[67a - 40 lines; 67b - 42 lines]

1)[line 1]סימנא בעלמאSIMANA B'ALMA- it is merely an indication [of the beginning of something]

2a)[line 1]המסית זה הדיוטHA'MESIS ZEH HEDYOT- the one who sways another to idol worship [listed in the Mishnah (53a) as among those who receive Sekilah] is a common person. The Gemara explains the intent of this phrase.

b)[line 2]והמסית את ההדיוטHA'MESIS ES HA'HEDYOT- and it refers to one who sways a common person to idol worship. The Gemara explains the intent of this phrase.

3)[line 2]יראהYIR'AH- that which inspires awe; i.e., an idol

4)[line 3]כך אוכלת כך שותה; כך מטיבה כך מריעהKACH OCHELES KACH SHOSAH; KACH METIVAH KACH MERI'AH- this is what it eats and this is what it drinks; this is how it rewards [its worshippers] and this is how it punishes [those who spurn it]

5)[line 5]מכמינין עליהםMACHMINIM ALEIHEM- we ambush them (as the Mishnah goes on to explain)

6)[line 5]אמר לשניםAMAR LI'SHENAYIM- if [the Mesis attempted to sway] two people

7)[line 6]וסוקלין אותוSOKLIN OSO (MISOS BEIS DIN - The Death Penalties Administered by Beis Din)

(a)The four types of death penalies administered by Beis Din, in order of severity according to the Tana Kama (of the Mishnah 49b), are Sekilah (stoning), Sereifah (burning), Hereg/Sayaf (beheading), and Chenek (strangulation).

(b)According to Rebbi Shimon (loc. cit.), the order of severity is Sereifah, Sekilah, Chenek, Hereg/Sayaf.

(c)For more detail, see Background to Sanhedrin 8:58.

8)[line 7]הוא אומרHU OMER- [the Nises] should respond

9a)[line 8]אם היה ערוםIM HAYAH ARUM- if [the Mesis] was clever

b)[line 8]ואינו יכול לדבר בפניהםV'EINO YACHOL L'DABER BI'FNEIHEM- and [he claims that] he is unable to speak in front of [the friends of the Nises lest they testify against him in Beis Din]

10)[line 10]ביחודB'YICHUD- [here] in private

11)[line 10]והלה אומר לוV'HALAH OMER LO- the other (i.e., the Mesis) [indeed] repeats [his words of enticement] to him

12)[line 13]האומר "אעבוד," "אלך ואעבוד," "נלך ונעבוד"HA'OMER "E'EVOD," "ELECH V'E'EVOD," "NELECH V'NA'AVOD"- one who says [in response to a Mesis], "I will worship," "I will go and worship" (even if he has not actually done so yet), or "We will go and worship" (even though the group may yet change their mind) [is liable to receive Sekilah]

13a)[line 14]אזבחEZBACH- I will slaughter an animal

b)[line 14]אקטירAKTIR- I will offer through burning [fats, limbs, or incense]

c)[line 15]אנסךANASECH- I will pour a libation (of wine or blood)

14)[line 16]הא נביא בחנקHA NAVI B'CHENEK- this implies that a [false] prophet [who claims that HaSh-m instructed him to tell others to worship idols] receives Chenek (see above, entry #7:a:4). It is logical to assume that in reference to the Mesis himself, "Hedyot" excludes a Navi Sheker, since he is the subject of a separate Parshah in the Torah (Devarim 13:2-6).

15)[line 17]הא רבים בחנקHA RABIM B'CHENEK- this implies that [if the Mesis attempted to sway] a community (see next entry) then he receives [only] Chenek. It is logical to assume that in reference to the Nises, "Hedyot" excludes an Ir ha'Nidachas, since it is the subject of a separate Parshah in the Torah (Devarim 13:13-19)

16)[line 18]עיר הנדחתIR HA'NIDACHAS - A City that has Strayed to Idol Worship

(a)If an entire city has strayed (Nidach) to the extent that most of its inhabitants practice idolatry, it must be eradicated. All those who worshipped idols are put to death by the sword, while the buildings of the city are razed and its possessions burned (Devarim 13:13-19). Those righteous individuals who did not sin are allowed to remain alive, but they must leave the city bereft of all possessions.

17)[line 19]סיפאSEIFA- the next Mishnah [which continues to discuss the list of those who receive Sekilah]

18)[line 20]שנוSHANU- we learned [here]

19)[line 20]אתאן לרבנןASA'AN L'RABANAN- this brings us to the opinion of the Rabanan

20)[line 21]"לא זו אף זו" קתני"LO ZU AF ZU" KA'TANI- [the rulings of the Mishnayos] are taught in a format of "not only this, but even that." (a) This answers only the second question. Our Mishnah teaches that a Mesis is liable to receive Sekilah if he entices an individual, and the next Mishnah teaches that he is liable to receive Sekilah even for enticing an entire city. Rav Papa then goes on to answer the first question from a Navi Sheker (RASHI); (b) This answers both questions. The second question is answered as Rashi explained, and the first is answered as well since the second phrase of the Mishnah (ha'Mesis Es ha'Hedyot) implies that all those who are Mesis - even a Navi Sheker - receive Sekilah. Rav Papa prefers not to read the Mishnah in this manner and therefore gives an alternative answer for the first question (TOSFOS DH Ravina).

21)[line 21]כי קתני "מסית זה הדיוט" להכמנהKI KA'TANI "MESIS ZEH HEDYOT" L'HACHMANAH- when our Mishnah taught "one who attempts to sway an common person" [the implication is that we treat him commonly and therefore attempt] to ambush him [and it does not exclude any type of Mesis at all]

22)[line 23]בבית הפנימיBAYIS HA'PENIMI- the inner room of a house

23a)[line 24]הן רואין אותוHEN RO'IN OSO- they can see him [so as to identify him in Beis Din]. Presumably, in the case of our Mishnah, the witnesses would have to be able to see the Mesis through a hole in the wall as well.

b)[line 24]ושומעין את קולוV'SHOM'IN ES KOLO- and they can hear his voice [so as to know that he indeed attempted to entice another to worship idols]

24)[line 28]המדיח... המכשףHA'MEDI'ACH... HA'MECHASHEF- one who entices... a sorcerer. Our Mishnah now gives the parameters for these sins that were listed in the Mishnah (53a) as among those who receive Sekilah.

25)[line 29]האוחז את העיניםHA'OCHEZ ES HA'ENAYIM- one who tricks others into thinking that he has performed a supernatural act (such as through sleight of hand)

26)[line 30]שנים לוקטין קשואיןSHENAYIM LOKTIN KISHU'IN- [there can be a case of] two people who gather gourds [from a field through what appears to be Kishuf]

27)[line 31]העושה מעשה, חייבHA'OSEH MA'ASEH CHAYAV- The Mishnah has already taught that one who actually performs Kishuf is liable to receive Sekilah. Rebbi Akiva learned from Rebbi Yehoshua exactly what action causes one to be Chayav (CHAMRA V'CHAYEI to 68a).

28)[line 31]האוחז את העיניםHA'OCHEZ ES HA'ENAYIM- he who tricks others [into thinking that he has gathered the gourds, even though they have not actually moved from where they grew]

29)[line 33]"מְכַשֵּׁפָה לֹא תְחַיֶּה""MECHASHEFAH LO SECHAYEH"- "Do not allow a witch to remain alive" (Shemos 22:17).

30)[line 34]נאמר כאן... ונאמר להלןNE'EMAR KAN... V'NE'EMAR L'HALAN (GEZEIRAH SHAVAH - A Derivation Equating Two Subjects Utilizing a Common Word or Phrase)

(a)In a Beraisa found in the introduction to the Sifra (the Halachic Midrash on Vayikra), Rebbi Yishmael lists the thirteen methodologies employed by Chazal when determining Halachah from the verses of the Torah. One of these is Gezeirah Shavah, in which two identical words (or two words that share the same root) that appear in two different sections of the Torah reveal that the Halachos applicable to one section apply to the other and vice versa.

(b)One may apply a Gezeirah Shavah only if he has received a tradition from his teachers that such a connection between the two words exists. Once the connection is established, however, then one may derive Halachos that were not specified in the tradition.

(c)A Gezeirah Shavah is unlimited; one may not pick and choose which Halachos he would like to apply. This facet of a Gezeirah Shavah is termed "Ein Gezeirah Shavah l'Mechetzah." This rule is waived in the case of an explicit teaching that precludes the application of a specific Halachah.

(d)There are three possible configurations of a Gezeirah Shavah:

1.MUFNEH MI'SHNEI TZEDADIM - If both words are seemingly unnecessary and are not used in the derivation of any other teaching, then all of the rules described above apply.

2.MUFNEH MI'TZAD ECHAD - If the word in only one of the sections is available, some maintain that Halachos may be derived from such a Gezeirah Shavah only if there is no argument against comparing the two sections. This status is known as "Lemedin u'Meshivin." Others rule that such a Gezeirah Shavah is no more limited than one that is Mufneh mi'Shnei Tzedadim.

3.EINO MUFNEH KOL IKAR - If neither word is free, then those who maintain that a Gezeirah Shavah that is Mufneh mi'Tzad Echad is unlimited grant such a Gezeirah Shavah the status of Lemedin u'Meshivin. Those who applied the status of Lemedin u'Meshivin to a Gezeirah Shavah that is Mufneh mi'Shnei Tzedadim rule that this one may not be used to determine any Halachos whatsoever.

31)[line 35]"... לֹא תְחַיֶּה כָּל-נְשָׁמָה""... LO SECHAYEH KOL NESHAMAH"- "... do not allow any soul to remain alive" (Devarim 20:16). This verse refers to the seven nations who inhabited Eretz Yisrael prior to the arrival of Klal Yisrael.

32)[line 35]בסייףSAYIF- by the sword (see Bamidbar 21:24)

33)[line 36]"[לֹא תִגַּע בּוֹ יָד, כִּי סָקוֹל יִסָּקֵל אוֹ יָרֹה יִיָּרֶה,] אִם בְּהֵמָה אִם אִישׁ לֹא יִחְיֶה...""... IM BEHEMAH IM ISH LO YICHYEH..."- "[A hand should not touch him, for he shall surely be stoned or he shall surely be thrown off,] whether animal or man he shall not remain alive..." (Shemos 19:13). This verse refers to one who encroached the borders around Har Sinai during the days leading up to the receiving the Torah.

34)[line 39]שריבה בהן הכתוב מיתות הרבהRIBAH BA'HEN HA'CHASUV MISOS HARBEI- the Torah enumerated numerous death penalties for them


35)[line 1]מיתה אחתMISAH ACHAS- a single death penalty [of either Sayif or Chenek (see 49b-50b)]

36)[line 3]סמכו ענין לוSAMCHU INYAN LO- [the verse of "Mechashefah Lo Sechayeh"] is written together [with this one] in a [single] Parshah (which is entirely made up of these two verses)

37)[line 4]בסקילהBI'SEKILAH- receives Sekilah (as derived from Ov and Yid'oni; see 54a and below, entry #39)

38)[line 5]וכי מפני שסמכו ענין לו, נוציא לזה בסקילה?V'CHI MIPNEI SHE'SAMCHU INYAN LO, NOTZI L'ZEH BI'SEKILAH?- and because these verses are written in proximity to one another, shall we then take this one out and stone him? Rebbi Yehudah maintains that proximity is not grounds to derive laws (Lo Darish Semuchin).

39a)[line 6]אובOV- a necromancer who communicates with the dead either through calling the spirit of one who is deceased and causing it to rest in his armpit or another joint from which it speaks, or through speaking with a skull (see 65b)

b)[line 6]וידעוניYID'ONI- a necromancer who communicates with the dead through placing the bone of a Yidu'a / Adnei ha'Sadeh (a creature defined by the Yerushalmi (Kil'ayim 8:5) as "a wild man of the fields") in his or her mouth

40)[line 6]בכלל מכשפים היו, ולמה יצאו...?BI'CHLAL MECHASHFIM HAYU, V'LAMAH YATZ'U...? (DAVAR SHE'HAYAH BI'CHLAL V'YATZA MIN HA'KLAL - An Exception that Modifies the Rule)

(a)In a Beraisa found in the introduction to the Sifra (the Halachic Midrash on Vayikra), Rebbi Yishmael lists the thirteen methodologies employed by Chazal when determining Halachah from the verses of the Torah. One of these is Davar she'Hayah bi'Chlal v'Yatza Min ha'Klal l'Lamed, Lo l'Lamed Al Atzmo Yatza Ela l'Lamed Al ha'Klal Kulo Yatza. This means that when a verse teaches an example of a rule that has already been taught, the reason for this is to reveal a teaching relevant to the entire category. This rule can be applied in one of three possible ways:

1.If a Halachah not previously taught is included in the verse detailing the specific example, then this new teaching applies to the entire category.

2.If no new teaching is readily apparent, then Chazal search for that which may be revealed to us from the fact that one example is written separately. An example of this is the opinion of Rebbi Nasan regarding the prohibition against kindling a fire on Shabbos. Although this is included in the general prohibition against performing Melachah on Shabbos, it is nevertheless spelled out explicitly (Shemos 35:3). Rebbi Nasan maintains that this is l'Chalek - to teach that one need not perform all thirty-nine Melachos forbidden on Shabbos in order to be liable to punishment; the transgression of any one of them is sufficient.

3.If no new Halachah is apparent, then Chazal conclude that the reason why the example was singled out is to limit the category to those examples similar to specified example. This functions similar to a Klal u'Frat u'Chlal (see Background to Mo'ed Katan 3:18).

41)[line 10]וכל שני כתובין הבאין כאחד אין מלמדיןKOL SHNEI KESUVIM HA'BA'IM K'ECHAD EIN MELAMDIN - We may Not Derive Halachos from Two Verses that Teach the Same Halachah

(a)In a Beraisa found in the introduction to the Sifra (the Halachic Midrash on Vayikra), Rebbi Yishmael lists the thirteen methodologies employed by Chazal when determining Halachah from the verses of the Torah. One of them is "Binyan Av". A Binyan Av - literally "building through a father" - refers to the establishment of a certain law in one area of the Torah, and then applying it to other comparable circumstances.

(b)If the Torah goes out of its way to establish an identical law in two different area of Halachah, however, then this law may not be applied in other areas. If we were meant to do so, then the Torah would have established the law once, leaving us to apply it as applicable through a Binyan Av. The fact that the Torah specified the law twice implies that it is meant to apply only in the instances where the Torah specifies it.

(c)Some Tana'im maintain that the same Halachah expressed twice does not imply that we should not learn from them that it should not apply elsewhere. Such reasoning is appropriate only when the same Halachah is stated in a minimum of three places (Sheloshah Kesuvim ha'Ba'im k'Echad Ein Melamdin). This opinion is that which is expressed in our Gemara by Rebbi Yehudah.

42)[line 12]עדא אמרהADA AMRAH- this teaches

43)[line 14]שמכחישין פמליא של מעלהMAKCHISHIN PAMALYA SHEL MA'ALAH- they weaken the heavenly host; i.e., they can kill one whose time to die has not yet arrived. KeSHaFIM is an acronym that stands for KachaSH Pamalya Shel Ma'alah.

44)[line 15]"[אַתָּה הָרְאֵתָ לָדַעַת כִּי ה' הוּא הָאֱלֹקִים;] אֵין עוֹד מִלְּבַדּוֹ""[... KI HASH-M HU HA'EL-KIM;] EIN OD MILVADO"- "[It has been shown to you to know that HaSh-m is G-d;] there is none other beside Him" (Devarim 4:35).

45)[line 16]איתתאITESA- a woman

46)[line 16]דהות קא מהדרא למשקל עפרא מתותי כרעיה דרבי חנינאHAVAS KA MEHADRA L'MISHKAL AFRA MI'TUSEI KAR'EI D'REBBI CHANINA- she was trying to take earth from under the feet of Rebbi Chanina

47)[line 17]אי מסתייעת, זילי עבידי!IY MISTAYA'AS, ZILI AVIDI!- if you are able, go and do it! I.e., if it is not the will of HaSh-m, then you cannot harm me; and if you are able to harm me, then I accept it as the will of HaSh-m.

48)[line 19]דנפיש זכותיהNAFISH ZECHUSEI- his merits were numerous

49)[line 19]"[וַיַּעֲשׂוּ כֵן חַרְטֻמֵּי מִצְרַיִם] בְּלָטֵיהֶם...""[VA'YA'ASU CHEN CHARTUMEI MITZRAYIM] B'LATEIHEM..."- "[And the magicians of Mitzrayim did so] with their incantations..." (Shemos 7:22). The term "Lat" means silent, and as such, refers to incantations, which are mouthed silently. This terminology is used regarding both the plague of blood and that of frogs.

50)[line 20]אלו מעשה שדיםELU MA'ASEI SHEDIM- these refer to acts performed through spirits [who generally hide themselves]

51)[line 20]"[...וַיַּעֲשׂוּ גַם הֵם חַרְטֻמֵּי מִצְרַיִם] בְּלַהֲטֵיהֶם [כֵּן]"["... VA'YA'ASU GAM HEM CHARTUMEI MITZRAYIM] B'LAHATEIHEM [KEN]"- "[... and the magicians of Mitzrayim did so as well] through their sorcery" (Shemos 7:11). This verse describes the ability of Pharaoh's magicians to turn their staffs into snakes.

52)[line 20]אלו מעשה כשפיםELU MA'ASEI CHESHAFIM- these refer to acts performed through sorcery [of the magician himself]

53)[line 20]"... וְאֵת לַהַט הַחֶרֶב הַמִּתְהַפֶּכֶת [לִשְׁמֹר אֶת דֶּרֶךְ עֵץ הַחַיִּים]""... V'ES LAHAT HA'CHEREV HA'MIS'HAPECHES [LI'SHMOR ES DERECH ETZ HA'CHAYIM]"- "... and the flaming, revolving sword [to guard the way of the tree of life]" (Bereishis 3:24). This describes one of the measures taken by HaSh-m to insure that man would no longer enter Gan Eden. Just as the sword described in this verse turns on its own, so the practitioners of "Lahat" are able to perform acts of sorcery without help from outside sources such as Shedim.

54a)[line 21]דקפיד אמנא, שדD'KAPID A'MANA, SHED- [a magician] who requires a specific vessel [in order to perform (such a black-handled knife or a glass goblet; see 101a)] is operating through a spirit

b)[line 21]דלא קפיד אמנא, כשפיםD'LO KAPID A'MANA, KESHAFIM- [a magician] who does not requires a specific vessel [in order to perform] is operating through [his own] sorcery

55a)[line 22]יש מהן בסקילהYESH ME'HEN BI'SEKILAH- there are those [actions] that are punishable by Sekilah (namely, on Shabbos - the transgression of one of the thirty-nine acts of creative labor forbidden on Shabbos; see Background to Bava Kama 2:11)

b)[line 22]ויש מהן פטור אבל אסורV'YESH ME'HEN PATUR AVAL ASUR- there are those [actions] for which one is exempt from punishment, although they are forbidden (namely, the transgression of a Shevus - an action forbidden on Shabbos mid'Rabanan)

c)[line 23]ויש מהן מותר לכתחלהV'YESH ME'HEN MUTAR L'CHATCHILAH- there are those [actions] that are completely permitted (i.e., trapping an animal to protect oneself from it, or releasing pus from a wound)

56)[line 25]מעלי שבתאMA'ALEI SHABATA- Friday

57)[line 25]בהלכות יצירהHILCHOS YETZIRAH- the combinations of various names of HaSh-m through which He created the world

58)[line 25]ומיברי להו עיגלא תילתאMIVREI LEHU IGLA TILTA- they created (a) a calf the size of one that has reached one-third [of its expected lifespan, at which point it has reached its full growth and is tastiest] (first explanation of RASHI); (b) a calf as [tasty as] one that is [its mother's] third [offspring, which is generally especially well-developed] (second explanation of RASHI); (c) a calf the size of one that has reached one-third [of its full growth, at which point it is tastiest] (RASHI to Sanhedrin 65b); (d) a fattened and tasty calf (TOSFOS to Gitin 56a DH Igla) (See Insights to Shabbos 136a)

59)[line 26]חזינא ליה לאבוה דקרנאCHAZINA LEI L'AVUHA D'KARNA- I saw the father of Karna (the name of an Amora) [who was (a) a sorcerer (RASHI); (b) learning sorcery for the purpose of issuing Halachic rulings (YAD RAMAH; see bottom of 68a)]

60)[line 26]דנפיץNAFITZ- he blew [his nose]

61)[line 26]ושדי כריכי דשיראי מנחיריהSHADI KERICHEI D'SHIRA'EI MI'NECHIREI- bolts of silk issued from his nostrils

62)[line 27]"וַיֹּאמְרוּ הַחַרְטֻמִּם אֶל פַּרְעֹה, אֶצְבַּע אֱ-לֹקִים הִוא...""VA'YOMERU HA'CHARTUMIM EL PAR'OH, 'ETZBA EL-KIM HI...'"- "And the magicians said to Pharaoh, 'It is the finger of G-d...'" (Shemos 8:15). Following the plague of lice, Pharaoh's magicians were forced to admit that they were unable to duplicate it.

63)[line 28]פחות מכשעורהPACHOS MICH'SE'ORAH- smaller than a barley-corn

64)[line 29]האלקים!HA'ELOKIM!- this is an oath, signifying the depth of feeling with which a statement is expressed

65)[line 29]האי מיכניף ליה, והאי לא מיכניף ליהHAI MICHNIF LEI, V'HAI LO MICHNIF LEI- these [larger animals] are easily gathered by [the Shed since they are able to travel on their own], and these [smaller animals] are not easily gathered by [the Shed since they are unable to travel on their own]

66)[line 30]טייעאTAI'A- an Arab merchant

67a)[line 30]דשקליה לספסיראSHAKLEI L'SAFSIRA- took his sword

b)[line 30]וגיידיה לגמלאV'GAIDEI L'GAMLA- and dismembered his camel

68)[line 31]וטרף ליה בטבלא, וקםTARAF LEI B'TAVLA, V'KAM- he rang a bell, and [the camel] arose [whole]

69)[line 31]ופרתאPARTA- excrement

70)[line 32]איקלעIKLA- went

71)[line 32]לאלכסנדריא של מצריםALACHSANDRIYA SHEL MITZRAYIM- Alexandria, Egypt [which was the world-capital of Kishuf]

72)[line 32]זבן חמראZAVAN CHAMRA- he purchased a donkey

73)[line 32]כי מטא לאשקוייה מיא, פשרKI MATA L'ASHKUYEI MAYA, PASHAR- when he reached [a natural body of water from which he gave it] to drink, [the sorcery affecting it] dissolved (since Kishuf cannot withstand spring water)

74)[line 33]וקם גמלא דוסקניתאKAM GAMLA DUSKENISA- it turned [back] into the plank of a bridge [which is what it had been before it had been affected by Kishuf]

75)[line 33]לא הוה מהדרינן לךLO HAVAH MEHADRINAN LACH- we would not have returned [your money] to you

76)[line 34]מי איכא דזבין מידי הכא, ולא בדיק ליה אמיא?MI IKA D'ZAVIN MIDI HACHA, V'LO BADAK LEI A'MAYA?- is there anyone who purchases an item here without [first] checking it against water?

77)[line 35]אושפיזאUSHPIZA- an inn

78)[line 35]אשקין מיאASHKIN MAYA- give me water to drink

79)[line 35]שתיתאSHESISA- a mixture of water and flour

80)[line 35]דקא מרחשן שפוותהKA MERACHSHAN SAFVASAH- her lips were moving [and he understood that she was affecting the water through Kishuf]

81a)[line 36]שדא פורתא מיניהSHADA PURTA MINEI- he spilled a bit of [the water]

b)[line 36]הוו עקרביHAVU AKREVEI- [and the drops of water] turned into scorpions

82)[line 36]אנא שתאי מדידכוANA SHASA'I MI'DIDCHU- I drank from your [water]. Yanai pretended to drink from the water, even though he had not actually done so.

83)[line 37]אשקייה; הואי חמראASHKEYAH; HAVA'I CHAMRA- he gave her to drink; she turned into a donkey

84)[line 37]רכבה סליק לשוקאRACHVAH SALIK L'SHUKA- he rode on her and went to the marketplace

85)[line 37]פשרה להPASHRAH LAH- she dissolved [the Kishuf]

86)[line 39]השריצהHISHRITZAH- it multiplied [by generating additional frogs that issued from its mouth]

87a)[line 41]כלה מדברותיךKALEI MEDABROSECHA- restrain your words

b)[line 41]ולך אצל נגעים ואהלותV'LECH ETZEL NEGA'IM V'OHALOS- and go to [the laws of] Nega'im (Tzara'as; see Background to Yevamos 7:24) and Ohalos (see Background to 4:28). These two areas of study are among the most difficult in the Torah, and Rebbi Akiva excelled in them.

88)[last line]שרקה להםSHARKAH LAHEM- it whistled [to get the attention of frogs all over the world]