SANHEDRIN 96 (30 Tishrei) - dedicated by Reb Mordechai Rabin (London/Yerushalayim) l'Iluy Nishmas his father, ha'Gaon Rav Gedalya Rabinowitz of Manchester, England (and in his later years, Bnei Brak, Israel). Hearing a Shiur from Reb Gedalya was an unforgettable experience as can be attested to by his many Talmidim, both Bnei Yeshiva and Ba'alei Batim.

[96a - 55 lines; 96b - 57 lines]

1)[line 1]ושני נפשךV'SHANI NAFSHACH- and disguise yourself

2)[line 2]מספראMASPERA- scissors

3)[line 2]ואיגזייךV'IGZAYICH- and I will shave

4)[line 2]מהיכא אייתיME'HEICHA AISI- from where should I bring

5)[line 3]עולOL- go up, go to

6)[line 4]מלאכי שרתMAL'ACHEI SHARES- ministering angels

7)[line 4]ואידמו ליהV'IDMU LEI- and they appeared to him (to Sancheriv)

8)[line 4]כגבריK'GAVREI- like men

9)[line 5]טחניTACHANEI- grinding

10)[line 5]קשייתאKASHYASA- date pits

11)[line 5]הבו ליHAVU LI- bring to me

12)[line 6]גריואGERIVA- a Se'ah (see Background to Sanhedrin 93:73)

13)[line 8]איחשךICH''SHACH- it became dark

14)[line 8]נוראNURA- fire

15)[line 9]נפח ליהNAFACH LEI- he was blowing the fire

16)[line 9]אתלי ביה בדיקניהITLEI BEI B'DIKNEI- the fire caught on to his beard

17)[line 11]וגם את הזקן תספה"V'GAM ES HA'ZAKAN TISPEH"- "His beard too shall be destroyed" (Yeshayah 7:20). The verse does not say that his beard will be shaved; rather, it says that it will be destroyed. The Gemara understands that the beard was destroyed by fire. (RASHI)

18)[line 11]היינו דאמרי אינשיHAINU D'AMREI INSHEI- this is as people say

19)[line 12]גרירתיה לארמאה שפיר ליה איתלי ליה נורא בדיקניה ולא שבעת חוכא מיניהGARIRTEI LA'ARAMA'AH SHAPIR LEI ISLI LEI NURA B'DIKNEI V'LO SAV'AS CHUCHA MINEI- if you singe an Aramean (a Nochri) and he likes it, you can then burn his beard, and you will have no end to the laughter that you get from him. That is, if a person does not protest when someone else cuts off his beard, he likely will not react to any other prank played upon him, regardless of how outrageous it is, and thus he will serve as an endless source of amusement to the prankster. (ARUCH)

20)[line 14]אשכחASHKACH- he found

21)[line 14]דפאDAPA- (lit. a board) (a) a plank (RASHI); (b) the plank's spiritual counterpart (MAHARSHA); (c) a reference to HaSh-m (YAD RAMAH)

22)[line 14]מתיבותא דנחMI'TEVUSA D'NOACH- from the ark of Noach

23)[line 15]אלהא רבאELAHA RABA- the Great G-d

24)[line 15]דשיזביהD'SHIZBEI- who saved

25)[line 15]מטופנאMI'TUFANA- from the flood

26)[line 16]ומצלחU'MATZLACH- if I am saved; if I prevail

27)[line 16]מקרב להוMEKAREV LEHU- I will sacrifice them

28)[line 21]שנזדמן לוSHE'NIZDAMEN LO- that appeared to him

29)[line 26]טבא דנפחא מדבר נפחאTAVA D'NAFCHA MID'BAR NAFCHA- the [interpretation of the] blacksmith (Rebbi Yitzchak Nafcha) is better than the [interpretation of the] son of the blacksmith (Rebbi Yochanan). (a) Rebbi Yitzchak was a blacksmith and thus was known as Rebbi Yitzchak Nafcha ("the blacksmith"). Rebbi Yochanan is called "Bar Nafcha" ("the son of the blacksmith") because his father was a blacksmith. (b) Alternatively, "Bar Nafcha" means handsome. (RASHI)

30)[line 28]תשש כחוTASHAS KOCHO- his strength waned

31)[line 30]נתגברNISGABER- he did not get his strength

32)[line 32]הזהרוHIZ'HARU- beware

33)[line 32]ששכחSHE'SHACHACH- that forgot

34)[line 32]אונסוONSO- circumstances beyond his control

35)[line 32]בוורידיןBA'VERIDIN - with the veins

(a)It is forbidden to eat blood, as the Torah states in many places (Vayikra 3:17; 7:26; 7:27; 17:12; etc.). Blood can be removed from an animal after Shechitah either through roasting it, or salting it.

(b)The Mishnah (Chulin 27a, according to the Gemara Chulin 28b) records an argument between Rebbi Yehudah and the Rabanan as to whether one must cut the Veridin of the neck of a bird during the Shechitah, in order to let its blood drip out before it is roasted. The Veridin (lit. veins) are either: 1. the carotid arteries (RAMBAM, Peirush ha'Mishnayos), or 2. the jugular veins (see DARCHEI TESHUVAH 65:6). According to Rebbi Yehudah, the Veridin must be cut while the bird is being slaughtered, for afterwards the blood cools and does not drip out entirely even if it is later roasted. The Rabanan disagree and contend that the Veridin may be slit even after the Shechitah, and the blood will still drip out.

(c)The Gemara (ibid.) explains that Rebbi Yehudah requires that the Veridin be slit during Shechitah only if the bird's blood is to be removed by roasting it whole (as was normally done). If it is roasted limb by limb, the blood will drip out in any case. (See Insights to Chulin 28:4 for further discussion of this matter.)

36)[line 36]לרוץLA'RUTZ- to run

37)[line 36]בצעי המיםBITZ'EI HA'MAYIM- swampland

38)[line 37]ביבשהBA'YABASHAH- on dry land

39)[line 37]ונלאהV'NIL'AH- and he became weary

40)[line 39]שכרSACHAR- reward

41)[line 39]תמיהTEMIHA- you are amazed

42)[line 42]חלהCHALAH- became sick

43)[line 42]ויחזקVA'YECHEZAK- and he recovered his strength

44)[line 43]ספריםSEFARIM- letters

45)[line 43]ומנחהU'MINCHAH- and a gift

46)[line 44]שתי שעותSHTEI SHA'OS- two hours (the day had only two hours, so that there would be no time to bury and eulogize Achaz) (Rashi)

47)[line 44]ואיתפחV'ISPACH- and he recovered

48)[line 44]אהדרינהוAHADRINHU- He (HaSh0m) returned them

49)[line 46]מאי האיMAI HAI- What is this? Why is the day extraordinarily long?

50)[line 45]חלשCHALASH- he became sick

51)[line 46]שלמאSHELAMA- greetings of peace

52)[line 46]לקרתאL'KARTA- to the city

53)[line 47]ספריהSAFREI- his scribe

54)[line 50]קריינא דאיגרתאKARYANA D'IGARTA- the reader of the letter

55)[line 50]פרוונקאPARVANKA- [he shall be] the agent [to carry out its order]

56)[line 50]רהט בתריהRAHAT BASREI- he ran after him

57)[line 51]ואוקמיהV'OKMEI- and he (Gavriel) stopped him (Nevuchadnetzar). (a) Gavriel took the messenger, who was already far away, and put him in front of Nevuchadnetzar so that Nevuchadnetzar would not have to run any further. (YAD REMAH) (b) Gavriel caused Nevuchadnetzar to stop running so that he would be unable to reach the messenger. Nevuchadnetzar had to dispatch someone else to retrieve the letter. (BEN YEHOYADA)

58)[line 51]והעמידוV'HE'EMIDO- and he stopped him

59)[line 51]תקנהTAKANAH- remedy. There would have been no hope for the Jewish people if not for Gavriel's actions, because Nevuchadnetzar's reward would have been so great that he would have had the ability to destroy the Jewish people.

60)[line 51]לשונאיהםL'SON'EIHEM- for their enemies. This is a euphemism for the Jewish people.

61)[line 52]ואישתני אפיהV'ISHTENEI APEI- and his face changed

62)[line 52]דכלבאD'KALBA- like a dog


63)[line 1]סליקSALIK- went up

64)[line 3]אנטוכיאANTOCHYA- the name of a town that was not part of Eretz Yisrael (RASHI)

65)[line 4]דמותDEMUS- form

66)[line 4]דיוקנוDIYUKNO- his (Nevuchadnetzar's) likeness

67)[line 4]חקוקהCHAKUKAH- engraved

68)[line 5]מרכבתוMERKAVTO- his (Nevuzaradan's) chariot

69)[line 5]אימה יתירהEIMAH YESEIRAH- excessive fear

70)[line 6]ודומהV'DOMEH- and similar to

71)[line 7]טעיןTA'IN- laden

72)[line 7]כודנייתאKUDNAYASA- mules

73)[line 7]נרגא דפרזלאNARGA D'PARZELA- iron axes

74)[line 8]דשליט פרזלאD'SHALIT PARZELA- that can cut iron

75)[line 9]בלעתינהוBELA'ATINHU- (lit. it swallowed them) the axes shattered when they were used against just one of Yerushalayim's gates. (RASHI)

76)[line 9]דשאDASHA- gate

77)[line 11]למיהדרL'MEIHADAR- to return, give up

78)[line 11]מסתפינאMISTAFINA- I am afraid

79)[line 13]שוור בר שוורSHAVAR BAR SHAVAR- a jumper, the son of a jumper. This refers to Nevuzaradan, either because he excelled at jumping, or because he had leaped enthusiastically to attack Yerushalayim once before (with the army of Sancheriv), and now he was attacking it a second time. (RASHI) (The BEN YEHOYADA comments that the reason why the Gemara adds, "Nevuzaradan Shavar" - "Nevuzaradan the jumpler," is to teach that he later converted and "jumped" to become part of the Jewish people.)

80)[line 14]חריבCHARIV- to be destroyed

81)[line 15]מיקליMIKLEI- to be burned

82)[line 15]פש ליהPASH LEI- he had left over

83)[line 15]מחייה בקופאMACHYEI B'KOPA- (a) he struck it with the back of the axe (RASHI); (b) he struck it with the wooden handle (YAD RAMAH)

84)[line 18]גבה היכלאGAVAH HEICHALA- the Sanctuary ascended upwards

85)[line 19]דרכו ביה מן שמיאDARCHU BEI MIN SHEMAYA- they lowered it (the Sanctuary) from the heavens. (The YAD RAMAH explains that HaSh-m lifted up the Beis ha'Mikdash and then thrust it down in order to show Nevuzaradan that the destruction was being engineered by Heaven.)

86)[line 20]זיחא דעתיהZAICHA DA'ATEI- he became arrogant

87)[line 21]עמא קטילא קטלתAMA KETILA KATLAS- you killed a dead nation (i.e., their death was already decreed)

88)[line 22]קמחא טחינא טחינתKIMCHA TECHINA TECHINAS- you ground flour that was already ground

89)[line 24]חיטיםCHITIM- wheat

90)[line 25]זכריהZECHARYAH - The Murder of a Kohen and a Navi

Zecharyah son of Yehoyada the Kohen standing in the Beis ha'Mikdash delivering a prophecy remonstrating against the worship of King Yo'ash as a god when he was murdered by princes of Yehudah following Yo'ash's orders (Divrei ha'Yamim II 24:20-22). Yirmeyahu ha'Navi refers to this particularly heinous crime as the reason for why HaSh-m did not prevent the atrocities committed against Klal Yisrael hundreds of years later at the time of the Churban (Eichah 2:20). Zecharyah's blood miraculously bubbled for 250 years, refusing to settle into the ground, until the time of the destruction of the Beis ha'Mikdash.

91)[line 25]רתחRASACH- seething, boiling

92)[line 26]דם זבחים הוא דאישתפךDAM ZEVACHIM HU D'ISHTAPECH- it is the blood of sacrifices that was spilled

93)[line 27]ואנסיV'ANASI- and I will examine

94)[line 28]כסיKASI- he slaughtered

95)[line 28]גלו ליGALU LI- reveal to me

96)[line 29]סריקנא לכו לבשרייכוSARIKNA LECHU L'BASRAICHU- I will tear off your flesh

97)[line 29]במסריקא דפרזלאB'MASREIKA D'PARZELA- with an iron comb

98)[line 32]מפייסנא ליהMEFAISENA LEI- I will appease him

99)[line 33]ולא נחV'LO NACH- it did not rest

100)[line 33]דרדקיDARDEKEI- children

101)[line 34]פרחי כהונהPIRCHEI KEHUNAH- young Kohanim

102)[line 35]תשעין וארבעה ריבואTISH'IN V'ARBA'AH RIBO- 94 myriads, or 940,000

103)[line 37]איבדתיםIBADETIM- I have destroyed them

104)[line 38]הרהר תשובהHIRHER TESHUVAH- he had thoughts of repentance

105)[line 39]ערקARAK- he fled

106)[line 39]שדר פורטיתאSHADAR PURTISA- he sent a final will

107)[line 39]ויתגיירV'ISGAYER- and he converted

108)[line 39]גר תושבGER TOSHAV

The Gemara (Avodah Zarah 64b) quotes three opinions regarding who is a Ger Toshav. Rebbi Meir maintains that a Ger Toshav is a Nochri who accepts upon himself, in front of three "Chaverim" (Talmidei Chachamim), not to worship idols. The Chachamim say that a Ger Toshav is a Nochri who accepts upon himself to observe the seven Mitzvos of Benei Noach (see Background to Avodah Zarah 46:4). Acherim maintain that the above opinions are incorrect, and that a Ger Toshav is a Nochri who accepts all of the Mitzvos except for not eating Neveilos (animals that were not slaughtered properly). See Insights to the Daf and Audio Shi'ur to Avodah Zarah 64: Ger Toshav.

109)[line 40]גר צדקGER TZEDEK- A convert to Judaism

110)[line 44]נהרות בבלNAHAROS BAVEL- the rivers of Babylon

111)[line 44]ותרגמהV'TARGEMAH- and he explained it

112)[line 44]דצינייתאD'TZINYASA- date trees. (a) The water of the rivers of Babylon are bitter to drink, and thus the dates on the palms growing by those rivers also taste bitter. (b) Alternatively, the rivers are not fertile and therefore the palms that grow at their side are barren. (RASHI)

113)[line 45]שיבבי בישיSHIVEVEI BISHEI- bad neighbors

114)[line 46]פוק ותאPUK V'SA- go out [from your place] and come [to Eretz Yisrael to conquer it]

115)[line 46]בקריבאB'KREIVA- [HaSh-m] is nearby

116)[line 48]רחמיRACHAMEI- compassion

117)[line 49]צרור הכסף לקח"TZEROR HA'KESEF LAKACH"- "He has taken the bag of silver coins with Him." (Mishlei 7:20) - HaSh-m has taken the souls of the righteous people. (RASHI)

118)[line 50]קבע להן זמןKAVA LAHEN ZEMAN- he fixed for them a time [before which He will not return]. HaSh-m declared that He will not redeem the Jews until they have been in exile for seventy years. (RASHI)

119)[line 51]סיתווא הואSISVA HU- it is winter. Nevuchadnetzar's army began the siege of Yerushalyim on the tenth of the month of Teves, in the heart of the winter. (YAD RAMAH, MAHARSHA)

120)[line 52]מתלגא וממיטראMI'TALGA UMI'MITRA- [I am unable to come] because of the snow and rain

121)[line 52]תא אשינא דטוראTA ASHINA D'TURA- come by way of the underside of mountains

122)[line 53]דוכתא דיתיבנא ביהDUCHTA D'YASIVNA BEI- a place to stay

123)[line 53]קברותKEVAROS- graves (in caves)

124)[line 53]מעוליןME'ULIN- are better

125)[line 54]מפלטריןMI'PALTERIN- than palaces

126)[line 57]מאן בר נפליMAN BAR NAFLI- who is Bar Nafli?