POINT BY POINT OUTLINE
prepared by Kollel Iyun Hadaf
ROSH HASHANAH 31-33 - Dedicated Dr. Shalom Kelman of Baltimore, MD. May the Zechus of helping thousands study the Torah provide a Refu'ah Sheleimah for his father, Dr. Herbert (Isser Chayim ben Itta Fruma) Kelman.
1) THE SONGS FOR THE WEEK
(a) A Beraisa, citing R. Akiva, lists the songs that the
Levi'im would sing for each day of the week:
1. On Sunday, they would sing "The world is Hashem's,"
as that was the day when He established ownership of
(b) (R. Nechemiah): The song of Shabbos shouldn't be
different in referring to the future; rather, it refers
to Hash-m having rested on Shabbos.
2. On Monday, they would sing "Hash-m is great," as He
separated His works and reigned over them.
3. On Tuesday, they would sing "Hash-m stands in the
Divine assembly" as He revealed the land and
prepared it for His assembly.
4. On Wednesday, they would sing "Hash-m is the G-d of
vengeance," as He will exact vengeance from those
who worship the sun and moon which were created
5. On Thursday, they would sing "Rejoice to Hash-m"
because He created birds and fish which give cause
to praise Him.
6. On Friday, they would sing "Hash-m has reigned"
because he finished His work and reigned over it.
7. On Shabbos they would sing "Mizmor Shir le'Yom
ha'Shabbos" - referring to future era which is
(c) The dispute between R. Akiva and R. Nechemiah is based on
a dispute about whether the future era of Shabbos is
equivalent to one day or two:
1. (R. Katina): The world will exist for 6000 years and
be desolate for 1000.
(d) On Musaf of Shabbos, they would sing Ha'azinu, referred
to by the acronym of the sections HaZiYV LaCh.
2. (Abaye): It will be desolate for 2000 years.
1. The Parashah is broken up this way for leyning also.
(e) On Minchah of Shabbos, they would sing Shiras ha'Yam, Mi
Kamocha, and Alei Be'er.
(f) Question: Were all the parts of Ha'azinu read each
Shabbos, or was it split up?
(g) Answer: A Beraisa states that in the time that the Shirah
of Musaf was completed, the Shirah of the Minchah Tamid
was repeated twice (i.e. six weeks), so we see that it
was split up.
2) THE JOURNEYS OF THE "SHECHINAH"
(a) The Shechinah journeyed ten tourneys during the
Destruction of the First Beis ha'Mikdash, as derived from
1. From the Aron-cover, to a Keruv, to the other Keruv,
to the threshold, to the courtyard, to the altar, to
the roof, to the wall, to the city, to Har Zeisim,
to the wilderness, to its place in Heaven.
(b) Correspondingly, the Sanhedrin suffered ten exiles after
the Destruction of the Second Beis ha'Mikdash, as we know
from Oral Tradition:
i. (R. Yochanan): The Shechinah lingered for six
months in the wilderness, hoping that the Jews
would repent; it cursed them when they didn't.
1. From the Lishkas ha'Gazis, to Chanus, to
Yerushalayim, to Yavneh, to Usha, back to Yavneh,
back to Usha, to Shefar'am, to Beis She'arim, to
Tzipori, to Tiveria, which was the deepest exile of
2. (R. Eliezer): There were only six exiles, as derived
from a Pasuk.
(c) (R. Yochanan): They are destined to be redeemed, as we
see from a Pasuk.
3) "MISHNAH:" R. YOCHANAN'S DECREE ABOUT WITNESSES
(a) Another decree of R. Yochanan ben Zakai was that even if
the Rosh Beis Din was elsewhere, the witnesses need only
go to the Beis Din.
4) WHETHER WITNESSES NEED TO TRAVEL
(a) Ameimar excommunicated a woman summoned for litigation
who failed to follow him when he left his Beis Din to
(b) R. Ashi challenged him from our Mishnah which states that
the witnesses do not need to go to the Rosh Beis Din.
(c) He replied that that only applies to witnesses for the
moon, who we don't want to discourage, but not to this
litigation, whether the debtor is subject to the wishes
of the creditor.
5) THE DECREES OF R. YOCHANAN BEN ZAKAI
(a) (Beraisa): Kohanim may not Duchen while wearing shoes.
(b) This is one of the nine decrees of R. Yochanan ben Zakai.
(c) This is the sixth one mentioned in this Perek (following
Shofar on Shabbos in all towns with Beis Din, Lulav all
seven days, Chadash forbidden on the 16th, all-day
acceptance of testimony, and witnesses only going to the
(d) Another was in the first Perek (of witnesses only
transgressing Shabbos for Nisan and Tishrei.
(e) The eighth is that a convert must separate a
quarter-shekel for his bird-offering (to be brought when
the Beis ha'Mikdash is rebuilt).
1. (R. Shimon ben Elazar): This has been annulled,
because of the risk of his taking benefit from it.
(f) The ninth is subject to a dispute between R. Papa and R.
Nachman bar Yitzchak:
1. (R. Papa): It concerns Kerem Revai (fourth year
i. (Mishnah): Kerem Revai was brought to
Yerushalayim (instead of redeemed) from
everywhere within a day's walk, encompassing
Eilas, Akrabas, Lod, and the Yarden.
2. (R. Nachman bar Yitzchak): It concerns the strip of
ii. This was done in order to decorate Yerushalayim
iii. R. Eliezer had Kerem Revai that he wanted to
give to the poor instead, and his students told
him that his colleagues had already decreed
that it was permitted to do so.
iv. These "colleagues" refer to R. Yochanan ben
i. (Beraisa): Originally, they would hang a strip
of red wool up on Yom Kipur; if it turned
white, the people would rejoice, but otherwise,
they would despair.
3. R. Nachman bar Yitzchak disagreed with R. Papa's
explanation as R. Yochanan ben Zakai was not a
colleague of R. Eliezer but a teacher.
ii. It was decreed that it should be hung inside
the Ulam of the Beis ha'Mikdash, but people
would still peek in.
iii. R. Yochanan ben Zakai therefore decreed that
half of it should be tied to a rock and the
other half tied to the goat thrown to Azazel.
i. R. Papa would respond that it would be
disrespectful for R. Eliezer's students to
refer to him that way.
4. R. Papa disagreed with R. Nachman bar Yitzchak's
explanation as R. Yochanan ben Zakai ruled only for
his last forty years, some of which was after the
Destruction, and we know that the wool never turned
white within the last forty years of the Beis
i. R. Nachman bar Yitzchak would respond that even
before he ruled, he might have said it to his
teacher, who would have enacted it in his name.
Index to Outlines for Maseches Rosh Hashanah