POINT BY POINT OUTLINE
prepared by Rabbi P. Feldman of Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
1) MAY ONE ENTER A BEIS HA'KISEI WITH A KEMI'A?
(a) Objection #4: [Perhaps] one may go out with a Kemi'a only if it is covered with leather (for then, one may enter a Beis ha'Kisei with it)!
(b) Question: Tefilin are covered with leather, yet one may not enter a Beis ha'Kisei with them!
1. (Beraisa): One who enters a Beis ha'Kisei removes his Tefilin four Amos before the Beis ha'Kisei.
(c) Answer: One may not enter a Beis ha'Kisei with [head] Tefilin due to the Shin (a letter of Hash-m's name 'Shakai', which is not covered):
1. (Abaye): A tradition from Moshe from Sinai mandates a [protrusion on the box of the head Tefilin shaped like a] Shin.
2. (Abaye): A tradition from Sinai mandates [making the knot in the strap of the head Tefilin to form] a 'Dalet'. (Tosfos deletes this and the next teaching from the text, because the Gemara (28b) learned that the boxes must be from a Kosher animal from the fact that the Shin is written from the box itself, but it needed a different source for the straps. Rashba (28b) disagrees. Even though tradition requires the Dalet and Yud, they are mere knots, and not writing.)
3. (Abaye): A tradition from Sinai mandates (Rashi - making the knot in the strap of the head Tefilin to form) a 'Yud'. (Objection #4 stands. We do not resolve whether one may take an uncovered Kemi'a into a Beis ha'Kisei.)
2) THINGS FORBIDDEN TO GO OUT WITH
(a) (Mishnah): One may not go out with Shiryon, Kasda or Magafayim. (These will be explained.)
(b) Shiryon is armor;
(c) (Rav): Kasda is a cap worn under a helmet; Magafayim are iron boots.
(d) (Mishnah - R. Meir): A woman may not go out wearing the following; if she did, she is Chayeves Chatas:
1. A needle with a hole, a ring with a stamp, Kuliyar, Koveles (these will be explained), or a flask of [fragrant] balsam oil.
(e) Chachamim exempt regarding Koveles or a flask of balsam oil.
(f) (Gemara - Ula): The law of a man is opposite [regarding a ring, he is liable only for a ring without a stamp].
(g) Inference: Ula holds that anything proper for a man (it is a garment or Tachshit for him) is not proper for a woman (it is a load for her), and vice-versa.
(h) Question (Rav Yosef - Beraisa): Shepherds may go out in Sak (sackcloth);
1. Anyone is allowed. [Chachamim mentioned shepherds because] it is common for them to go out with Sak.
(i) Answer (Rav Yosef): Ula holds that women are a nation unto themselves (utterly different from men, but anything proper for some men [or women] is proper for anyone [of that gender]).
(j) Question (Abaye - Beraisa): If one finds Tefilin [in a place where they are prone to be disgraced], he brings them into the city [through wearing them] one pair at a time, whether the finder is a man or woman.
1. Women cannot be a nation unto themselves! [If they were, they could not wear Tefilin just because it is proper for men. It would be a load for them.] Tefilin are not intrinsically proper for women, since it is Mitzvas Aseh sheha'Zeman Gerama (a positive Mitzvah that applies only at certain times). They are exempt from such Mitzvos,
(k) Answer: R. Meir holds that [the Mitzvah of] Tefilin applies at night and on Shabbos, therefore it is Lo ha'Zeman Gerama. Such Mitzvos apply to women.
(l) Question: Why is one liable for wearing a ring [that is not proper]? This is not the normal way to carry!
(m) Answer #1 (R. Yirmeyah): The Mishnah discusses a female Gizbar (treasurer. It is normal for her to wear a ring with a stamp.)
(n) Objection (Rabah): You explain how a woman is liable for a ring with a stamp, but not how a man is liable for a ring without a stamp!
(o) Answer #2 (Rava): Sometimes each wears a ring normally worn by the other gender, i.e. a man gives his ring to his wife to put away, and she wears it home. A woman gives her ring to her husband to bring to a repairman, and he wears it on the way.
(p) (Mishnah): [She may not go out with] Kuliyar or Koveles...
(q) (Rav): Kuliyar is a clasp worn around the neck. (Rashi - it passes through the openings of her garment to keep it closed. Aruch - it is a crown.)
3) GOING OUT WITH FRAGRANCES
(a) (Rav and Rav Asi): Koveles is spices bound together.
(b) (Beraisa #1 - R. Meir): A woman may not go out with Koveles; if she did, she is Chayeves Chatas;
(c) Chachamim say, she may not go out with it; if she did, she is exempt;
(d) R. Eliezer permits her to go out with it.
(e) Question: What do they argue about?
(f) Answer: R. Meir considers it a load;
1. Chachamim consider it a Tachshit. They forbid lest she take it off to show it, and come to carry it;
2. R. Eliezer also considers it a Tachshit. He is not concerned lest she show it off, for it is worn to cover up body odor. She does not want people to know that she needs it.
(g) Contradiction (Beraisa #2 - R. Eliezer): She is exempt for Koveles or a flask of balsam oil. (This implies that he forbids!)
(h) Resolution: In Beraisa #1, R. Eliezer responds to Chachamim, who forbid and exempt b'Di'eved. Therefore, he says that she is permitted;
1. In Beraisa #2, R. Eliezer responds to R. Meir, who obligates. Therefore, he says 'she is exempt' for parallel structure.
(i) Question: Where do we find that R. Eliezer responds to R. Meir?
(j) Answer (Beraisa - R. Meir): A woman may not go out with a key in her hand. If she did, she is Chayeves Chatas;
(k) R. Eliezer exempts for Koveles or a flask of balsam oil.
1. Interjection: R. Meir did not discuss Koveles!
2. Answer: The Beraisa is abbreviated. It means as follows:
i. R. Meir also forbids her to go out with Koveles or a flask of balsam oil; if she did, she is Chayeves Chatas;
ii. R. Eliezer exempts for Koveles or a flask of balsam oil.
(l) (Continuation of Beraisa): R. Eliezer exempts if there are spices in the Koveles. If it is empty, she is liable.
(m) Inference (Rav Ada bar Ahavah): If someone was Motzi (took from Reshus ha'Yachid to Reshus ha'Rabim) food in a Kli, and the food was less than the Shi'ur to be Chayav, he is liable for the Kli!
1. This is because a Koveles without spices has just a remnant of fragrance. This is like less than a Shi'ur of food!
(n) Rejection (Rav Ashi): Perhaps one who was Motzi food less than a Shi'ur in a Kli is exempt, because the Kli is Batel to the food, but Koveles cannot be Batel to a remnant of fragrance, since smell has no substance!
4) CONDUCT THAT CAUSED THE CHURBAN
(a) (Rav Yehudah): "V'Reishis Shemanim Yimshachu" refers to balsam (the choicest oil).
(b) Question (Rav Yosef - Beraisa): R. Yehudah ben Bava decreed even against balsam oil [after the Churban]. Chachamim did not agree;
1. If it is for indulgence, Chachamim would have agreed!
(c) Counter-question (Abaye): You assume that they forbade every matter of indulgence. This is not so!
1. (R. Ami or R. Asi): "Ha'Shosim b'Mizrekei Yayin" refers to Kenishkin (a Kli with two [or more] mouths, enabling people to drink together. Alternatively, wine is thrown from one end to the other when it is tilted);
2. (The other of R. Ami and R. Asi): They used to throw their cups one to another [when drinking; Rashi - they would juggle them].
3. Even so, Rabah bar Rav Huna saw the Reish Galusa drink from Kenishkin, and he did not comment! (This shows that it was not forbidden.)
(d) Answer to both questions (Abaye): Rather, Chachamim only decreed against indulgence that also brings Simchah.
(e) (R. Yosi b'Rebbi Chanina): "Ha'Shochvim Al Mitos Shen u'Sruchim Al Arsosam" - they would urinate naked in front of their beds. (They would not bother to go outside.)
(f) Objection (R. Avahu): We cannot say that for this "Yiglu b'Rosh Golim (they will be the first to be exiled)"!
(g) (R. Avahu): Rather, they would eat and drink together, stick their beds together and swap wives; making their beds stink with others' semen.
(h) (R. Avahu): Three things cause poverty - urinating in front of one's bed while naked, disgracing Netilas Yadayim (washing the hands before eating) and making his wife curse him in his presence.
(i) (Rava): Urinating in front of one's bed while naked is problematic only if he faces the bed. If he turns away, it is fine;
1. Even facing the bed is problematic only if he urinates on the ground. If he urinates into a Kli, it is fine;
(j) (Rava): Disgracing Netilas Yadayim is problematic only if he did not wash at all. If he washed minimally, it is fine.
(k) Rejection: This is wrong!
1. (Rav Chisda): I pour generous handfuls over my hands, and Hash-m fills my handfuls with goodness.
(l) (Rava): 'Making his wife curse him in his presence' refers to one who does not give her money for cosmetics;
1. It is problematic only if he has money but refuses to give to her.
(m) (Rava brei d'Rav Ilai): "Ya'an Ki Gavhu Benos Tziyon" - they (married women) would walk erect;
1. "Va'Telachnah Netuyos Garon" - they walked heel to toe [tiny steps, like one who sticks out his neck and faces up and cannot see where he walks. This was to allow men more time to look at them];
2. "U'Meshakros Einayim" - they would paint their eyes and wink [at single men];
3. "Haloch v'Tafof" - a tall woman would walk next to a short woman [to make a more impressive appearance];
4. (Rav Yitzchak d'Vei R. Ami): "Uv'Ragleihem Te'akasnah" - they would put fragrances in their shoes, and kick the ground near unmarried men, spraying the scent to arouse the men's lust like the venom in Ka'os (an angry snake).
(n) Question: How were these women punished?
(o) Answer (Rabah bar Ula): "V'Hayah Sachas Bosem Mak Yihyeh" - the place where they would perfume themselves will melt;
1. "V'Sachas Chagurah Nikpah" - where they would gird themselves with pretty belts, it will be full of wounds;
2. "V'Sachas Ma'aseh Mikshah Karchah" - where they would adorn their hair, it will be full of bald patches;
3. "V'Sachas Pesigil Machagores Sak" - their openings (Ervah) that led to joy will be girded with sackcloth.
(p) (Rava): "Ki Sachas Yofi" - in place of beauty will be pus.
(q) (R. Yosi b'Rebbi Chanina): "V'Sipach Hash-m Kodkod Benos Tziyon" - they were stricken by Tzara'as, about which it says "... vela'Sapachas."
(r) (Rav or Shmuel): "Va'Shem Pasehen Ye'areh" - blood [of Zivah] poured out of their openings;
(s) (The other of Rav and Shmuel): Their openings became like a Ya'ar (forest, i.e. full of hair and hence despised for relations).