[47a - 53 lines; 47b - 52 lines]
1)[line 1]"נִבְזֶה בְּעֵינָיו נִמְאָס [וְאֶת יִרְאֵי ה' יְכַבֵּד; נִשְׁבַּע לְהָרַע וְלֹא יָמִר]""NIVZEH B'EINAV NIM'AS..."- "A despicable person is disgraceful in his eyes, [and he honors those who fear HaSh-m; [if] he swears to his own detriment he does not deviate" (Tehilim 15:4).
2)[line 2]שגרר עצמות אביו על מטה של חבליםGARAR ATZMOS AVIV AL MITAH SHEL CHAVALIM - he dragged his father's bones on a bed of ropes (ACHAZ)
(a)Achaz ruled Yehuda for 16 years, and he imitated the idolatrous ways of the kings of Yisrael and Aram, even passing his son though the fire (Melachim II 16:2-15).
(b)Chizkiyahu placed HaSh-m's honor before his own, and publicly disgraced his father's body, so that others would take heed no to follow in his father's ways.
3)[line 3]יקרא דחייYEKARA D'CHAYEI- the honor of the living
4)[line 5]משהו ליהMESHAHU LEI- they would suspend
5)[line 7]אמר להן, "אל תספדוני בעיירות"AMAR LAHEN, "AL TISPEDUNI BA'AYAROS"- [Rebbi] said to his sons, "Do not eulogize me in the villages," (rather, only in large cities - see Kesuvos 103a)
6)[line 12]מַבִיתMAVIS- he leaves overnight
7)[line 16]לְשַׁמַּעL'SHAMA- to gather [by announcing]
8)[line 17]מקוננותMEKONENOS- women to wail over the deceased
9)[line 22]גוררתוGORERASO- dragging him
10)[line 23]מזלפיןMEZALFIN- pouring
11)[line 28]"וַיְהִי הֵם קוֹבְרִים אִישׁ, וְהִנֵּה רָאוּ אֶת הַגְּדוּד וַיַּשְׁלִיכוּ אֶת הָאִישׁ בְּקֶבֶר אֱלִישָׁע; [וַיֵּלֶךְ] וַיִּגַּע הָאִישׁ בְּעַצְמוֹת אֱלִישָׁע, וַיְחִי וַיָּקָם עַל רַגְלָיו""VA'YEHI HEM KOVERIM ISH, V'HINEI RA'U ES HA'GEDUD VA'YASHLICHU ES HA'ISH B'KEVER ELISHA; [VA'YELECH] VA'YIGA HA'ISH B'ATZMOS ELISHA, VAYCHI, VAYAKAM AL RAGLAV"- "They were burying a man, and they saw a band [of Moabite soldiers], and they threw the man into the grave of Elisha; the man rolled and touched the bones of Elisha, and he came to life, and stood on his feet" (Melachim II 13:21). This man was the false prophet who had cause the death of Ido ha'Navi (Melachim I 13:11-31 - RASHI; see however MAHARSHA and MAHARATZ CHAYOS)
12a)[line 32]ודילמא לאיקיומא...DILMA L'IKIYUMA...- perhaps [the man was restored to life only] to fulfill...
b)[line 32]"[וַיְהִי כְעָבְרָם וְאֵלִיָּהוּ אָמַר אֶל אֱלִישָׁע שְׁאַל מָה אֶעֱשֶׂה לָּךְ בְּטֶרֶם אֶלָּקַח מֵעִמָּךְ; וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלִישָׁע] וִיהִי נָא פִּי שְׁנַיִם בְּרוּחֲךָ אֵלָי""... VI'YHI NA PI SHNAYIM B'RUCHACHA EILAI" - (Eliyahu Ascends to Heaven - Melachim II 2:9).
(a)Eliyahu ha'Navi's time on this world was drawing to a close. In what would be the final miracle he was to perform, he split the Yarden (Jordan) river, and crossed it on dry land together with his disciple Elisha.
(b)While crossing, Eliyahu asked what favor he could perform for Elisha before he was taken. Elisha requested a spirit of prophecy twice that of his Rebbi. Eliyahu replied that this request was a difficult one for him to fulfill (for how can one grant another that which he himself does not possess?). He notified Elisha that if he would be able to observe the proceedings when Eliyahu would be taken to Shamayim, then he would know that his request had been granted. A fiery chariot and fiery horses appeared and separated the two, and Eliyahu ascended (alive) in a stormy wind to Heaven (Melachim II 2:11).
13a)[line 33]היינו דתניא...HAYNU D'TANYA- is that what is taught in the Beraisa...
b)[line 33]על רגליו עמד, ולביתו לא הלך?AL RAGLO AMAD, UL'VEISO LO HALACH?- he stood on his feet, but did not return to his home (but rather he died again a short distance away)
14)[line 34]היכי משכחת לה דאחייא?HEICHI MISHKACHAS LAH D'ACHAYA?- how (i.e. where) have we found that he brought a [second] person back to life (in addition to the Ben ha'Shunamis)?
15)[line 35]שֶׁרִיפֵּא צרעת נעמןRIPEI TZARA'AS NA'AMAN - (NA'AMAN)
(a)Na'aman was the commander-in-chief of the Aramean army, much favored by the king of Aram since he was the one who had shot the arrow (albeit randomly) that killed Achav, Melech Yisrael. Na'aman suffered from Tzara'as. His maidservant, a Jewish captive, convinced him to seek the help of the prophet Elisha.
(b)Elisha suggested that, in order to be cured from his leprosy, Na'aman should dip seven times in the Jordan River. Na'aman flew into a rage. He could see no reason why the Jordan River was superior to the Syrian Rivers of Amanah and Parpar. His servants calmed him down and pointed out that had the Navi asked him to perform some difficult mission, he gladly would have carried it out, and he had nothing to lose by trying it.
(c)To Na'aman's utter amazement, he emerged from the Jordan completely cured. Convinced of the truth of the G-d of Yisrael, he offered the Navi a gift. Despite Na'aman's insistence, Elisha bluntly refused to accept it. Na'aman then asked for a large quantity of earth from Eretz Yisrael to take back with him to Syria, with which to erect a Mizbe'ach there, on which he would sacrifice exclusively to HaSh-m. However, Na'aman requested Elisha's indulgence, as it were, when - in his capacity as general of the army - he was obligated to accompany the king into the idolatrous temple, at which time he had no option but to prostrate himself before the idol. The Navi blessed him that he should leave in peace (Melachim II 5:1-19).
16)[line 35]"אַל נָא תְהִי כַּמֵּת [אֲשֶׁר בְּצֵאתוֹ מֵרֶחֶם אִמּוֹ וַיֵּאָכֵל חֲצִי בְשָׂרוֹ]""AL NA SEHI KA'MES..."- Let her not be like one who is dead..." (Bamidbar 12:12) - This verse refers to Miriam, who was punished with Tzara'as after speaking Lashon ha'Ra about Moshe. Aharon pleaded with Moshe to forgive her and pray for her, so that she would not be "like one who is dead."
17)[line 37]אכל חלב, והפריש קרבןACHAL CHELEV, V'HIFRISH KORBAN- if one ate Chelev (unwittingly), and designated an animal as a Korban [Chatas]
18)[line 38]הואיל ונדחה, יִדָּחֶהHO'IL V'NID'CHEH, YIDACHEH - once it has become unfit [even temporarily], it shall be [permanently] unfit (DICHUY)
(a)The concept of "Dichuy" (irrevocable disqualification) applies to Halachos in the Torah in which a particular object is needed for a Korban or Mitzvah. Some examples are limbs and blood of the Korbanos which were prepared to be offered on the altar, live animals that were designated as Korbanos, blood of Kosher birds and wild animals that must be covered with dirt, and the Four Species used on Sukos.
(b)"Dichuy" means "pushing aside." If at one point, such an item is unfit for use as required, then the rule of Dichuy tells us that it may no longer be used, even if it should later become fit. If, for example, one sanctifies an animal that has a Mum (blemish), Dichuy would not allow that animal to be offered upon the Mizbe'ach even after it has healed.
(c)There are two different scenarios in which Dichuy may apply. One, as in the previous example, is when the Dichuy was in existence from the beginning of the object's suitability for the Mitzvah. This is termed "Dichuy me'Ikara." If, however, the animal developed the Mum only after it was sanctified, this is termed "Nir'eh v'Nidcheh," a situation in which the item was at first fit for use, and only afterward became unfit. Nir'eh v'Nidcheh is a more serious condition, as the object was actively deferred from the Mitzvah.
19a)[line 39]ונשתטהNISHTATEH- he became insane (and lacks Da'as necessary to offer a Korban)
b)[line 39]ונשתפהNISHTAFEH- regained sanity
20)[line 40]דאיהו דחה נפשיה בידיםIHU DACHAH NAFSHEI B'YADAYIM- he made himself unfit
21)[line 41]דממילא קא דחיMI'MEILA KA DACHI- he became unfit involuntarily
22)[line 41]אימא כישן דמיEIMA K'YASHEN DAMI- I might say he should be considered as if asleep (and the Korban should remain valid when he regains sanity)
23)[line 43]היו בהHAYU VAH - (IR HA'NIDACHAS)
A city that was led astray (Nidach) to the extent that a majority of its inhabitants willfully committed idolatry must be destroyed. All of those who were led astray must be killed, and the city burned, along with all of the possessions of its inhabitants, as stated in Devarim 13:13-19. The righteous people who were not led astray are not killed, but their possessions are burned. See Background to Sanhedrin 2:26.
24a)[line 43]קדשי מזבחKODSHEI MIZBE'ACH- items consecrated for offering on the Mizbe'ach, such as an unblemished animal
b)[line 43]ימותוYAMUSU- shall be left to die (RASHI to 112b)
25a)[line 43]קדשי בדק הביתKODSHEI BEDEK HA'BAYIS- items consecrated to fund the upkeep of the Beis ha'Mikdash - see Background to Sanhedrin 112:20
b)[line 43]יִפָּדוּYIPADU- should be redeemed (and may then be used, for they are not considered property of the Ir ha'Nidachas)
26)[line 44]כיון דאיקטולKEIVAN D'IKTOL- once they (the members of the Ir ha'Nidachas who designated these Korbanos) have been executed by Beis Din
27)[line 44]וליסקו לגבוה!LISKU L'GAVO'AH!- let them be brought up as sacrifices!
28)[line 46]פירשו אבותיו מדרכי ציבורPIRESHU AVOSAV MI'DARCHEI TZIBUR- his parents left the ways of the Jewish people (to idolatry)
29)[line 47]יטמאYITAMEI- [a Kohen] must become Tamei and involve himself in their burial...
30)[line 47]"[וַיֹּאמֶר ה' אֶל מֹשֶׁה אֱמֹר אֶל הַכֹּהֲנִים בְּנֵי אַהֲרֹן וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵהֶם לְנֶפֶשׁ לֹא יִטַּמָּא] בְּעַמָּיו. [כִּי אִם לִשְׁאֵרוֹ הַקָּרֹב אֵלָיו, לְאִמּוֹ וּלְאָבִיו...]""[VA'YOMER... EMOR EL HA'KOHANIM BENEI AHARON... L'NEFESH LO YITAMA] B'AMAV. [KI IM LI'SHEIRO HA'KAROV ELAV, L'IMO UL'AVIV...]"- "[HaSh-m said to Moshe, 'Speak to the Kohanim, the sons of Aharon, and say to them, 'Each of you shall not make himself Tamei for a [dead] person] among his people. [Except for his relative who is closest to him (i.e. his wife), for his mother and for his father, for his son, for his daughter, and for his brother]" (Vayikra 21:1-2).
31)[line 48]דכי אורחיה קמייתKI URECHEI KA'MAYIS- he died a natural death
32)[line 50]"מִזְמוֹר לְאָסָף אֱלֹהִים בָּאוּ גוֹיִם בְּנַחֲלָתֶךָ טִמְּאוּ אֶת הֵיכַל קָדְשֶׁךָ [שָׂמוּ אֶת יְרוּשָׁלִַיִם לְעִיִּים]. נָתְנוּ אֶת נִבְלַת עֲבָדֶיךָ מַאֲכָל לְעוֹף הַשָּׁמָיִם, בְּשַׂר חֲסִידֶיךָ לְחַיְתוֹ אָרֶץ""MIZMOR L'ASAF; EL-KIM, BA'U GO'YIM B'NACHALASECHA, TIME'U ES HEICHAL KODSHECHA, SAMU ES YERUSHALAYIM [L'IYIM]. NASENU ES NIVLAS AVADECHA MA'ACHAL L'OF HA'SHAMAYIM, BESAR CHASIDECHA L'CHAYSO ARETZ"- "A Psalm by Asaf; O G-d, the nations have come unto your heritage, they have defiled your holy sanctuary, [they have made Yerushalayim into heaps (of ruins)]. They have given the carcasses of your servants as food for the birds of heaven; the flesh of your pious ones to the beasts of the earth" (Tehilim 79:1-2).
33)[line 1]הרוגי מלכותHARUGEI MALCHUS- those executed by the [foreign] kingdom
34)[line 13]שמע מינהSHEMA MINA- we learn from here [that those executed by Beis Din do eventually gain atonement, however, their sacrifices are not offered because of Dichuy (see entry #18 above)
35)[line 14]מסתימת הגוללMI'SESIMAS HA'GOLEL- from when the Golel is sealed (see next entry)
36)[line 15]הגוללGOLEL- (a) the cover of the coffin (RASHI); (b) Matzevah - a stone lain [horizontally] above a grave as a marker (RABEINU TAM, cited in Tosfos); (c) a large stone or log rolled in front of the entrance to a burial vault or cave (OR ZARU'A 2:424, quoting Rabeinu Moshe)
37)[line 15]מכי חזו צערא דקברא פורתאMI'KI CHAZU TZA'ARA D'KIVRA PURTA- once the body experiences the "pain" of the grave a bit
38)[line 16]הואיל ואידחו, ידחוHO'IL V'IDECHU, YIDACHU- once the relatives have been pushed aside [from observing the laws of Aveilus], they are pushed aside [and they do not begin them afterwards]
39)[line 17]משום דלא אפשרMI'SHUM D'LO EFSHAR- for it is unfeasible [to move the body after it has started to decompose]
40a)[line 18]הוו שקלי מיניה עפראHAVU SHAKLEI MINEI AFRA- they would take earth from it
b)[line 19]לאישתא בת יומאL'ISHETA BAS YOMA- for [use in healing] a one-day-old fever
41)[line 20]יָאוּת עבדיןYAUS AVDIN- they are acting properly (i.e., this is permissible)
42)[line 22]"[וַיֹּצֵא אֶת הָאֲשֵׁרָה מִבֵּית ה' מִחוּץ לִירוּשָׁלִַיִם אֶל נַחַל קִדְרוֹן, וַיִּשְׂרֹף אֹתָהּ בְּנַחַל קִדְרוֹן וַיָּדֶק לְעָפָר;] וַיַּשְׁלֵךְ אֶת עֲפָרָהּ עַל קֶבֶר בְּנֵי הָעָם""[VA'YOTZEI ES HA'ASHERAH MI'BEIS HASH-M... VA'YISROF OSAH... VA'YADEK LE'AFAR;] VA'YASHLECH ES AFARAH AL KEVER BENEI HA'AM" - "[He brought the Asherah out from the house of HaSh-m, out of Yerushalayim to Nachal Kidron, and he burned it and ground it to dust;] and he cast its dust upon the graves of the common people" (Melachim II 23:6) (YOSHIYAHU HA'MELECH)
(a)Yoshiyahu was the son of the wicked Amon, and the grandson of Menashe, who had filled Eretz Yehudah with idolatry. Yoshiyahu, although righteous, grew up completely ignorant of the Torah.
(b)In the eighteenth year of Yoshiyahu ha'Melech's reign, Chilkiyah the Kohen Gadol sent Yoshiyahu ha'Melech a Sefer Torah that he had discovered in the Azarah (open to the Parshah of the Tochachah in Ki Savo). Yoshiyahu, shaken to the core, made a covenant with the people to do everything commanded by the Torah. He ordered Chilkiyah the Kohen and the Kohanim to destroy all forms of idolatry from the land, starting in the Beis ha'Mikdash itself, and to put to death all the priests who worshipped them. He also travelled northward to Beis El and Shomron to eradicate the locations where the kings of Yisrael had served idols in the past.
(c)Having achieved all that, he ordered the people to bring the Korban Pesach. The people responded enthusiastically, and the result was that so many people participated in bringing the Pesach that a Pesach like it had not been seen since the days of Shmuel, who, like Yoshiyahu, encouraged Yisrael to do Teshuvah.
(d)As the Pasuk testifies, never had there been a king like Yoshiyahu ha'Melech who returned to HaSh-m with all his heart.
43)[line 25]"[אַבֵּד תְּאַבְּדוּן אֶת כָּל הַמְּקֹמוֹת אֲשֶׁר עָבְדוּ שָׁם הַגּוֹיִם] אֲשֶׁר אַתֶּם יֹרְשִׁים אֹתָם, אֶת אֱלֹהֵיהֶם; עַל הֶהָרִים הָרָמִים [וְעַל הַגְּבָעוֹת וְתַחַת כָּל עֵץ רַעֲנָן]""[ABED TE'ABEDUN ES KOL HA'MEKOMOS ASHER AVEDU SHAM HA'GO'YIM] ASHER ATEM YORESHIM OSAM, ES ELOHEIHEM; AL HE'HARIM HA'RAMIM [V'AL HA'GEVA'OS, V'SACHAS KOL ETZ RA'ANAN]"- "[You shall completely destroy all of the places, where the nations] which you shall possess served their gods, upon the high mountains, [and upon the hills, and under every leafy tree" (Devarim 12:2).
44)[line 26]ולא ההרים אלהיהםLO HE'HARIM ELOHEIHEM- the mountains [are not considered] their gods [i.e. they do not become forbidden]
45)[line 30]בקבר בניןKEVER BINYAN- (a) a grave that was constructed above ground (RASHI); (b) a grave that was first carved into the ground and then lined with a constructed layer (YAD RAMAH)
46)[line 31]קבר חדשKEVER CHADASH- a new grave (built without being designated for any particular individual already deceased - RASHI)
47a)[line 34]קבר הנמצאKEVER HA'NIMTZA- a grave found [freshly dug on one's property without permission]
b)[line 34]קבר הידועKEVER HA'YADU'A- a known grave [dug with the owner's consent]
c)[line 35]קבר המזיק את הרביםKEVER HA'MAZIK ES HA'RABIM- a grave that damages the public [by spreading Tum'ah in a frequent thoroughfare]
48)[line 36]לפנותוL'FANOSO- to empty it
49a)[line 36]פינהוPINAHU- after he empties it...
b)[line 36]מקומו טהור, ומותר בהנאהMEKOMO TAHOR, UMUTAR B'HANA'AH- its location is considered Tahor, and permitted for use. A Kever ha'Nimtza is not subject to the mid'Oraisa prohibition to benefit from a grave, because: (a) it is not a valid grave (RASHI); (b) one cannot make another person's property forbidden by using it for a Mes; the same exception would apply to one who wrapped a Mes with another person's garment (NIMUKEI YOSEF)
50)[line 41]מת מצוהMES MITZVAH
51)[line 42]דקלא אית ליהKALA IS LEI- lit. it would have a voice; i.e., it would be known
52)[line 43]האורג בגד למתHA'OREG BEGED L'MES- one who weaves a garment (as a shroud) for someone who has died
53)[line 45]הזמנה מילתא היאHAZMANAH MILSA HI- designating an object [for a Mitzvah purpose] is significant [enough to render it unfit for secular use, even if no action is done to or with the object]
54)[line 47]"[וַיָּבֹאוּ בְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל כָּל הָעֵדָה מִדְבַּר צִן בַּחֹדֶשׁ הָרִאשׁוֹן וַיֵּשֶׁב הָעָם בְּקָדֵשׁ; וַתָּמָת שָׁם מִרְיָם וַתִּקָּבֵר] שָׁם""[VA'TAMAS SHAM MIRYAM, VA'TIKAVER] SHAM"- "[... and Miriam died there and was buried] there" (Bamidbar 20:1).
55)[line 47]"[וְהוֹרִדוּ זִקְנֵי הָעִיר הַהִוא אֶת הָעֶגְלָה אֶל נַחַל אֵיתָן אֲשֶׁר לֹא יֵעָבֵד בּוֹ וְלֹא יִזָּרֵעַ; וְעָרְפוּ] שָׁם [אֶת הָעֶגְלָה בַּנָּחַל]""[V'HORIDU ZIKNEI HA'IR HA'HI ES HA'EGLAH EL NACHAL EISAN... V'AREFU] SHAM [ES HA'EGLAH BA'NACHAL]"- "The elders of that city shall bring the calf down to a harsh valley, which is neither worked nor planted; and they shall ax the neck of the calf] there, [in the valley]" (Devarim 21:4).
56)[line 47]מעגלה ערופהEGLAH ARUFAH
57)[line 48]בהזמנה מיתסראB'HAZMANAH MITSERA- it becomes forbidden by designation alone [as soon as it descends into the "Nachal Eisan"]
58)[line 49]"שָׁם" מעבודת כוכבים"SHAM," ME'AVODAS KOCHAVIM- We derive it from the word "Sham" in reference to idolatry - see entry #43 above
59)[line 50]עבודת כוכבים בהזמנה לא מיתסראAVODAS KOCHAVIM B'HAZMANAH LO MITSERA- [an item designated for] idolatry does not become forbidden by designation alone