[27a - 31 lines; 27b - 38 lines]
We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any other important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos.
 Gemara 27a [line 24]:
"Rav Papa Amar, Af Kol" רב פפא אמר אף קול
Rashi's Girsa is "d'Rav Papa Amar..." דרב פפא אמר
(It is apparent that the Ramban had the Girsa of our Gemara. See Insights.)
 Tosfos 27a DH Nafka [at the end] : ד"ה נפקא
The words "l'Midrash Rava" למדרש רבא
should be "l'Midrash l'Rava" למדרש לרבא
1)[line 1]"[וכל אשר יפל עליו מהם במתם יטמא...] או בגד""[V'CHOL ASHER YIPOL ALAV MEHEM B'MOSAM YITMA...] O VEGED..."- "[If any of these dead creeping things (Sheratzim) falls on anything...] or clothing [... then that article must be immersed in a Mikvah, and it remains Tamei until evening, whereupon it becomes Tahor.]" (Vayikra 11:32)
2)[line 16]ארנביםARNAVIM- hares
3)[line 16]נוצהNOTZAH- hair (specifically referring to goats; mohair)
4)[line 16]השיריןHA'SHIRIN- silk
5)[line 16]הכלךHA'KALACH- floss-silk, silkworm cocoon
6)[line 17]הסריקיןHA'SERIKIN- a garment made from inferior silk
7a)[line 18]הך תנא דבי רבי ישמעאלHACH TANA D'VEI REBBI YISHMAEL- the first Tana d'Vei Rebbi Yishmael (on Daf 26b); see Chart #6
b)[line 23]ואי בעית אימא הא רב פפא אמרהV'IY BA'IS EIMA, HA RAV PAPA AMARAH- see Insights to the Daf
8)[line 24]כלאיםKIL'AYIM (SHA'ATNEZ)
(a)The word Kil'ayim means "forbidden mixture," which refers to two items, each of which is permitted individually, which the Torah prohibits to combine. Many different types of forbidden mixtures can be referred to by the term "Kil'ayim." Three types of Kil'ayim apply to plants: Kil'ei ha'Kerem, Kil'ei Zera'im and Harkavas ha'Ilan. Two types of Kil'ayim apply to animals: Harba'ah, and Charishah b'Shor va'Chamor. One type of Kil'ayim applies to clothing: Sha'atnez. (It is also prohibited to cook meat and milk together, but this is not referred to as "Kil'ayim.") Our Gemara refers to Kil'ayim of clothing.
(b)Sha'atnez is a mixture of wool and linen which is prohibited, as the Torah states in Devarim 22:11. Chazal teach that the word "Sha'atnez" is made up of three smaller words — "Shu'a" (combed), "Tavi" (spun), and "Noz."
(c)The Rishonim disagree over the translation of the word "Noz":
1.RASHI (Nidah 61b and Horayos 11a DH Noz) and the RASH (Mishnayos Kil'ayim 9:8) learn that Noz means woven together (the wool and linen are woven together in a garment).
2.TOSFOS (Nidah 61b DH Shua Tavi v'Noz) disagrees with Rashi's explanation. We learn that the prohibition of Sha'atnez applies only when the wool and linen are woven together from the word "Yachdav" in the verse. If so, Noz does not mean "woven together." Rather, Noz means that the threads must be twisted or wound.
(d)The Rishonim disagree about how the wool and linen must be joined in order to transgress the Torah prohibition of Kil'ayim:
1.RASHI (ibid.) holds that the wool and linen must be combed, spun, and woven together. That is, the strands of wool must be combed together, spun together, and then woven together with the linen in order to transgress the prohibition of Sha'atnez. If the strands of wool are combed or spun separately from the strands of linen, even though they are later woven into a garment together, the Torah prohibition of Sha'atnez has not been transgressed.
2.TOSFOS (ibid.) learns that one transgresses the Torah prohibition if the wool and linen are combed, spun, and twisted separately, and are then joined together by two stitches. The RASH (ibid.) agrees with Tosfos, and rules that if the wool and linen are combed and spun separately and then joined, the prohibition of Sha'atnez has been transgressed. (However, the Rash does not require that the threads be twisted, see c:1.)
9)[line 27]העלאהHA'ALA'AH- draping the garment over one's shoulders
10)[last line]בדותא היאBEDUSA HI- it is fiction, i.e. a mistake
11)[line 4]מין כנףMIN KANAF- the Tzitzis should be made from the same material as the corner of the garment
12)[line 5]במינןB'MINAN- in a garment of the same material
13)[line 19]ישנה בראייה אצל אחריםYESHNAH BI'RE'IYAH ETZEL ACHERIM- other people see it
14)[line 23]קאי בצמר ופשתים, מרבה שאר בגדים?KA'I B'TZEMER U'FISHTIM, MARBEH SHE'AR BEGADIM?- the words, "Asher Techaseh Bah" - "with which you cover yourself" (Devarim 22:12) - refer to clothes of wool or linen which require Tzitzis. It does not make sense that they instead teach that other types of material require Tzitzis.
15)[line 26]טוויTAVUY- spun wool
16a)[line 28]שתיSHESI- the threads of the loom that run lengthwise, or the warp
b)[line 28]ערבEREV- the threads that run from side to side across the loom, or the woof, which are thicker than the threads of the warp
17)[line 30]משישלהMISHE'YESHALEH- from when he pulls it out of the vat in which it is bleached
18)[line 30]האונין של פשתןHA'UNIN SHEL PISHTAN- bundles of wet flax
19)[line 33]טומאת אהליםTUM'AS OHALIM (TUM'AS OHEL)
(a)Any covered space that is a Tefach by a Tefach square and a Tefach high is considered to be an "Ohel." If a k'Zayis from a corpse is anywhere in an Ohel, Tum'ah spreads out in all directions to fill the entire Ohel but remains inside the Ohel. Any people, metal utensils (covered or uncovered) or food and drink that are in the Ohel become Tamei. However, Klei Cheres only become Tamei when Tum'ah enters them. Therefore, when they are covered with a Tzamid Pasil (a tight seal) they cannot become Tamei even if they are in an Ohel.
(b)The material of the Ohel itself, e.g. the stones of a house, are not Mekabel Tum'ah, since they are attached to ground. The Mishnah discusses the cloth of a tent, when made from materials that grew from the ground. See Insights to the Daf.
(c)See Background to Berachos 19:29.
20)[line 35]"והיא העלתם הגגה ותטמנם בפשתי העץ [הערכות לה על הגג]""V'HI HE'ELASAM HA'GAGAH, VA'TITMENEM B'FISHTEI HA'ETZ [HA'ARUCHOS LAH AL HA'GAG]" - "And she had brought them (the spies) up to the roof, and she hid them among the stalks of flax [that she had arranged on the roof.]" (Yehoshua 2:6) (RACHAV AND THE SPIES)
(a)Unlike Moshe Rabeinu, who sent the twelve spies into Kena'an in full public view, Yehoshua sent the two spies, Kalev and Pinchas, discreetly. Also, unlike the spies that Moshe sent to spy out the land, those whom Yehoshua sent were Tzadikim, who went on their mission with total faith that, with HaSh-m's help, they would conquer the land of Kena'an.
(b)Having received specific orders to spy out Yericho (which, as a border town, was particularly well-fortified), Kalev and Pinchas made this their first stop. Pretending to be potters, they stopped at the inn of Rachav the inn-keeper (Chazal also translate "ha'Zonah" as harlot; as such, she would be a useful source of information as she knew all the important men in the city).
(c)As soon as the two spies arrived, the residents of the city recognized them. The king of Yericho was duly informed of their arrival and their whereabouts. He sent officers with orders to Rachav to hand over the spies into their custody.
(d)Meanwhile Rachav, who believed in HaSh-m and whose sympathies were with Klal Yisrael, had taken the two men and hid them on her roof as described by the verse. Rachav managed to convince the king's officers that the two men already left and urged them to quickly chase them, as they might still catch them before they reached the River Yarden.
(e)Meanwhile, Rachav went up to the roof and spoke to the spies. She informed them of the extent of the people's fear of Yisrael, who were poised to capture the land. So scared were the men, she told them, that they did not have the strength to cohabit with their wives. (According to the opinion that Rachav was a harlot, she certainly was in a position to know this fact. Rachav was ten years old when Yisrael left Mitzrayim, and she had spent the 40 years that Yisrael had been in the wilderness as a harlot.) That was all the spies needed to hear. Armed with that news, they prepared to return to the encampment of Yisrael.
(f)Before sending the spies away, Rachav requested from them that when they return to attack Yericho, they spare her and all her family who will be hiding in her house. They agreed, provided that she commit to tell no one about the secret. They left via her window, instructing her to leave the very same rope hanging from her window as a sign so that the Jewish soldiers would know to leave her house untouched. (Incidentally, this was the same window and the same rope via which her clients used to escape after spending the night with her. "Master of the world," she proclaimed, "with these did I sin, and with these You will forgive me!")