbidden by a Lav in the Torah for a Jewish male to remove his or another Jewish male's sideburns, thus making a continuous hairless line from his face until behind his ears, as the Torah states, "Lo Sakifu Pe'as Roshechem" - "You shall not make a ring [around the tops of your heads by removing the hair] of the corners of your heads" (Vayikra 19:27). The reason for this prohibition is to distance us from idol worship and its adherents who until this day cut their hair in this fashion. If one cuts off both sideburns, he receives Malkos two times. The RAMBAM (Hilchos Avodah Zarah 12:6) writes that he has a tradition in his family teaching that it is required to leave at least forty hairs in the sideburns.

(b)According to most authorities, it is prohibited to entirely remove the hair of the sideburns with either a razor or a pair of scissors. The prohibition of Hakafah applies to both the barber and the one whose hair is being cut, if he helps the barber (by moving his head to the correct position). It is prohibited to cut the hair of a male minor as well. Although this prohibition only applies to a man and not to a woman (whether her hair is being cut or whether she is cutting the hair of a man), nevertheless, it is forbidden mid'Rabanan for a woman to cut the hair of a man or a boy (see Nazir Chart #13, footnote #3).

(c)It is likewise forbidden to shave off all of the hair of the head (Hakafas Kol ha'Rosh). There is a disagreement among the Tana'im as to whether this is included in the prohibition of Hakafah and is mid'Oraisa, since all of the hair of the head includes the sideburns (Yevamos 5a, Nazir 41a), or if it is only forbidden mid'Rabanan (Nazir 29a), since the Torah only prohibits making a shaven ring around the remaining hair. (SEFER HA'CHINUCH Mitzvah #251)

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