SANHEDRIN 47 (10 Elul) - This Daf has been dedicated in memory of Sheina Basha (daughter of Yakov and Dora) Zuckerman, who passed away on 10 Elul, by her children and sons in law.

[47a - 53 lines; 47b - 52 lines]

1)[line 1]" [ ' ; ]""NIVZEH B'EINAV NIM'AS..."- "A despicable person is disgraceful in his eyes, [and he honors those who fear HaSh-m; [if] he swears to his own detriment he does not deviate" (Tehilim 15:4).

2)[line 2] GARAR ATZMOS AVIV AL MITAH SHEL CHAVALIM - he dragged his father's bones on a bed of ropes (ACHAZ)

(a)Achaz ruled Yehuda for 16 years, and he imitated the idolatrous ways of the kings of Yisrael and Aram, even passing his son though the fire (Melachim II 16:2-15).

(b)Chizkiyahu placed HaSh-m's honor before his own, and publicly disgraced his father's body, so that others would take heed no to follow in his father's ways.

3)[line 3] YEKARA D'CHAYEI- the honor of the living

4)[line 5] MESHAHU LEI- they would suspend

5)[line 7] , " "AMAR LAHEN, "AL TISPEDUNI BA'AYAROS"- [Rebbi] said to his sons, "Do not eulogize me in the villages," (rather, only in large cities - see Kesuvos 103a)

6)[line 12]MAVIS- he leaves overnight

7)[line 16]L'SHAMA- to gather [by announcing]

8)[line 17]MEKONENOS- women to wail over the deceased

9)[line 22]GORERASO- dragging him

10)[line 23]MEZALFIN- pouring

11)[line 28]" , ; [] , ""VA'YEHI HEM KOVERIM ISH, V'HINEI RA'U ES HA'GEDUD VA'YASHLICHU ES HA'ISH B'KEVER ELISHA; [VA'YELECH] VA'YIGA HA'ISH B'ATZMOS ELISHA, VAYCHI, VAYAKAM AL RAGLAV"- "They were burying a man, and they saw a band [of Moabite soldiers], and they threw the man into the grave of Elisha; the man rolled and touched the bones of Elisha, and he came to life, and stood on his feet" (Melachim II 13:21). This man was the false prophet who had cause the death of Ido ha'Navi (Melachim I 13:11-31 - RASHI; see however MAHARSHA and MAHARATZ CHAYOS)

12a)[line 32] ...DILMA L'IKIYUMA...- perhaps [the man was restored to life only] to fulfill...

b)[line 32]"[ ; ] ""... VI'YHI NA PI SHNAYIM B'RUCHACHA EILAI" - (Eliyahu Ascends to Heaven - Melachim II 2:9).

(a)Eliyahu ha'Navi's time on this world was drawing to a close. In what would be the final miracle he was to perform, he split the Yarden (Jordan) river, and crossed it on dry land together with his disciple Elisha.

(b)While crossing, Eliyahu asked what favor he could perform for Elisha before he was taken. Elisha requested a spirit of prophecy twice that of his Rebbi. Eliyahu replied that this request was a difficult one for him to fulfill (for how can one grant another that which he himself does not possess?). He notified Elisha that if he would be able to observe the proceedings when Eliyahu would be taken to Shamayim, then he would know that his request had been granted. A fiery chariot and fiery horses appeared and separated the two, and Eliyahu ascended (alive) in a stormy wind to Heaven (Melachim II 2:11).

13a)[line 33] ...HAYNU D'TANYA- is that what is taught in the Beraisa...

b)[line 33] , ?AL RAGLO AMAD, UL'VEISO LO HALACH?- he stood on his feet, but did not return to his home (but rather he died again a short distance away)

14)[line 34] ?HEICHI MISHKACHAS LAH D'ACHAYA?- how (i.e. where) have we found that he brought a [second] person back to life (in addition to the Ben ha'Shunamis)?

15)[line 35] RIPEI TZARA'AS NA'AMAN - (NA'AMAN)

(a)Na'aman was the commander-in-chief of the Aramean army, much favored by the king of Aram since he was the one who had shot the arrow (albeit randomly) that killed Achav, Melech Yisrael. Na'aman suffered from Tzara'as. His maidservant, a Jewish captive, convinced him to seek the help of the prophet Elisha.

(b)Elisha suggested that, in order to be cured from his leprosy, Na'aman should dip seven times in the Jordan River. Na'aman flew into a rage. He could see no reason why the Jordan River was superior to the Syrian Rivers of Amanah and Parpar. His servants calmed him down and pointed out that had the Navi asked him to perform some difficult mission, he gladly would have carried it out, and he had nothing to lose by trying it.

(c)To Na'aman's utter amazement, he emerged from the Jordan completely cured. Convinced of the truth of the G-d of Yisrael, he offered the Navi a gift. Despite Na'aman's insistence, Elisha bluntly refused to accept it. Na'aman then asked for a large quantity of earth from Eretz Yisrael to take back with him to Syria, with which to erect a Mizbe'ach there, on which he would sacrifice exclusively to HaSh-m. However, Na'aman requested Elisha's indulgence, as it were, when - in his capacity as general of the army - he was obligated to accompany the king into the idolatrous temple, at which time he had no option but to prostrate himself before the idol. The Navi blessed him that he should leave in peace (Melachim II 5:1-19).

16)[line 35]" [ ]""AL NA SEHI KA'MES..."- Let her not be like one who is dead..." (Bamidbar 12:12) - This verse refers to Miriam, who was punished with Tzara'as after speaking Lashon ha'Ra about Moshe. Aharon pleaded with Moshe to forgive her and pray for her, so that she would not be "like one who is dead."

17)[line 37] , ACHAL CHELEV, V'HIFRISH KORBAN- if one ate Chelev (unwittingly), and designated an animal as a Korban [Chatas]

18)[line 38] , HO'IL V'NID'CHEH, YIDACHEH - once it has become unfit [even temporarily], it shall be [permanently] unfit (DICHUY)

(a)The concept of "Dichuy" (irrevocable disqualification) applies to Halachos in the Torah in which a particular object is needed for a Korban or Mitzvah. Some examples are limbs and blood of the Korbanos which were prepared to be offered on the altar, live animals that were designated as Korbanos, blood of Kosher birds and wild animals that must be covered with dirt, and the Four Species used on Sukos.

(b)"Dichuy" means "pushing aside." If at one point, such an item is unfit for use as required, then the rule of Dichuy tells us that it may no longer be used, even if it should later become fit. If, for example, one sanctifies an animal that has a Mum (blemish), Dichuy would not allow that animal to be offered upon the Mizbe'ach even after it has healed.

(c)There are two different scenarios in which Dichuy may apply. One, as in the previous example, is when the Dichuy was in existence from the beginning of the object's suitability for the Mitzvah. This is termed "Dichuy me'Ikara." If, however, the animal developed the Mum only after it was sanctified, this is termed "Nir'eh v'Nidcheh," a situation in which the item was at first fit for use, and only afterward became unfit. Nir'eh v'Nidcheh is a more serious condition, as the object was actively deferred from the Mitzvah.

19a)[line 39]NISHTATEH- he became insane (and lacks Da'as necessary to offer a Korban)

b)[line 39]NISHTAFEH- regained sanity

20)[line 40] IHU DACHAH NAFSHEI B'YADAYIM- he made himself unfit

21)[line 41] MI'MEILA KA DACHI- he became unfit involuntarily

22)[line 41] EIMA K'YASHEN DAMI- I might say he should be considered as if asleep (and the Korban should remain valid when he regains sanity)

23)[line 43] HAYU VAH - (IR HA'NIDACHAS)

A city that was led astray (Nidach) to the extent that a majority of its inhabitants willfully committed idolatry must be destroyed. All of those who were led astray must be killed, and the city burned, along with all of the possessions of its inhabitants, as stated in Devarim 13:13-19. The righteous people who were not led astray are not killed, but their possessions are burned. See Background to Sanhedrin 2:26.

24a)[line 43] KODSHEI MIZBE'ACH- items consecrated for offering on the Mizbe'ach, such as an unblemished animal

b)[line 43]YAMUSU- shall be left to die (RASHI to 112b)

25a)[line 43] KODSHEI BEDEK HA'BAYIS- items consecrated to fund the upkeep of the Beis ha'Mikdash - see Background to Sanhedrin 112:20

b)[line 43]YIPADU- should be redeemed (and may then be used, for they are not considered property of the Ir ha'Nidachas)

26)[line 44] KEIVAN D'IKTOL- once they (the members of the Ir ha'Nidachas who designated these Korbanos) have been executed by Beis Din

27)[line 44] !LISKU L'GAVO'AH!- let them be brought up as sacrifices!

28)[line 46] PIRESHU AVOSAV MI'DARCHEI TZIBUR- his parents left the ways of the Jewish people (to idolatry)

29)[line 47]YITAMEI- [a Kohen] must become Tamei and involve himself in their burial...

30)[line 47]"[ ' ] . [ , ...]""[VA'YOMER... EMOR EL HA'KOHANIM BENEI AHARON... L'NEFESH LO YITAMA] B'AMAV. [KI IM LI'SHEIRO HA'KAROV ELAV, L'IMO UL'AVIV...]"- "[HaSh-m said to Moshe, 'Speak to the Kohanim, the sons of Aharon, and say to them, 'Each of you shall not make himself Tamei for a [dead] person] among his people. [Except for his relative who is closest to him (i.e. his wife), for his mother and for his father, for his son, for his daughter, and for his brother]" (Vayikra 21:1-2).

31)[line 48] KI URECHEI KA'MAYIS- he died a natural death

32)[line 50]" [ ]. , ""MIZMOR L'ASAF; EL-KIM, BA'U GO'YIM B'NACHALASECHA, TIME'U ES HEICHAL KODSHECHA, SAMU ES YERUSHALAYIM [L'IYIM]. NASENU ES NIVLAS AVADECHA MA'ACHAL L'OF HA'SHAMAYIM, BESAR CHASIDECHA L'CHAYSO ARETZ"- "A Psalm by Asaf; O G-d, the nations have come unto your heritage, they have defiled your holy sanctuary, [they have made Yerushalayim into heaps (of ruins)]. They have given the carcasses of your servants as food for the birds of heaven; the flesh of your pious ones to the beasts of the earth" (Tehilim 79:1-2).

47b----------------------------------------47b

33)[line 1] HARUGEI MALCHUS- those executed by the [foreign] kingdom

34)[line 13] SHEMA MINA- we learn from here [that those executed by Beis Din do eventually gain atonement, however, their sacrifices are not offered because of Dichuy (see entry #18 above)

35)[line 14] MI'SESIMAS HA'GOLEL- from when the Golel is sealed (see next entry)

36)[line 15]GOLEL- (a) the cover of the coffin (RASHI); (b) Matzevah - a stone lain [horizontally] above a grave as a marker (RABEINU TAM, cited in Tosfos); (c) a large stone or log rolled in front of the entrance to a burial vault or cave (OR ZARU'A 2:424, quoting Rabeinu Moshe)

37)[line 15] MI'KI CHAZU TZA'ARA D'KIVRA PURTA- once the body experiences the "pain" of the grave a bit

38)[line 16] , HO'IL V'IDECHU, YIDACHU- once the relatives have been pushed aside [from observing the laws of Aveilus], they are pushed aside [and they do not begin them afterwards]

39)[line 17] MI'SHUM D'LO EFSHAR- for it is unfeasible [to move the body after it has started to decompose]

40a)[line 18] HAVU SHAKLEI MINEI AFRA- they would take earth from it

b)[line 19] L'ISHETA BAS YOMA- for [use in healing] a one-day-old fever

41)[line 20] YAUS AVDIN- they are acting properly (i.e., this is permissible)

42)[line 22]"[ ' , ;] ""[VA'YOTZEI ES HA'ASHERAH MI'BEIS HASH-M... VA'YISROF OSAH... VA'YADEK LE'AFAR;] VA'YASHLECH ES AFARAH AL KEVER BENEI HA'AM" - "[He brought the Asherah out from the house of HaSh-m, out of Yerushalayim to Nachal Kidron, and he burned it and ground it to dust;] and he cast its dust upon the graves of the common people" (Melachim II 23:6) (YOSHIYAHU HA'MELECH)

(a)Yoshiyahu was the son of the wicked Amon, and the grandson of Menashe, who had filled Eretz Yehudah with idolatry. Yoshiyahu, although righteous, grew up completely ignorant of the Torah.

(b)In the eighteenth year of Yoshiyahu ha'Melech's reign, Chilkiyah the Kohen Gadol sent Yoshiyahu ha'Melech a Sefer Torah that he had discovered in the Azarah (open to the Parshah of the Tochachah in Ki Savo). Yoshiyahu, shaken to the core, made a covenant with the people to do everything commanded by the Torah. He ordered Chilkiyah the Kohen and the Kohanim to destroy all forms of idolatry from the land, starting in the Beis ha'Mikdash itself, and to put to death all the priests who worshipped them. He also travelled northward to Beis El and Shomron to eradicate the locations where the kings of Yisrael had served idols in the past.

(c)Having achieved all that, he ordered the people to bring the Korban Pesach. The people responded enthusiastically, and the result was that so many people participated in bringing the Pesach that a Pesach like it had not been seen since the days of Shmuel, who, like Yoshiyahu, encouraged Yisrael to do Teshuvah.

(d)As the Pasuk testifies, never had there been a king like Yoshiyahu ha'Melech who returned to HaSh-m with all his heart.

43)[line 25]"[ ] , ; [ ]""[ABED TE'ABEDUN ES KOL HA'MEKOMOS ASHER AVEDU SHAM HA'GO'YIM] ASHER ATEM YORESHIM OSAM, ES ELOHEIHEM; AL HE'HARIM HA'RAMIM [V'AL HA'GEVA'OS, V'SACHAS KOL ETZ RA'ANAN]"- "[You shall completely destroy all of the places, where the nations] which you shall possess served their gods, upon the high mountains, [and upon the hills, and under every leafy tree" (Devarim 12:2).

44)[line 26] LO HE'HARIM ELOHEIHEM- the mountains [are not considered] their gods [i.e. they do not become forbidden]

45)[line 30] KEVER BINYAN- (a) a grave that was constructed above ground (RASHI); (b) a grave that was first carved into the ground and then lined with a constructed layer (YAD RAMAH)

46)[line 31] KEVER CHADASH- a new grave (built without being designated for any particular individual already deceased - RASHI)

47a)[line 34] KEVER HA'NIMTZA- a grave found [freshly dug on one's property without permission]

b)[line 34] KEVER HA'YADU'A- a known grave [dug with the owner's consent]

c)[line 35] KEVER HA'MAZIK ES HA'RABIM- a grave that damages the public [by spreading Tum'ah in a frequent thoroughfare]

48)[line 36]L'FANOSO- to empty it

49a)[line 36]PINAHU- after he empties it...

b)[line 36] , MEKOMO TAHOR, UMUTAR B'HANA'AH- its location is considered Tahor, and permitted for use. A Kever ha'Nimtza is not subject to the mid'Oraisa prohibition to benefit from a grave, because: (a) it is not a valid grave (RASHI); (b) one cannot make another person's property forbidden by using it for a Mes; the same exception would apply to one who wrapped a Mes with another person's garment (NIMUKEI YOSEF)

50)[line 41] MES MITZVAH

See Background to Sanhedrin 35:14.

51)[line 42] KALA IS LEI- lit. it would have a voice; i.e., it would be known

52)[line 43] HA'OREG BEGED L'MES- one who weaves a garment (as a shroud) for someone who has died

53)[line 45] HAZMANAH MILSA HI- designating an object [for a Mitzvah purpose] is significant [enough to render it unfit for secular use, even if no action is done to or with the object]

54)[line 47]"[ ; ] ""[VA'TAMAS SHAM MIRYAM, VA'TIKAVER] SHAM"- "[... and Miriam died there and was buried] there" (Bamidbar 20:1).

55)[line 47]"[ ; ] [ ]""[V'HORIDU ZIKNEI HA'IR HA'HI ES HA'EGLAH EL NACHAL EISAN... V'AREFU] SHAM [ES HA'EGLAH BA'NACHAL]"- "The elders of that city shall bring the calf down to a harsh valley, which is neither worked nor planted; and they shall ax the neck of the calf] there, [in the valley]" (Devarim 21:4).

56)[line 47] EGLAH ARUFAH

See Background to Sanhedrin 2:14.

57)[line 48] B'HAZMANAH MITSERA- it becomes forbidden by designation alone [as soon as it descends into the "Nachal Eisan"]

58)[line 49]"" "SHAM," ME'AVODAS KOCHAVIM- We derive it from the word "Sham" in reference to idolatry - see entry #43 above

59)[line 50] AVODAS KOCHAVIM B'HAZMANAH LO MITSERA- [an item designated for] idolatry does not become forbidden by designation alone

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