POINT BY POINT OUTLINE
prepared by Kollel Iyun Hadaf
ROSH HASHANAH 31-33 - Dedicated Dr. Shalom Kelman of Baltimore, MD. May the Zechus of helping thousands study the Torah provide a Refu'ah Sheleimah for his father, Dr. Herbert (Isser Chayim ben Itta Fruma) Kelman.
1) "MISHNAH:" "MUSAF "OF "ROSH HASHANAH"
(a) (R. Yochanan ben Nuri): In Musaf of Rosh Hashanah, one
says Avos, Gevuros, Kedushas Hash-m, including Malchuyos,
but not blowing the Shofar.
1. Then Kedushas ha'Yom and blowing Shofar,
(b) (R. Akiva): There's no point in mentioning Malchuyos and
not blowing Shofar; it should be included in Kedushas
ha'Yom and then blow Shofar.
2. Then Zichronos and blowing Shofar,
3. Then Shofros and blowing Shofar,
4. Then Avodah, Hoda'ah, and Birchas Kohanim.
2) R. AKIVA'S ARGUMENT
(a) Question: How could R. Akiva say that there would be no
point in mentioning Malchuyos - the Torah instructs it?
(b) Answer: He meant that since it is already different to
Zichronos and Shofros, it should also have less Pesukim.
3) THE SOURCES FOR THE "BERACHOS"
(a) A Beraisa lists the sources for the obligation to say the
Berachos of Avos, Gevuros, and Kedushas Hash-m.
(b) R. Eliezer and R. Akiva cite different sources for
Zichronos, Shofros, and Kedushas ha'Yom.
(c) The source for the Berachah of Malchuyos:
1. (Rebbi): The Torah says "I am Hash-m" and continues
"In the seventh month."
(d) Question: Where is Kedushas ha'Yom said?
2. (R. Yosi bar Yehudah): A Pasuk shows that Zichronos
is always to be accompanied by Malchuyos.
(e) Answer: As taught in a Beraisa:
1. (Rebbi): It is said with Malchuyos, as we find that
it is always in the fourth Berachah.
(f) (The Beraisa continues): When the Sanhedrin went to Usha,
R. Yochanan ben Beruka followed R. Yochanan ben Nuri (in
the Mishnah, that Malchuyos is said in Kedushas Hash-m
and not accompanied by Shofar).
2. (R. Shimon ben Gamliel): It is said with Zichronos,
as we always find that it is in the middle Berachah.
1. R. Shimon ben Gamliel told him that such was not the
custom in Yavneh.
2. On the second day, R. Chanina ben R. Yosi Hagelili
followed R. Akiva (putting Malchuyos in Kedushas
ha'Yom with Shofar blowing).
3. R. Shimon ben Gamliel told him that such was the
custom in Yavneh.
i. Question: This shows that R. Shimon ben Gamliel
followed R. Akiva, yet R. Akiva said that
Kedushas ha'Yom should be said with Malchuyos,
and he said that Kedushas ha'Yom should be said
ii. Answer: R. Shimon ben Gamliel only followed R.
Akiva regarding blowing the Shofar for
Malchuyos, but not regarding the placement of
iii. Question: What does "the second day" mean?
iv. It can't mean the second day of Yom Tov, as
that would mean that Elul was a full month,
which never happened after Ezra's time?
v. Answer: It means the next day of Rosh Hashanah
which occurred, i.e. in the following year.
4) "MISHNAH:" THE NUMBER OF "PESUKIM"
(a) There must be no less than ten Pesukim for Malchuyos,
Zichronos and Shofros.
(b) (R. Yochanan ben Nuri): If he said three Pesukim for
each, he is Yotzei.
5) THE TEN "PESUKIM "OF "MALCHUYOS"
(a) Question: What do the ten Pesukim of Malchuyos correspond
(b) Answer #1 (R. Levi): The expressions of Hallel in
1. Question: There are more than ten!?
(c) Answer #2 (R. Yosef): They correspond to the Ten
2. Answer: The ten which say to praise Him with Shofar.
(d) Answer #3 (R. Yochanan): They correspond to the ten
utterances with which the world was created.
1. These are the nine "And he said"'s of Bereishis,
plus Bereishis itself.
6) R. YOCHANAN BEN NURI'S VIEW
(a) The Gemara discusses R. Yochanan ben Nuri's opinion that
it is adequate to say three Pesukim for each.
(b) Question: Does he mean three Pesukim from Torah, from
Nevi'im, and Kesuvim, totaling nine, thus differing from
the Tana Kama by one, or one from each, totaling three?
(c) Answer: We see that he means a total of three:
1. (Beraisa): There must be no less than ten Pesukim
for Malchuyos, Zichronos and Shofros.
(d) The Halachah follows R. Yochanan ben Nuri.
2. If he said seven from each, corresponding to the
Seven Heavens, he is Yotzei.
3. (R. Yochanan ben Nuri): If he says less, he should
still say seven; if he says three, he is still
Yotzei, corresponding to Torah, Nevi'im and Kesuvim,
or Kohanim, Levi'im and Yisraelim.
7) "MISHNAH:" RESTRICTED "PESUKIM"
(a) We do not mention Pesukim of Malchuyos, Zichronos and
Shofros that deal with punishment.
(b) We begin with a Pasuk from Torah, and finish with one
(c) (R. Yose): If one finishes with a Pasuk from Torah, he is
8) EXAMPLES AND QUALIFICATIONS
(a) The Gemara lists examples of Pesukim dealing with
punishment which may not be used (as cited).
1. However, one may use Pesukim dealing with punishment
to idolaters, such as the examples cited.
(b) We do not mention a Pasuk dealing with the remembrance of
an individual, even if it is a beneficial one, such as
the examples cited.
(c) (R. Yosi): Pesukim about Pikdonos are like Zichronos,
such as that of Sarah.
(d) (R. Yehudah): They are not.
1. Question: Even if they are, Sarah was an individual,
which we ruled out!?
(e) The Beraisa discusses a dispute between R. Yosi and R.
Yehudah as to the number of mentions of Malchuyos in Se'u
She'arim and Zamru Elokim (as cited).
2. Answer: Since she had many descendants, it is
considered a remembrance of many.
(f) It then mentions another dispute of theirs concerning a
Pasuk of Zichronos that also mentions Teru'ah:
1. (R. Yosi): It can be said both with Zichronos and
(g) Concerning a Pasuk of Malchuyos that also mentions
2. (R. Yehudah): It can only be said with Zichronos.
1. (R. Yosi): It can be said both with Malchuyos and
(h) Concerning a Pasuk that only mentions Teru'ah:
2. (R. Yehudah): It can only be said with Malchuyos.
1. (R. Yosi): It can be said with Shofros.
2. (R. Yehudah): It cannot be said at all.
9) THE FINISHING "PASUK"
(a) The Mishnah said that we begin with a Pasuk from Torah,
and finish with one from Nevi'im, and R. Yose said that
if one finishes with a Pasuk from Torah, he is Yotzei.
(b) Question: It seems according to R. Yosi that it is
b'Di'eved acceptable if he finishes with a Pasuk from
Torah, yet a Beraisa states that he held it to be
(c) Answer: Emend the Mishnah to read that he should finish
with a Pasuk from Torah.
(d) Question: But it said "If he did, then he is Yotzei,"
(e) Answer: Emend it to read that he should finish with a
Pasuk from Torah, but if he did finish with a Pasuk
from Nevi'im, he is Yiotzei.
1. Similarly, we find in a Beraisa that the devoted
ones would finish with a Pasuk from Torah.
10) THE "PESUKIM "FOR "MALCHUYOS"
(a) The Gemara discusses the rule that the first three and
the tenth Pasuk should be from the Torah:
(b) Question: That is good for Zichronos and Shofros, but for
Malchuyos there are only three Pesukim in the Torah!?
(c) Answer: We see in a Beraisa that other Pesukim in the
Torah are considered to refer to Malchuyos:
1. "Shema Yisrael...", "ve'Yadaata ha'Yom" and "Atah
Haraysa" are considered to be Malchuyos according to
R. Yosi, but not according to R. Yehudah.
11) "MISHNAH:" "SHACHARIS" AND "MUSAF"
(a) On Rosh Hashanah, the Shofar is blown during Musaf.
(b) When Hallel is said (on festivals), it is done by the one
12) UNDERSTANDING THE "MISHNAH"
(a) Question: If the Shofar is blown during Musaf, presumably
because there are more people and it is more honorable,
then Hallel should also be at Musaf; if it is at
Shacharis to show zeal, then so too should be Shofar?
(b) Answer: The government decreed against Shofar, so it was
changed to Musaf to avoid detection.
(c) Question: The Mishnah implies that there is no Hallel on
Rosh Hashanah - why not?
(d) Answer: Hash-m told the Melachim that it would be
inappropriate for them to do so while undergoing
13) "MISHNAH:" LAWS OF SHOFAR
(a) For the Shofar, one may not travel beyond the Techum on
Shabbos, clear away rubble, climb a tree, ride an animal,
swim, or cut it, whether with something prohibited
d'Rabanan or d'Oraisa.
1. However, he may rinse it with water or wine.
(b) We do not prevent children from blowing the Shofar, but
rather we encourage them to learn how to blow it.
(c) One who blows absent-mindedly is not Yotzei, nor is
someone who hears Shofar from such a person Yotzei.
14) TRANSGRESSING "YOM TOV "FOR SHOFAR
(a) The reason why one may not break Yom Tov for Shofar is
that Shofar is an Ase, whereas Yom Tov is both an Aseh
and a Lo Sa'aseh, which is not pushed aside.
1. Question: Why did the Mishnah need to prohibit the
d'Oraisa of climbing a tree etc. when it has already
prohibited the d'Rabanan (of Techum)?
2. Answer: The format is that "this, and needless to
say this" is forbidden.
Index to Outlines for Maseches Rosh Hashanah