[4a - 34 lines; 4b - 39 lines]

1)[line 1]"" "YARSHI'UN" KESIV- [the word] "Yarshi'un" is written [without a "Vav" between the "Ayin" and the final "Nun," implying that fewer judges are necessary than the number that one would otherwise have inferred]

2)[line 2] REBBI YEHUDAH BEN RO'ETZ- the name of a Tana

3)[line 4] / YESH EM LA'MIKRA (YESH EM LA'MIKRA / YESH EM LA'MASORES - Whether the Interpretation of Words in the Torah Follows the Way they are Written or the Way they are Pronounced)

The Torah is written without vowelization. In addition, words that are written in some places with a "Vav" or a "Yud" may appear elsewhere without these letters; tradition determines the spelling of the word in each place. Due to these factors, certain words appear to be pronounced one way, but according to tradition are vowelized otherwise. Amora'im disagree as to which meaning - that which appears to be correct according to its spelling, or that which appears to be correct according to the way it is pronounced - is followed when deriving laws from the text. Some maintain that "Yesh Em la'Masores" - the Pasuk is interpreted based upon the way it appears in its written state. Others are of the opinion that "Yesh Em la'Mikra" - the Pasuk is interpreted based upon the way that it is read.

4)[line 6] ""EKRA ANI "SHIV'IM"- I can read (i.e., it is possible, based on spelling alone, to read) [the word "" "Shevu'ayim" - two weeks - written (Vayikra 12:5) in reference to the length of time that a woman who has birthed a girl is automatically Teme'ah (see next entry) as] "Shiv'im [which would imply seventy days, since there is a "Vav" missing from between the "Veis" and the "Ayin"]

5)[line 7] YOLEDES NEKEVAH (YOLEDES - The Halachic Status of a Woman After Birth)

(a)A woman who has birthed a child is termed a Yoledes. Immediately following the birth, she is Teme'ah (spiritually impure). This means that she may not be intimate with her husband, enter the Beis ha'Mikdash, nor eat Terumah or Kodshim (meat from sacrifices).

(b)Her status of impurity is divided into two stages. During the initial stage, her status is like that of a Nidah (see Background to Bava Basra 24:4), even if she had not seen bled whatsoever during the birth. If she gave birth to a boy, this term lasts for seven days; if she gave birth to a girl, then this term lasts for two weeks (fourteen days). At the end of this term, she may go to the Mikvah, and she is once again permitted to her husband.

(c)During the second stage, although she still may not enter the Beis ha'Mikdash nor eat Terumah or Kodshim, she remains permitted to her husband even while discharging blood. The blood that she sees during this period is termed "Dam Tohar." (The current practice is to consider a woman a Nidah even when she sees blood during the period of Dam Tohar - see Insights to Nidah 25a.) This term lasts for thirty-three days following the first seven after the birth of a boy, or sixty-six days following the first fourteen after the birth of a girl. Thus, the total waiting period following the birth of a boy is forty days, and that following the birth of a girl is eighty days.

(b)Following the total waiting period after birth, a Yoledes offers a sacrifice known as a Korban Yoledes. This consists of a male sheep as a Korban Olah (see Background to Kidushin 55:3), and a dove or a turtledove as a Korban Chatas. If she cannot afford the sheep, she may bring two doves or two turtledoves, one as an Olah and one as a Chatas. After offering this Korban, she may once again eat Kodshim and enter the Beis ha'Mikdash. From this day on, any blood that a Yoledes discharges no longer has the status of Dam Tohar, and will instead cause her to attain the status of a Nidah.

(c)A woman who miscarries her child from the fortieth day after conception has the status of a Yoledes as well (Vayikra 12:1-8).

6)[line 7] TIMEI V'TIHER B'ZACHAR- [the Torah defines blood seen by a woman following birth as] Teme'ah [for one week] and [then] Tehorah [for the following thirty-three days] when [she births] a boy

7)[line 9] B'NEKEVAH KIFLAYIM- [the equivalent time period following the birth] of a girl is double [the length]

8)[line 10] YATZA U'MACHZIR ACHAREIHEM- he went out and searched after them

9)[line 11] IY ATEM ZEKUKIM L'CHACH- you do not need to [use] that [explanation that I gave you]

10)[line 13] KOL HA'NITANIN AL MIZBE'ACH HA'CHITZON (ZERIKAS HA'DAM - Applying the Blood of a Korban to the Mizbe'ach)

(a)The Dam ha'Nefesh (lifeblood) that emerges from the body of every Korban (sacrifice) following its slaughter is collected in a bowl (Kabalas ha'Dam). It is then applied to the Outer Mizbe'ach (the blood of certain Korbenos Chatas, however, is brought inside the Heichal; see below, entry #39b). Depending upon the Korban, there are three possible ways that the blood is applied to the Outer Mizbeach:

1.In the case of a Korban Chatas (see below, entry #14), it is applied to the Keranos (cubic Amah posts upon the corners of the Mizbe'ach) beginning with the southeastern corner of the Mizbe'ach and continuing to the northeastern, northwestern, and southwestern corners. The Kohen accomplishes this by dipping his finger into the bowl and then applying the blood to each corner.

2.The blood of Korbenos Olah (see Background to Kidushin 55:3), Asham, Shelamim (see Background to Kidushin 55:4), and Todah (see Background to Kidushin 51:7) is applied in a manner known as "Shetayim she'Hen Arba" - "two that are four." This means that the blood is applied twice, but to four sides of the Mizbe'ach. First the Kohen walks to the northeastern corner of the Mizbe'ach and applies the blood to the eastern and northern sides of the Mizbe'ach with a single swipe, and then he walks west and then south until he reaches the southwestern corner, at which point he applies the blood to the western and southern sides with a single swipe. This blood is applied below the Chut ha'Sikra (red line that horizontally divides the Mizbe'ach in half), whereas that of a Chatas is applied to the Keranos above the Chut ha'Sikra.

3.The blood of a Korban Pesach (see Background to Sukah 42:39), Bechor (see Background to Rosh Hashanah 28:41), or Ma'aser Behemah (see Background to Rosh Hashanah 18:15) is applied only once to the Mizbe'ach. This is accomplished through dashing it from the bowl within which it was collected against any side of the Mizbe'ach below the Chut ha'Sikra, with the exception of the southeastern corner.

(b)It is through this service that atonement is gained for he who offers the Korban (Vayikra 17:11).

(c)In the Mishnah cited in our Gemara (Pesachim 89a), Beis Shamai discusses the blood of Korbenos Olah, Asham, Shelamim, and Todah, which are meant to be applied to the four corners of the Mizbe'ach through two applications (Shetayim she'Hen Arba; see a:2 above).

11)[line 14] SHE'NASENAN B'MATANAH ACHAS- that he applied [to the Mizbe'ach] only once

12)[line 14]KIPER- it has atoned [for he who offered the Korban, even though it was not applied to the Mizbe'ach in the most ideal manner]

13)[line 14]( "... [ ' ...]")(SHE'NE'EMAR "... V'DAM ZEVACHECHA YISHAFECH [AL MIZBACH HASH-M EL-KECHA...]")- (as it says [in the Torah], "... and the blood of your offerings shall be poured [upon the Mizbe'ach of HaSh-m, your G-d...]" (Devarim 12:27).) Although it is true that this verse is the source for the Halachah taught by Beis Shamai, it is clear from that which RASHI cites it in his commentary that Rashi did not have it quoted in his version of the Gemara.

14)[line 15]CHATAS (KORBAN CHATAS - The Chatas sacrifice)

(a)Should one transgress a sin b'Shogeg (unintentionally) for which he would have been liable to receive the punishment of Kares (see Background to Pesachim 32:16) had he done so b'Mezid (intentionally), he must offer a Korban Chatas. This Korban consists of a female goat or sheep.

(b)One who offers a Korban Chatas first leans on the animal with all his might (Semichah) in the northern part of the Azarah (inner courtyard of the Beis ha'Mikdash). He recites Viduy, confessing his sin and asking HaSh-m for forgiveness. The animal is then immediately slaughtered. The blood of the Chatas is applied to the Keranos (1-cubic-Amah posts on the corners of the Mizbe'ach) beginning with the southeastern corner of the Mizbe'ach and continuing to the northeastern, northwestern, and southwestern corners. The Kohen accomplishes this by dipping his finger into the bowl and then applying the blood to each corner. The remaining blood is then spilled onto the Yesod (base) of the Mizbe'ach. The Emurim (parts of a Korban that are burned upon the Mizbe'ach; see Background to Yevamos 7:17) of the Chatas are offered on the Mizbe'ach. The rest of the Korban Chatas is eaten by Kohanim in the Azarah; it must be consumed before the day following its offering (Vayikra 4:27-31).

15)[line 15] SHTEI MATANOS- [a minimum of] two applications [out the ideal four are necessary for one to achieve atonement]

16a)[line 18]"[ , ] [ ; ]""[V'LAKACH HA'KOHEN MI'DAM HA'CHATAS B'ETZBA'O, V'NASAN AL] KARNOS [MIZBACH HA'OLAH; V'ES DAMO YISHPOCH EL YESOD MIZBACH HA'OLAH]" (SE'IR NASI - The Goat Offered by a Jewish King to Atone for an Inadvertent Sin)

(a)Should an individual transgress a sin b'Shogeg (unintentionally) for which he would have been liable to receive the punishment of Kares (see Background to Pesachim 32:16) had he done so b'Mezid (intentionally), he must offer a Korban Chatas. For a common member of Klal Yisrael, this Korban consists of a female goat or sheep (see above, entry #14). A Jewish king, however, must offer a male goat.

(b)Regarding the offering of this Korban Chatas, the Torah states, "[And the Kohen shall take from the blood of the Chatas with his finger, and he shall place from it upon] the corners [of the Mizbe'ach of the Olah (i.e., the outer Mizbe'ach), and he shall spill the rest of its blood upon the base of the Mizbe'ach of the Olah]" (Vayikra 4:25). The word "Karnos," which implies a minimum of two corners, is spelled without a "Vav" between the "Nun" and the "Sav." It can therefore be read "Karnas" - "the corner of" - which implies only one corner.

b)[line 18]"[ , ] [ ; ]""[V'LAKACH HA'KOHEN MI'DAMAH B'ETZBA'O, V'NASAN AL] KARNOS [MIZBACH HA'OLAH; V'ES KOL DAMAH YISHPOCH EL YESOD HA'MIZBE'ACH]"- "[And the Kohen shall take from its blood with his finger, and he shall place from it upon] the corners [of the Mizbe'ach of the Olah (i.e., the outer Mizbe'ach); and he shall spill all of the rest of its blood upon the base of the Mizbe'ach]" (Vayikra 4:30). This verse is written in reference to a female goat offered as a Korban Chatas (see above, entry #14). The word "Karnos," which implies a minimum of two corners, is spelled without a "Vav" between the "Nun" and the "Sav." It can therefore be read "Karnas," which implies only one corner.

c)[line 18]"[ , ] [ ; ]""[V'LAKACH HA'KOHEN MI'DAM HA'CHATAS B'ETZBA'O, V'NASAN AL] KARNOS [MIZBACH HA'OLAH; V'ES KOL DAMAH YISHPOCH EL YESOD HA'MIZBE'ACH]"- "[And the Kohen shall take from the blood of the Chatas with his finger, and he shall place from it upon] the corners [of the Mizbe'ach of the Olah (i.e., the outer Mizbe'ach); and he shall spill all of the rest of its blood upon the base of the Mizbe'ach]" (Vayikra 4:34). This verse is written in reference to a female sheep offered as a Korban Chatas (see above, entry #14). According to our Gemara, the word "Karnos" is spelled with a "Vav" between the "Nun" and the "Sav," in which case even the way in which it is written implies that it refers to a minimum of two corners. Our Sifrei Torah today, however, do not have this "Vav" (see TOSFOS to Shabbos 55b DH Ma'avirim).

17a)[line 19] ARBA L'MITZVAH- four [of the six, which are hinted to in two of these words, imply that the ideal way] to [fulfill this] Mitzvah [is to apply the blood of the Chatas to all four corners of the Mizbe'ach]

b)[line 19] U'SHETAYIM L'AKEV- and two [of the six, which are hinted to in the remaining word, are written] to [imply that if the blood is not applied to a minimum of two corners, then this lack will] prevent [the atonement of he who offered the Chatas]

18)[line 20]"" "" """KARNOS" "KARNAS" "KARNAS"- [the three words "Keranos" in the above-quoted verses are written as] "the corners of", "the corner of", and "the corner of" (see above, entry #16)

19a)[line 20] SHALOSH L'MITZVAH- three [of the four, which are hinted to in two of these words, imply that the ideal way] to [fulfill] this Mitzvah [is to apply the blood of the Chatas to these three corners of the Mizbe'ach as well]

b)[line 21] V'ACHAS L'AKEV- and one [of the four, which is hinted to in the remaining word, is written] to [imply that if the blood is not applied to this corner, then this lack will] prevent [the atonement of he who offered the Chatas] (RASHI to Chulin 37b)

20)[line 21] EIMA KULHU L'MITZVAH- let us suggest [that according to Beis Hillel, the implied four corners] all are necessary for [the ideal fulfillment of this] Mitzvah, but that even if the blood is not applied to any of the corners then atonement is still achieved]

21)[line 21] KAPARAH BI'CHEDI LO ASHKECHAN- we have never found [an example of] atonement achieved through no action [of applying the blood of a Korban to the Mizbe'ach] whatsoever

22)[line 22] SHTAYIM K'HILCHASAN U'SHELISHIS AFILU TEFACH (SUKAH - The Booth Within which one must Dwell on Sukos)

(a)All Jewish men must dwell in a booth for the duration of the seven-day festival of Sukos (Vayikra 23:42). Women are exempt from this Mitzvah since it is a Mitzvas Asei sheha'Zman Gerama (see Background to Chagigah 4:5). For the purposes of this Mitzvah, "dwelling" consists of sleeping, eating regular meals, and performing any honorable task that one normally performs in his home. Snacking and the performance of other actions are permitted outside of the Sukah (and in the cases of certain actions, prohibited inside of the Sukah).

(b)A Sukah takes its name from its covering, which is termed Sechach. Sechach must consist of that which once grew from the ground, although when it was placed upon the Sukah it must have already been detached from the ground. Additionally, the Sechach may not be Mekabel Tum'ah (be able to become spiritually impure). Therefore, if the material (i.e., wood or plant fibers) was formed into a vessel or an article of clothing, then it is invalid for use as Sechach (Sukah 12a). Ideally, one should be able to see the stars through the Sechach (Sukah 22a).

(b)A Sukah must have at least three walls (or, in the case of a circular Sukah, must surround three sides). Each wall must be at least seven Tefachim (a handbreadth; approximately 8 cm (3.16 in.) or 9.6 cm (3.76 in.), depending upon the differing Halachic opinions) in width. A Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai (tradition received from Moshe Rabeinu at Har Sinai) teaches that the third wall may be as small as one Tefach wide (see Sukah 6b for a discussion regarding the placement of this third wall). A Sukah may not be lower than ten Tefachim, nor higher than twenty Amos (Sukah 2a).

23)[line 25] YESH EM L'MASORES- see above, entry #3

24)[line 27]" [ ; ] . [ ] [ ...]""BA'SUKOS [TESHVU SHIV'AS YAMIM; KOL HA'EZRACH B'YISRAEL YESHVU] BA'SUKOS. [L'MA'AN YED'U DOROSEICHEM KI] VA'SUKOS [HOSHAVTI ES BNEI YISRAEL B'HOTZI'I OSAM ME'ERETZ MITZRAYIM...]"- "[You should dwell] in booths [for seven days; every member of Yisrael should dwell] in booths. [In order that your generations should know that I placed Bnei Yisrael] in booths [when I took them out of the land of Mitzrayim; I am HaSh-m your G-d]" (Vayikra 23:42-43). When the word "ba'Sukos" appears twice in the first of these verses, it is spelled without a "Vav." Although it is pronounced ba'Sukos, it can be read as "b'Sukas", which means "in the booth of." The third time that this word appears, in the second verse, it is spelled with a "Vav," thereby implying two booths even according to the Masores.

25a)[line 28] DAL CHAD KERA L'GUFEI- remove one [implication from the equation since it is necessary] for itself (i.e., to teach that there is a Mitzvah to sit in a Sukah on Sukos) (see Insights)

b)[line 28] PASHU LEHU TELAS- three are left [implied by the way in which the remaining words are written]

26a)[line 29] ASAI HILCHESA- a Halachah L'Moshe Mi'Sinai (an oral tradition taught to Moshe Rabeinu at Har Sinai that has no source in the written Torah, and yet has the same status as those Halachos that do; see above, entry #22:b) comes

b)[line 29] GARATA L'SHELISHIS V'UKIMTA A'TEFACH- it lessens [the seven Tefachim of required width of] the third [wall] and establishes it as [requiring only] one Tefach

27)[line 32] REVI'IS DAM SHE'YATZ'AH MI'SHNEI MESIM- a Revi'is (approximately 75, 86.25, or 150 milliliters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions) of blood that originated from two corpses [and was then mixed together] (see next entry)

28)[line 32] METAMEI BA'OHEL (OHEL L'TU'MAH - A Canopy over a Corpse)

(a)When at least a k'Zayis (an olive-volume) of the flesh of a Mes (dead body), the bones of a Mes (see (b) below), or a Revi'is (approximately 75, 86.25, or 150 milliliters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions) of blood from a Mes are in an area that is covered, they spread Tum'ah throughout that area. Assuming that the covering, termed an Ohel (lit. tent), is at least one Tefach (a handbreadth; approximately 8 cm / 3.16 in. or 9.6 cm / 3.76 in., depending upon the differing Halachic opinions) in length, width, and height above the ground (i.e., a room of a house), then all (Jewish) people, vessels, and food which has been Huchshar l'Kabel Tum'ah (see Background to Eruvin 83:1) underneath it become Tamei. At the same time, the Ohel prevents anything above it from becoming Tamei. That is, an Ohel is Mevi Es ha'Tum'ah (spreads the Tum'ah underneath it) and is Chotzetz bi'Fnei ha'Tum'ah (intervenes between the Tum'ah and the space above the Ohel).

(b)In order for bones of a dead body to be Metamei b'Ohel, they must meet at least one of the following three conditions:

1.They constitute a quarter of a Kav (Rova ha'Kav);

2.They are the majority of the human body (this condition is fulfilled whether they are the majority of the build (Rov Binyano) of a body or whether they are the majority of the number (Rov Minyano) of the 248 bones of a body);

3.The bone is either a complete skull or a complete spinal column. This is in contrast to the minimum requirement for a bone to be Metamei through Maga (touching) or Masa (carrying); for these Tum'os it is enough for the bone to be the size of a Se'orah (a grain of barley).

(c)People, vessels, and food in an Ohel ha'Mes become Tamei even when the Mes passes through without stopping. One who enters an Ohel ha'Mes becomes Tamei even if only part of his body enters the Ohel, and even if he enters backwards. A Mechitzah (partition) in an Ohel ha'Mes prevents the spread of Tum'ah only if it reaches the ceiling.

(d)In our Gemara, Rebbi Akiva and the Rabanan disagree over whether or not a Revi'is of Dam comprised of blood from two corpses spreads Tum'ah throughout an Ohel.

29)[line 32]"[] ...""[V']AL KOL NAFSHOS MES LO YAVO..."- "[And] upon all dead souls he may not come [near]..." (Vayikra 21:11). This verse prohibits a Kohen from becoming Tamei through coming into contact with - or being in the same Ohel as - a corpse. The word "Nefesh," which in this case refers to a dead body according to the simple understanding of the verse, can also refer to blood, which is referred to as the "soul" of a person or animal (e.g., Devarim 12:23). Since it appears here in the plural, Rebbi Akiva derives that a Revi'is of blood causes Tum'ah in an Ohel even if originated from more than one corpse.

30)[last line]"[ ] ""[LO SEVASHEL GEDI] BA'CHALEV IMO" (BASAR B'CHALAV - Meat and Milk Together)

(a)The words "[Lo Sevashel Gedi] ba'Chalev Imo" - "[Do not cook a young goat] in its mother's milk" appears three times in the Torah (Shemos 23:19, 34:26, and Devarim 14:21). The Yeshivah of Rebbi Yishmael understood that these verses convey three distinct prohibitions:

1.Cooking meat and milk together;

2.Eating meat and milk that have been cooked together;

3.Deriving any benefit from meat and milk that have been cooked together.

Rebbi Shimon ben Yehudah maintains that only eating Basar b'Chalav is forbidden; one may, however, derive benefit from it (Kidushin 57b).

(b)In addition to these Torah prohibitions, the Chachamim instituted that one may not consume meat and milk at the same time, even had they not been cooked together. Additionally, they decreed that these prohibitions apply even to eating the meat of fowl. This is clearly not included in the Torah verses, as fowl do not produce mother's milk. Rebbi Yosi ha'Glili maintains that it is permitted to cook, consume, and derive benefit from milk cooked with fowl, even mid'Rabanan (Chulin 104).

(c)One who intentionally cooks, eats, or derives benefit from meat and milk cooked together after receiving a proper warning from witnesses receives Malkus (lashes).

(d)Although this law is Torah-mandated and requires no explanation, a number of underlying reasons are suggested by the commentators. One is that meat represents the death of the animal, whereas milk represents new life. It is not proper to mix life and death (REKANATI, TZEROR HAMOR, ZOHAR 2:124b). Others suggest that eating meat and milk together used to be an idolatrous custom practiced specifically on their festivals (MOREH NEVUCHIM 3:48; RALBAG). The SEFER HA'CHINUCH (#92 and #113) proposes that eating a mixture of meat and milk detrimentally affects one's character.

31)[last line] YACHOL B'CHELEV- I might have thought [to read the verse as prohibiting one from cooking a young lamb] in [its mother's] fat (which is prohibited to be eaten in its own right; see Background to Bava Metzia 3:39)

4b----------------------------------------4b

32)[line 3]" " "YARSHI'UN ELO-HIM" ACHARINEI- [when the verse (Shemos 22:8; see Background to 2:43) makes mention of] "[he whom] the judges condemn" [it refers to two judges] other [than the two referred to earlier in the verse, and since the total number of judges referred to in the verse now totals four, it is necessary to add a fifth so as to avoid a hung verdict]

33)[line 3]"" () []"YARSHI'UN" D'HA'ICH (V'HAI) [UD'HAI]- "they condemn" refers to both those and these [judges (i.e., the two referred to here, and the two referred to earlier in the verse, are the same set of two judges), and since two judges may take opposite sides, it is necessary to add a third, so as to avoid a hung verdict]

34a)[line 5]"[ ;] [ , ]""[V'ES KOL CHELBO YAKTIR HA'MIZBECHAH K'CHELEV ZEVACH HA'SHELAMIM;] V'CHIPER [ALAV HA'KOHEN ME'CHATASO, V'NISLACH LO]"- "[And he shall burn all of its fat upon the Mizbe'ach similar to way in which the fat of a Korban Shelamim is burned;] and [the Kohen] shall atone [for him for his sin, and he will be forgiven]" (Vayikra 4:26). This verse teaches that the fats and other Emurim (see Background to Gitin 55:34) of a Se'ir Nasi (see above, entry #16a) are burned upon the Mizbe'ach.

b)[line 5]"[ , ';] [ , ]""[V'ES KOL CHELBAH YASIR KA'ASHER HUSAR CHELEV ME'AL ZEVACH HA'SHELAMIM, V'HIKTIR HA'KOHEN HA'MIZBECHAH L'REI'ACH NICHO'ACH LA'SH-M;] V'CHIPER [ALAV HA'KOHEN, V'NISLACH LO]"- "[And he shall remove all of its fat similar to way in which the fat upon a Korban Shelamim is removed, and the Kohen shall burn it upon the Mizbe'ach as a pleasing aroma to HaSh-m;] and [the Kohen] shall atone [for him, and he will be forgiven]" (Vayikra 4:31). This verse teaches that the fats and other Emurim of a female goat offered as a Korban Chatas (see above, entry #14) are burned upon the Mizbe'ach.

c)[line 5]"[- , ';] [ , ]""[V'ES KOL CHELBAH YASIR KA'ASHER YUSAR CHELEV HA'KESEV MI'ZEVACH HA'SHELAMIM, V'HIKTIR HA'KOHEN OSAM HA'MIZBECHAH AL ISHEI HASH-M;] V'CHIPER [ALAV HA'KOHEN AL CHATASO ASHER CHATA, V'NISLACH LO]"- "[And he shall remove all of its fat similar to way in which the fat of a lamb [brought as a] Korban Shelamim is removed, and the Kohen shall burn them upon the Mizbe'ach with the other fire-offerings dedicated to HaSh-m;] and [the Kohen] shall atone [for him for his sin that he committed, and he will be forgiven]" (Vayikra 4:35). This verse teaches that the fats and other Emurim of a female sheep offered as a Korban Chatas (see above, entry #14) are burned upon the Mizbe'ach.

35)[line 5] MIPNEI HA'DIN- [we might have thought that all of the Matanos of the blood must be done] because of a logical derivation (the Gemara here refers to a Meh Matzinu, not a Gezeirah Shavah; see Background to Bava Metzia 61:1)

36a)[line 6] NE'EMAR DAMIM L'MATAH- [the application of] blood is referenced below. RASHI offers three possible explanations as to which Korban(os) this refers to: (a) Chatas ha'Of - a bird offered as a Chatas sacrifice, discussed "below" (i.e. later) in Parshas Vayikra, the blood of which is applied to the lower half of the Mizbe'ach; (b) Korbanos whose blood is applied in the manner of "Shetayim she'Hen Arba" (see above, entry #10:a:2); namely, Korbenos Olah (see Background to Kidushin 55:3), Asham, Shelamim (see Background to Kidushin 55:4), and Todah (see Background to Kidushin 51:7). The blood of these Korbanos is applied "below" the Chut ha'Sikra (second, preferred explanation of Rashi). (c) Korban Asham - the Asham sacrifice, which is discussed "below" (i.e. later) in Parshas Vayikra.

b)[line 6] V'NE'EMAR DAMIM L'MA'ALAH- [the application of] blood is referenced above [(a) the Chut ha'Sikra in the offering of a Korban Chatas (second, preferred explanation of Rashi); (b) these Korbanos in Vayikra 4 in the offering of a Korban Chatas (and "above" means "earlier"; first and third explanations of Rashi)]

37a)[line 7] MAH DAMIM HA'AMURIM L'MATAH SHE'NASENAN B'MATANAH ACHAS KIPER- (a) just as the blood [of a Chatas ha'Of described] below [the Korban Chatas, later on in Parshas Vayikra] achieves atonement [for he who offered it] when [its blood is] dashed [against the side of the Mizbe'ach] at once [since this is the correct method through which to apply it] (first explanation of Rashi); (b) just as those [Korbanos whose] blood [ought to be] applied below [the Chut ha'Sikra] achieve atonement [for he who offered them even] if [their blood was] dashed [against the side of the Mizbe'ach] at once [instead of applied in the manner of Shetayim she'Hen Arba - even according to Beis Shamai (4a)] (second, preferred explanation of Rashi); (c) just as the blood [of those Korbanos Asham described] below [the Korban Chatas, at the end of Parshas Vayikra] achieve atonement [for he who offered them] when [their blood is] dashed [against the side of the Mizbe'ach] at once [instead of applied in the manner of Shetayim she'Hen Arba - even according to Beis Shamai (4a)] (third explanation of Rashi)

b)[line 8] AF DAMIM HA'AMURIM L'MA'ALAH SHE'NESANAN B'MATANAH ACHAS KIPER- (a) so, too, the blood [of a Korban Chatas described] above [the Chatas ha'Of, earlier on in Parshas Vayikra] achieves atonement [for he who offered it] when [its blood is] dashed [against the side of the Mizbe'ach] at once [instead of applied to each of the Keranos in turn] (first explanation of Rashi); (b) so, too, the blood [of a Korban Chatas, whose blood is applied to the Mizbe'ach] above [the Chut ha'Sikra], achieves atonement [for he who offered it] when [its blood is] dashed [against the side of the Mizbe'ach] at once [instead of applied to each of the Keranos in turn] (second, preferred explanation of Rashi); (c) so, too, the blood [of a Korban Chatas described] above [those Korbanos Asham, earlier on in Parshas Vayikra] achieves atonement [for he who offered it] when [its blood is] dashed [against the side of the Mizbe'ach] at once [instead of applied to each of the Keranos in turn] (third explanation of Rashi)

38)[line 10] O KALECH L'DERECH ZU- lit. or turn this way; i.e., there is another possible approach

39a)[line 10] DAMIM BA'CHUTZ- [the application of] blood [of a Korban Chatas to the Mizbe'ach] outside [of the Heichal (Sanctuary)]

b)[line 10] DAMIM BIFNIM - [the application of] blood [of a Korban Chatas to the Mizbe'ach] inside [the Heichal (sanctuary)]. This refers to the following Korbenos Chatas, which are referred to as "Chata'os ha'Penimiyos" - inner Chata'os:

I. PAR KOHEN MASHI'ACH - The Bull Offered by the Kohen Gadol to Atone for his Mistaken Ruling

(a)If a Kohen Gadol issues a ruling in error, permitting a transgression punishable by Kares had it been transgressed intentionally, and then acts upon his ruling, he must offer a Par Kohen Mashi'ach (anointed Kohen) to atone for his sin. This Korban consists of one bull offered as a Korban Chatas. If the sin committed was one of idolatry, then his Korban is identical to that offered by any individual in such a situation, and consists of a female goat.

(b)After its slaughter, the blood of the bull is sprinkled seven times in the Heichal (Sanctuary) of the Beis ha'Mikdash in the direction of the Paroches (curtain dividing the Heichal from the Kodesh ha'Kodashim). It is then applied to the Keranos (cubic posts placed upon the corners) of the Mizbe'ach ha'Ketores (the smaller altar located in the Heichal, upon which incense is burned daily). The Sheyarei ha'Dam (remainder of the blood) is poured on the western Yesod (base) of the Mizbe'ach, whereas the Emurim (certain innards and fats) are burned on the Mizbe'ach ha'Chitzon (outer Mizbe'ach).

(c)The flesh and remaining parts of the bull are burned outside of Yerushalayim (Vayikra 4:1-12, Bamidbar 15:22-26). The clothing of those who carry the carcass out of the Azarah become Tamei. (According to Rebbi Shimon [Yoma 67b], those involved with burning the Paros are also Metamei Begadim.)

II. PAR HE'ELEM DAVAR SHEL TZIBUR - The Bulls Offered by the Supreme Court to Atone for their Mistaken Ruling

(a)The Sanhedrin (the Jewish Supreme Court) must bring a Korban if they issued a mistaken ruling permitting an act that carries a Chiyuv Kares, and the Jewish people in Eretz Yisrael (the majority of the people or the majority of the tribes) conducted themselves based on this ruling. The sages bring a young bull as a Chatas on behalf of each of the tribes. Each of these bulls is called a Par He'elem Davar Shel Tzibur (RAMBAM Hilchos Shegagos 12:1). If the sin committed was idolatry, the sages bring a young bull as an Olah and a goat as a Chatas for each tribe. The people are exempt, since they relied on the Beis Din ha'Gadol.

(b) ) The blood of these Korbenos Chatas is sprinkled seven times in the Heichal in the direction of the Paroches. It is then applied to the Keranos (cubic posts placed upon the corners) of the Mizbe'ach ha'Ketores (the smaller altar located in the Heichal, upon which incense is burned daily). The Sheyarei ha'Dam (remainder of the blood) is poured on the western Yesod (base) of the Mizbe'ach, and the Emurim (certain innards and fats) are burned on the Mizbe'ach ha'Chitzon (outer Mizbe'ach).

(c)The flesh and remaining parts of the bulls are burned outside of Yerushalayim (Vayikra 4:12-21). The clothing of those who carry their carcasses out of the Azarah become Tamei. (According to Rebbi Shimon (Yoma 67b), those involved with burning the Paros are also Metamei Begadim.)

40)[line 12] , CHISER ACHAS MI'MATANOS, LO ASAH V'LO KLUM- if [the Kohen who offered them] left out any of the applications [of their blood to either the Paroches or the Mizbe'ach ha'Ketores, it is as if] he did nothing [and no atonement has been achieved] (Zevachim 57a, Menachos 27a)

41)[line 14] NIR'EH L'MI DOMEH- [since there are conflicting ways in which we can compare a standard Chatas to other Korbanos] let us see to which of them it is most comparable

42a)[line 14] DANIN CHUTZ MI'CHUTZ- (the Gemara suggests) [it is logical that] we should derive [the Halachos of that which is offered] outside [of the Heichal (namely, a Korban Chatas)] from [that which is offered] outside [of the Heichal (namely, (a) a Chatas ha'Of (first explanation of Rashi); (b) those Korbanos whose blood is applied to the Mizbe'ach below the Chut ha'Sikra (second, preferred explanation of Rashi); (c) a Korban Asham (third explanation of Rashi)]

b)[line 15] V'EIN DANIN CHUTZ MI'PNIM- and [it is logical that] we should not derive [the Halachos of that which is offered] outside [of the Heichal (namely, a Korban Chatas)] from [that which is offered] inside [of the Heichal (namely, a Par Kohen Mashi'ach and a Par He'elem Davar Shel Tzibur)]

43)[line 16] DANIN CHATAS V'ARBA KERANOS ME'CHATAS V'ARBA KERANOS- [it is logical that] we should derive [the Halachos of that which is] a Chatas and [whose blood is applied to] four cubic posts on the corners of a Mizbe'ach, from [that which is] a Chatas and [whose blood is applied to] four cubic posts on the corners of a Mizbe'ach (even if the corners are not of the same Mizbe'ach)

44)[line 17] ...AL YOCHI'ACH ZEH...- this (namely, (a) a Chatas ha'Of (first explanation of Rashi); (b) those Korbanos whose blood is applied to the Mizbe'ach below the Chut ha'Sikra (second, preferred explanation of Rashi); (c) a Korban Asham (third explanation of Rashi)) should not establish [the Halachos of a Korban Chatas]. Rashi writes that according to his first explanation, one must explain that although a Chatas ha'Of is called a Chatas, it is not called a Chatas the blood of which is applied to four corners of a Mizbe'ach.

45)[line 18]"" " ..."KIPER" AF AL PI SHE'LO NASAN ELA SHELOSHAH...- [the first extra word] "Kiper" [teaches that the application of the blood of a Korban Chatas atones] even if [the Kohen] only applied three [of the four applications that he ought to have]...

46)[line 22] SECHACHA LO BA'I KRA- [that which] Sechach [is a necessary component of a Sukah] does not require a[n extra] verse [as it is implied by the word "Sukah" that is used l'Gufei" (see above, entry #25a)]

47)[line 24] TARTEI MASHMA- implies two [corpses according to the way it is pronounced]

48)[line 24] NEFASHOS D'ALMA- [the verse refers to] corpses in general sense (but not more than one at a time)

49)[line 25] ?UD'CHULEI ALMA YESH EM L'MIKRA?- (the Gemara asks) is it indeed true that all opinions agree that "Yesh Em l'Mikra"?

50a)[line 26]"[ , ] [ ]""[U'KESHARTAM L'OS AL YADECHA, V'HAYU] L'TOTAFOS [BEIN EINECHA]"- "[And you shall bind them as a sign upon your arm, and they shall be] Totafos [between your eyes]" (Devarim 6:8). The word "Totafos" does not appear to have meaning in Hebrew; tradition teaches us that this refers to Tefilin. The word in this verse is spelled without a "Vav" between the two letters "Tes," nor is there a "Vav" between the "Peh" and the "Sav."

b)[line 26]"[ ; , ] [ ]""[V'SAMTEM ES DEVARAI ELEH AL LEVAVCHEM V'AL NAFSHECHEM; U'KESHARTEM OSAM L'OS AL YEDCHEM, V'HAYU] L'TOTAFOS [BEIN EINEICHEM]"- "[And you shall place these words of Mine upon your hearts and upon your souls; you shall bind them as a sign upon your arms, and they shall be for] Totafos [between your eyes]" (Devarim 11:18). RASHI explains that according to our Gemara, it is the word "Totafos" in this verse that is spelled with a "Vav" between the "Feh" and the "Sav." Our Sifrei Torah today, however, include only the "Vav" between the two letters "Tes" (see TOSFOS DH l'Totafos, and TOSFOS to Shabbos 55b DH Ma'avirim).

c)[line 26]"[ ] [ ; ' ]""[V'HAYAH L'OS AL YADCHA U]L'TOTAFOS [BEIN EINECHA; KI B'CHOZEK YAD HOTZI'ANU HASH-M MI'MITZRAYIM]"- "[And it shall be as a sign upon your arm and] Totafos [between your eyes, for HaSh-m took us out of Mitzrayim forcefully (lit. with strength of hand)]" (Shemos 13:16). According to our Gemara, the word "Totafos" in this verse is also spelled with no letters "Vav." Our Sifrei Torah today, however, include a "Vav" between the two letters "Tes" (see TOSFOS to Shabbos 55b DH Ma'avirim).

51)[line 26] HAREI KAN ARBA- we have here four [that are implied by way that the words are written, since the first two can be read as "Tatfas" - "the Totefes of" - and the third one reads "Totafos," which is plural and therefore must refer to at least two]. The four that are hinted to here are the four Parshiyos that are placed within the Tefilin boxes.

52)[line 28]"" "TAT" B'CHASPI SHETAYIM- [the word] "Tat" means "two" in the language of Kaspi (see Insights)

53)[line 28]AFRIKI- the language of Afriki (see Insights)

54)[line 29] ELA L'OLAM PELIGEI- rather, there is indeed a disagreement [over whether Yesh Em la'Masores or la'Mikra, as it is clear from the opinions of Rebbi Yishmael and Rebbi Akiva that they give credence to the way in which the words in the Torah are spelled or pronounced, respectively]

55)[line 29] HEICHA D'SHANI KRA MI'MASORES- when the way in which a word is spelled [such that its pronunciation is clear (Mikra)] differs from the way in which it would have been spelled if only the bare minimum of letters were used (Masores)

56)[line 30] KI HADADEI NINHU- [their spelling for the purposes of both Mikra and Masores] are equal

57)[line 31]"[ ,] [ , ']"; """[SHALOSH PE'AMIM BA'SHANAH,] YERA'EH [KOL ZECHURCHA EL PNEI HA'ADON HASH-M]"- "YIR'EH" - "[On three occasions during the year, all of your males] shall be seen [before the Master, HaSh-m" (Shemos 23:17). The word "shall be seen" can be read as,] "He shall see."

58)[line 34]SUMA- one who is blind

59)[line 34]RE'IYAH (ALIYAH L'REGEL)

Every Jewish male must visit the Beis ha'Mikdash three times a year, on the festivals of Pesach, Shavuos, and Sukos (Shemos 23:17).

60a)[line 34] "" [] ""SHENE'EMAR "YIR'EH", [V'KARINAN] "YERA'EH"- as the word as it appears to be written is "Yir'eh," [and yet it is pronounced] "Yera'eh"

b)[line 35] , K'DERECH SHE'BA LIR'OS, KACH BA LERA'OS- (a) as [HaSh-m] comes to see [you], so should you come to be seen [by Him] (RASHI); according to the reading K'DERECH SHE'BA LERA'OS, KACH BA LIR'OS - (b) as one comes [to the Beis ha'Mikdash] to be seen [by HaSh-m], so should he come [to the Beis ha'Mikdash] to see [Him] (RABIENU TAM cited by TOSFOS DH k'Derech)

61a)[line 36] MAH LERA'OS BI'SHTEI EINAV- just as one is seen [by Hash-m] with His two eyes (i.e., with unimpaired sight)

b)[line 36] AF LIR'OS BI'SHTEI EINAV- so should he see [Hash-m] with his two eyes (i.e., he is obligated to come to the Beis ha'Mikdash only if he is fully sighted)

62)[line 38]"... ...""... LO SEVASHEL GEDI..."- see above, entry #30

63)[line 38] DERECH BISHUL ASRAH TORAH- The Torah prohibited that which can be cooked [with meat, which is applicable only to milk, which is a liquid, and not to fat, which is a solid (meat can be fried with fat, but not cooked)]

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