[88a - 45 lines; 88b - 39 lines]

1)[line 3] BEIN HA'ARBAYIM- towards evening, before the Tamid Shel Bein ha'Arbayim (the daily Tamid afternoon sacrifice)

2)[line 4]L'SHA'ER- to measure [one and one half Lugin using the half-Log measure three times]

3)[line 11] BEIRUTZEI MIDOS- the amount of wine or oil that spills over the sides of the measuring utensils

4)[line 13] REVI'IS YAHIV LEI RACHMANA L'MOSHE- HaSh-m gave Moshe the measurement of a Revi'is

5)[line 14] SHA'ER D'KA AILEI LEHU BEIRUTZIN- measure so that the Beirutzin should be included in the larger measures (when one pours from a smaller utensil into a larger one, if the pouring is done quickly, the Beirutzin will not have time to fall to the floor, but will enter the larger utensil. Moshe was instructed to make the larger measuring utensils big enough to fit the smaller measurements including their Beirutzin - RASHI.)

6)[line 17] () SHA'ER (B'HA) D'KA NAFKEI VEIRUTZIN- measure so that the Beirutzin should be excluded from the larger measures (when one pours from a larger utensil into a smaller one, the pouring must be done slowly. As such, the Beirutzin will not enter the smaller utensil, but will fall to the floor. Moshe was thus instructed to make the smaller measuring utensils excluding the Beirutzin - RASHI.)

7)[line 20]"" B'"MELEI'IM" KA MIFLEGEI- they argue with regard to the explanation of the word "Melei'im" (Bamidbar 7:13),

8a)[line 21] SHE'LO YECHASER V'LO YOSIR- (lit. he should not leave out and not add on) he should measure an exact measure

b)[line 22]"" "MELEI'IM" SHE'LO YECHASER, AVAL YOSIR "MELEI'IM" KARINA VEI- "Melei'im" means that he must not diminish [from the measure], however, even if he increases the amount, it is still termed "Me'lei'im"

9)[line 26] SHEMEN HA'MISHCHAH

(a)After Benei Yisrael constructed the Mishkan in the desert, HaSh-m instructed Moshe Rabeinu to anoint the Mishkan and all of its utensils. Moshe was commanded to make Shemen ha'Mishchah (Shemos 30:22-33) for this purpose. The Shemen ha'Mishchah is the spiced oil that was used for anointing (and thereby consecrating) the Mishkan and its utensils, the utensils of the Beis ha'Mikdash, the kings of the House of David and the Kohanim Gedolim.

(b)The ingredients of the Shemen ha'Mishchah are as follows:

1.500 Maneh (approximately 212 kilograms) of MOR DEROR - (a) distilled myrrh, a resin produced by trees and shrubs that grow in Arabia and Africa, that leaves a lasting, bitter, aromatic taste; (b) according to RABEINU SA'ADYAH GA'ON and the RAMBAM, this refers to musk, an extract taken from the musk deer that lives in Nepal and Tibet.

2.250 Maneh (approximately 106 kilograms) of KINEMAN BESEM - (a) fragrant cinnamon, the dried bark of the cinnamon tree, cultivated today mainly in Ceylon; (b) aloeswood (or lignum aloes), which grows presently in the East Indies and tropical Southeast Asia. (There are indications that it used to grow in the Holy Land.) This is the opinion of the Gemara (Yerushalmi Shekalim 16a). The Talmud Bavli (Kerisus 5a), however, interprets the verse in Shemos (30:23) to mean that two portions each of 250 Maneh of Kineman Besem were taken (to give Hekdesh the "good measure" two times).

3.250 Maneh (approximately 106 kilograms) of KENEH VOSEM - fragrant cane. (a) Some identify this with the sweet calamus. This is the sweetflag or flagroot, a species of which apparently grew in the Chula valley in the Holy Land. (b) Some identify it with the present-day Indian plant, Cympopagan martini, which has the form of red straw.

4.500 Maneh (approximately 212 kilograms) of KIDAH - (a) cassia, the bark of a tree that grows in present-day China; (b) costus (Kosht), the root of a herb that grows in Kashmir.

(c)The total weight of the dry ingredients was 1500 Maneh (approximately 636 kilograms or 1400 pounds). According to the Talmud Bavli, the total weight was 1750 Maneh (approximately 743 kilograms or 1635 pounds). These ingredients were prepared with one Hin (12 Lugin, approximately 3.6, 4.14 or 7.2 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions) of olive oil.

10)[line 26]"... .""... V'SHEMEN ZAYIS HIN."- "... and one Hin of olive oil." (Shemos 30:24)

11)[line 28]IGNAZ- in was hidden away

12)[line 30] GEMIREI SHTEI SEMICHOS B'TZIBUR- we have learned through a Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai that there are two communal offering that require Semichah (the Par He'elem Davar Shel Tzibur (see Background to Menachos 52:3) and (a) the Sa'ir ha'Mishtale'ach (see Background to Menachos 59:31); or (b) the Se'irei Avodah Zarah (see Background to Menachos 52:4) (this second opinion is the ruling of Rebbi Shimon, who learns that the phrase "Gemirei Shtei Semichos b'Tzibur" refers to Semichos performed by the owner of the Korban, which in the case of the Par He'elem Davar Shel Tzibur and the Se'irei Avodah Zarah is the Sanhedrin. However, even though the Kohen Gadol does perform Semichah on the Sa'ir ha'Mishtale'ach, he is not considered the owner, since Rebbi Shimon rules that the Kohanim receive atonement for those sins for which the Sa'ir ha'Mishtale'ach is Mechaper, from the Viduy of the Kohen Gadol on the Par Kohen Gadol - Shevuos 2b)

13)[line 35] REVI'IS MAYIM LI'METZORA (TAHARAS HA'METZORA)

(a)THE PROCESS BY WHICH A METZORA BECOMES TAHOR - On the day that a Metzora (see Background to Zevachim 102:3) is healed from his Tzara'as, he takes two kosher birds (Tziporei Metzora), a piece of cedar, some crimson wool and a hyssop branch. One of the birds is slaughtered over one Revi'is of fresh spring water in a clay bowl. A Kohen dips the other bird, along with the other articles, into the spring water that is mixed with the blood and sprinkles it seven times on the Metzora. The living bird is sent away towards the fields. Both birds are Asur b'Hana'ah, but the Isur is removed from the living bird after it is sent off to the fields.

(b)The Metzora next shaves with a razor all places on his body that have a collection of hair and that are exposed, and immerses in a Mikvah. He is now considered Tahor to the extent that he may enter a settlement, but marital relations are forbidden (Moed Katan 7b). He counts seven days ("Yemei Sefiro"), and on the seventh day he once more shaves and immerses. He is now completely Tahor but is still a Mechusar Kaparah (see Background to Menachos 27:34).

(c)On the eighth day, the Metzora must bring Korbanos to complete his Taharah. The animal Korbanos are two male sheep and one female sheep. One of the male sheep is offered as an Olah, the other as an Asham. The female sheep is offered as a Chatas. If he could not afford to buy all these animals, he is called a poor Metzora. The poor Metzora brings two Torim (turtledoves) or two Benei Yonah (common doves) as the Olah and the Chatas; however, a sheep is still brought as his Asham. An ordinary Metzora or a poor Metzora brings Nesachim with all of his animal Korbanos (Menachos 91a).

(d)The Metzora also brings a Log of olive oil to the Beis ha'Mikdash as part of his purification process. A Kohen lifts up and waves (Tenufah) the live Korban Asham with the Log of oil resting upon it. After the Asham is slaughtered, some of the blood is placed on the body of the Metzora: on the middle section of cartilage of the Metzora's right ear, on his right thumb and on his right big toe. These parts of his body must be in the Azarah at the time that the Kohen applies the blood. For this purpose he stands in the gate of Nikanor (TY #18; the eastern gate of the Azarah, named for the man who donated the brass doors of the gate (see Yoma 38)). Although all of the other gates of the Azarah had the Kedushah of the Azarah, Sha'ar Nikanor only had the Kedushah of Har ha'Bayis. The Chachamim arranged this so that the Metzora could stick his head, right hand and right foot into the Azarah while standing under the archway of the gate.

(e)After all of the Korbanos were offered, a Kohen pours some of the oil in his left hand and sprinkles it seven times towards the Kodesh ha'Kodashim. He must dip his right finger in the oil each time. Oil is also put on the body of the Metzora, on the places where the blood of the Asham was placed. The remainder of the oil in the Kohen's hand is placed on the Metzora's head. The rest of the Log which was not poured into the Kohen's hand was given to the Kohanim, and must be consumed by male Kohanim in the Azarah (it is one of the Kodshei ha'Kodashim). (RAMBAM Hilchos Mechusarei Kaparah 4:2-3)

14)[line 36] REVI'IS SHEMEN L'NAZIR (NAZIR)

(a)If a person makes a vow to become a Nazir without stipulating a time period, his or her Nezirus lasts for a period of thirty days. If the person stipulates a time period (longer than thirty days), his or her Nezirus lasts for whatever amount of time he stipulated, as long as it is. During this period, the Nazir is not allowed to 1. cut his hair; 2. become Tamei by touching or being in the same room as a corpse; or 3. consume any products of the grapevine (Bamidbar 6:1-21, SEFER HA'CHINUCH #377). Transgressing any one of these prohibitions makes the Nazir liable to Malkus, as long as he was warned beforehand.

(b)When a Nazir completes his period of Nezirus, he must offer three sacrifices: a male sheep as an Olah, a female sheep as a Chatas, and a ram as a Shelamim. Together with the Shelamim he brings 6 and 2/3 Esronos of Soles (fine flour), which are made into 20 loaves of Matzah, 10 Chalos (unleavened loaves) and 10 Rekikin (flat Matzos). One Revi'is of olive oil is used to make the Matzos, half of it for the Chalos and half of it for the Rekikin. He then shaves off his hair and burns it under the pot in which the Zero'a (right hind leg) of the Shelamim is cooked (Bamidbar 6:18). (Sefer ha'Chinuch #377)

15)[line 37] CHATZI LOG MAYIM L'SOTAH (SOTAH)

(a)A Sotah is a woman who is suspected of committing adultery because she was warned by her husband not to seclude herself with a certain man and she violated the warning. The process of warning her in front of witnesses is called Kinuy. The witnesses who see her seclude herself with the suspected adulterer are called Eidei Stirah. The time of seclusion must be at least for the time that it takes to roast an egg and swallow it. The woman is forbidden to her husband and the alleged adulterer until she drinks Mei Sotah (see (d), below). If she committed adultery after not heeding the warning of two witnesses, she is put to death by Chenek (choking), as it states in the Torah (Devarim 22:22). One witness to adultery ("Ed Tum'ah) prevents her from drinking the Mei Sotah.

(b)After Kinuy and Stirah, the husband must bring his wife to the Beis ha'Mikdash to perform the ceremony of the Mei Sotah. On the way there, Beis Din appoints two Torah scholars to accompany them to make sure that they do not engage in marital relations, which are forbidden to them. Moreover, if the couple does have marital relations at this point, the Mei Sotah will not work, since the husband must be "Menukeh me'Avon," clear (lit. cleaned) of sin for the ceremony to work. The Gemara (Sotah 47b) explains that this means that he did not have relations with his wife from the time that she became prohibited to him, or with any other woman (ever) who was prohibited to him (RASHI to Sotah ibid.)

(c)The husband brings a sacrifice consisting of 1/10 of an Eifah (approximately 2.16, 2.49 or 4.32 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions) of barley flour as a Minchah offering. Oil and Levonah are not added (Bamidbar 5:15), and Hagashah, Kemitzah and Haktarah are performed (see Background to Menachos 72:25a:c). The Sheyarei ha'Minchah are eaten by the Kohanim. In the Azarah of the Beis ha'Mikdash, a Kohen reads Parshas Sotah, the portion of the Torah describing the curses with which a Sotah is cursed, out loud (in any language that the Sotah understands) and makes the Sotah swear that she has been faithful to her husband.

(d)An earthenware jug is then filled with half a Log of water from the Kiyor, and dirt from the floor of the Azarah is placed on top of the water. Parshas Sotah (that contains numerous appearances of Hash-m's name) is written on parchment and then immersed in the water, which causes the ink to dissolve, erasing the Holy Names. The Sotah afterwards drinks from the water. If she was unfaithful to her husband and allowed herself to become defiled, the water would enter her body and poison her, causing her belly to swell out and her thigh to rupture. If she was faithful to her husband, she remained unharmed and would be blessed that she would become pregnant (Bamidbar 5:11-31). In times when there is no Mei Sotah such as in the present day, a Sotah must be divorced and does not receive her Kesuvah.

16)[line 37] CHATZI LOG SHEMEN L'SODAH - the one half of a Log of oil [that was used to make the thirty loaves of Matzos] of the Korban Todah (KORBAN TODAH)

(a)The Todah (thanksgiving offering) is a form of Shelamim that is eaten for only one day and one night (Vayikra 7:15). Korbenos Shelamim that are offered by an individual may be brought from male or female sheep, cows or goats. They are Kodshim Kalim, and may therefore be slaughtered in the entire Azarah (and not only in its northern part). Before its slaughter, the owner presses his hands on the head of the animal (Semichah). The blood of the Todah is cast on the northeastern and southwestern corners of the Mizbe'ach ("Shenayim she'Hen Arba"). Nesachim (a flour offering consisting of flour and oil and a wine libation) are brought as part of the Korban (Bamidbar 15:3-12). The flour offering is completely burned on the Mizbe'ach and the wine is poured into one of the Sefalim (the silver libation pipes located at the top of the southwest corner of the Mizbe'ach) (RAMBAM and RA'AVAD Hilchos Ma'aseh ha'Korbanos 2:1). The amount of flour, oil and wine needed depends upon the animal offered, as specified in Bamidbar (ibid.).

(b)An animal that was sacrificed as a Todah was brought together with forty loaves of bread, as follows:

1.Chalos Matzos - ten Matzos mixed with one eighth of a Log of olive oil;

2.Rekikin - ten flat Matzos saturated with one eighth of a Log of olive oil;

3.Soles Murbeches - ten Matzos made of boiled flour mixed with one quarter of a Log of olive oil;

4.Ten loaves of leavened bread. (Vayikra 7:12-13)

(c)One loaf of each type of bread was given to the Kohen who performed the Zerikas ha'Dam of the Todah (Vayikra 7:14). (These four loaves were known as Terumas Lachmei Todah.) The Chazeh (breast) and Shok (thigh) of the Shelamim were given to the Kohen (Vayikra 7:34). Certain fats and other parts of the Korban were offered on the Mizbe'ach (Vayikra 3:3-4, 9-10, 14-15). The owner and his guests (men or women) eat the rest of the Korban inside the borders of the city of Yerushalayim. The meat may be cooked in any fashion and is eaten on the day that it is slaughtered and the following night.

17)[line 42]"... , .""... L'MINCHAH, V'LOG SHAMEN."- "... [and one Isaron of fine flour mixed with oil] as a Minchah offering, and one Log of oil." (Vayikra 14:21) - Even though this verse refers to the Minchah and oil of a Metzora, Rebbi Eliezer ben Yakov uses it to teach that ordinary Menachos Nedavah, no matter how much flour they consist of, only require one Log of olive oil.

18)[last line] ?REVI'IS LAMAH NIMSHECHAH? - Why was the Revi'is-measure consecrated? (MESHICHAS HA'KELIM)

After Benei Yisrael constructed the Mishkan in the desert, HaSh-m instructed Moshe Rabeinu to anoint the Mishkan and all of its utensils. Moshe was commanded to make Shemen ha'Mishchah (Shemos 30:22-33; see above, entry #9) for this purpose. The Shemen ha'Mishchah is the spiced oil that was used for anointing (and thereby consecrating) the Mishkan and its utensils, the utensils of the Beis ha'Mikdash, the kings of the House of David and the Kohanim Gedolim.

88b----------------------------------------88b

19)[line 1] CHUTZ HU- the process by which a Metzora becomes Tahor takes place outside of the Azarah of the Beis ha'Mikdash

20)[line 1] LECHEM NAZIR BI'SHECHITAS AYIL HU D'KADISH- the loaves of a Nazir (see above, entry #14) are consecrated when his Shelamim sacrifice is slaughtered

21)[line 4]"... () ...""ME'ERETZ MERCHAK ISH ATZASI"- "the man of my counsel is from a distant land" (Yeshayah 46:11) - The verse actually refers to Koresh, whom HaSh-m summoned to destroy Bavel (IBN EZRA to Yeshayah ibid.). Rebbi used it to refer to Rebbi Chiya, since he came to Eretz Yisrael from Bavel.

22)[line 6] ( )?V'CHI CHULIN HU (DI'TZERICHI LI'KEDUSHEI)?- But are they (the Mei Sotah) ordinary, non-consecrated [water]?

23)[line 7]" " "MAYIM KEDOSHIM" KESIV- the verse states [that the Kohen must use] "holy water" (i.e. water that was taken from the Kiyor, which was consecrated water)

24)[line 8] LACHMEI TODAH BI'SHECHITAS TODAH HU D'KADSHEI- the loaves of a Korban Todah (see above, entry #16) are consecrated when the animal is slaughtered

25)[line 10] NER YISRAEL KACH HAYAH- (a) the candle of Yisrael was like this (i.e. like you) [that you enlighten the eyes of the sages] (RASHI to Erchin 10a DH Ner); (b) Rebbi called Rebbi Shimon b'Rebbi Ner Yisrael because his answer to Rebbi's question concerned the lamps of the Menorah (TOSFOS DH Ner)

26a)[line 11] NER SHE'KAVSAH- if one of the lamps of the Menorah went out [during the night]

b)[line 11] NIDASHEN HA'SHEMEN NIDASHNAH HA'PESILAH- (a) or if the wick of one of the lamps burned to ashes, in which case the leftover oil must be discarded also (RASHI); (b) or if the wick of one of the lamps burned to ashes, or if the oil of one of the lamps became filled with ashes (RASHI KSAV YAD)

27)[line 12]METIVAH- he empties any remains of the wicks and oil (see Background to Menachos 86:45b)

28a)[line 14] K'MIDAH RISHONAH- like the original amount [placed into each lamp, one half of a Log]

b)[line 15] KEMO SHE'CHASRAH- like the amount that he emptied [from the lamp that went out]

29)[line 16] D'MESHA'ER LEI- he measures the leftover oil before he discards it (RASHI KSAV YAD)

30a)[line 16] ?SHEVA MIDOS?- [only] seven measuring utensils?

b)[line 16] !NAFISH LEHU MIDOS TUVA!- the measuring utensils will be countless!

31)[line 17]" ; [ .]""VA'HADARCHA TZELACH RECHAV AL DVAR EMES V'ANVAH TZEDEK"- "And in your majesty ride prosperously on in the cause of truth and for the sake of righteousness; [and let your right hand teach you awesome things.]" (Tehilim 45:5) - Rebbi Zerika / Zeira uses this verse to praise Rebbi Yirmeyah: (a) by exclaiming that his answer succeeded ("Hitzlichah") in solving the problem with an extremely truthful insight ("Hadarcha" can be loosely translated as "what you have returned, answered") (RASHI); (b) by exclaiming that he must have a sharp mind to have answered correctly ("Hadarcha" is close to the word "Chadadcha," "your sharpness") (RASHI KSAV YAD, RABEINU GERSHOM)

32a)[line 21] NER SHEBA'MIKDASH- the Menorah of the Beis ha'Mikdash

b)[line 21] SHEL PERAKIM HAVAH- contained removable parts: (a) not to mean that the lamps were detachable, but rather that the branches of the Menorah became extremely thin just underneath the lamps, so that it was possible to bend the lamps in order to clean them out (RASHI, 1st explanation); (b) that the lamps had removable covers that were taken off in order to clean the lamps (RASHI, 2nd explanation)

33a)[line 21]" [ , .]""KIKAR [ZAHAV TAHOR YA'ASEH OSAH, ES KOL HA'KELIM HA'ELEH.]"- "[It shall be made from] one talent [of pure gold, [it and] all of these utensils.]" (Shemos 25:39)

b)[line 21]"... [ , , , .]""MIKSHAH [TE'ASEH HA'MENORAH YEREICHAH V'KANAH, GEVI'EHA, KAFTOREHA, U'FERACHEHA MIMENAH YIHEYU.]"- "[the Menorah shall be made of] hammered work, [its base and its [central] branch, its cups, its knobs and its flowers are made [extending] from it.]" (Shemos 25:31)

34a)[line 21]MENORAH- the Golden candelabra of the Mishkan and Beis ha'Mikdash (Shemos 25:31-40)

b)[line 22]NEROSEHA- its lamps

35)[line 22]HATAVAH (HATAVAS HA'NEROS)

(a)Every evening a Kohen lights the Menorah in the Beis ha'Mikdash. This is called Hadlakas ha'Neros. Enough oil (one half of a Log) is put into the Menorah's lamps to burn until the morning.

(b)In the morning, a Kohen would clean out the burned wicks and leftover oil that remained in the Menorah's lamps, and replaced them with fresh oil and wicks. This is what the Torah, and the Mishnah, calls Hatavas ha'Neros, or Dishun ha'Menorah. The spent wicks were placed in the same pile of ashes near the ramp of the Mizbe'ach into which the Terumas ha'Deshen was placed.

(c)The cleaning of the lamps was done in two stages. First the Kohen would clean five of the lamps of the Menorah, then he would wait while other services of the Mikdash were done, and only afterwards would he complete the job and clean out the remaining two lamps of the Menorah.

(The above description is based on the opinion of the majority of the Rishonim. However, others assert that some or all of the lamps of the Menorah were lit in the morning as well, or that the Menorah was cleaned in a single step, according to some Tana'im. Also, the process described is altered slightly if some of the lamps are still burning by the morning. The Tana'im argue as to which service was done between the cleaning of the first five and the last two lamps. For more information, see Yoma 14a, Chart #2.)

36)[line 23]MESALKAN- he takes them away (off)

37)[line 23] MENICHAN BA'OHEL- and he places them in the "tent" (the Mishkan or the Beis ha'Mikdash)

38)[line 23] MEKANCHAN B'SFOG- he wipes them with a sponge

39)[line 25] MI'CHLAL D'IY BE'AYA LEI L'OZUZAH MATZI MAZIZ LEI- from this we learn that if he wished to move them, he was able to do so

40)[line 25] ELA EIMA LO HAYESAH ZAZAH MI'MEKOMAH- [No, that is not the proper teaching to learn from the statement of the Chachamim, but] say, rather, that it did not move from its place

41)[line 26] K'MIN TAS SHEL ZAHAV HAYAH LAH AL GABAH- a type of thin piece of gold was on top of it (on top of each lamp)

42a)[line 27] DOCHAKO KELAPEI PIHA- he pushes it (the Tas) towards the mouth of the lamps

b)[line 28] DOCHAKO KELAPEI ROSHAH- he pushes it (the Tas) towards the "head" of the lamp, i.e. the back

43)[line 28] BA'OS MIN HA'KIKAR- come from (i.e. are all made from) the one talent of gold

44a)[line 29]MALKACHEHA- its tongs

b)[line 29]MACHTOSEHA- it small spoon-like instruments

45)[line 37]" , , . .""V'ASISA ES NEROSEHA SHIV'AH V'HE'ELAH ES NEROSEHA V'HE'IR EL EVER PANEHA. U'MALKACHEHA U'MACHTOSEHA ZAHAV TAHOR"- "And you shall make its lamps seven [in number,] and when they are lit, they shall shine towards the middle branch of the Menorah. And its tongs and its spoon-like instruments shall be [made] of pure gold." (Shemos 25:37-38)

46)[line 38] PI NEROS- the "mouths" of the lamps (upon which the wicks rested)

47)[last line] HA'TORAH CHASAH AL MAMONAN SHEL YISRAELMN- HaSh-m (lit. the Torah) cares for the money of Yisrael

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