[87a - 51 lines; 87b - 46 lines]
1)[line 1]קמחיןKEMACHIN- (O.F. chienes or jeines) a type of mold that grows on the surface of wine
2)[line 1]שוליהSHULEHA- from its bottom
3)[line 2]משלישה מאמצעהME'SHELISHAH ME'EMTZA'AH- (a) from the upper third of the barrel (but not from the top layer) or from the middle of the barrel; the wine is removed by fitting in a spout (RASHI KSAV YAD; see YOSEF DA'AS); (b) from its middle third, i.e. the spout is fitted into the barrel at the bottom of the upper two thirds of the barrel's height. When the middle third has been removed (which has a visible sign, such as the "Gir" or dregs coming out from the bottom of the upper third (unlike the explanation of Rashi with regard to Gir)), no more wine is removed from this barrel (RASHASH, 1st explanation); (c) from the upper third of the barrel (but not from the top layer), from the middle barrel of the wine cellar, that has a barrel above it and a barrel under it, and barrels at the sides (RAMBAM Hilchos Isurei Mizbe'ach 7:6; RASHASH, 2nd explanation)
4)[line 2]גזברGIZBAR- the treasurer or agent of Hekdesh
5)[line 3]קנהKANEH- a measuring stick (RASHI KSAV YAD)
6a)[line 3]זרק הגירZARAK HA'GIR- he waited until the "Gir" came out of the barrel and discarded it. The "Gir" is (a) the white top layer of the dregs, which is found at approximately one third of the height of the barrel (RASHI); (b) the white bottom layer of the dregs at the top of the barrel, which is found at approximately two thirds of the height of the barrel (RASHASH)
b)[line 3]הקיש בקנהHIKISH BA'KANEH- he made a noise by hitting the jug with a Kaneh (he did not want to talk — see below, entry #16b)
7a)[line 5]"... תְּמִימִם יִהְיוּ לָכֶם. וּמִנְחָתָם [סֹלֶת בְּלוּלָה בַשָּׁמֶן...]""... TEMIMIM YIHEYU LACHEM. U'MINCHASAM [SOLES BELULAH VA'SHAMEN...]"- "... unblemished they shall be to you. And their Menachos [shall be of flour mixed with oil...]" (Bamidbar 28:19-20) - The Gemara joins the last three words of verse 19 and the first word of verse 20 to prove that the Menachos also must be Temimim (unblemished), as well as all of the items that are used as Korbanos (RASHI KSAV YAD).
b)[line 5]"... תְּמִימִם יִהְיוּ לָכֶם וְנִסְכֵּיהֶם""... TEMIMIM YIHEYU LACHEM V'NISKEIHEM"- "... unblemished they shall be to you and their wine libations." (Bamidbar 28:31)
8)[line 9]כרוך ותניKEROCH V'TANI- put the two cases of the Mishnah together and learn as follows: (a) "Ein Mevi'in Halistiyon Lefi she'Ein Mevi'in Masok... v'Im Hevi Pasul"- "We do not use wine made of Halistiyon because we do not use wine made of sweetened grapes... and if one were to use one of these, it is invalid" (RASHI); (b) "Ein Mevi'in Halistiyon... v'Ein Mevi'in Masok... v'Im Hevi Kasher" - "We do not use wine made of Halistiyon... or wine made of sweetened grapes... and if one were to use one of these, it is nevertheless valid." (TOSFOS DH Keroch)
9a)[line 10]חוליא דשימשא לא מאיסCHULYA D'SHIMSHA LO MA'IS- sweetness from the sun is not rejected l'Chatchilah
b)[line 10]חוליא דפירא מאיסCHULYA D'FEIRA MA'IS- sweetness from the fruit is rejected even b'Di'eved
10)[line 13]"... לַכֶּבֶשׂ, יָיִן...""... LA'KEVES, YAYIN..."- "... for the sheep, wine..." (Bamidbar 28:14) - Chizkiyah learns that the wine is compared to the sheep. Just like the sheep must be brought within their first year, so, too, must the wine be within its first year (but over forty days old).
11)[line 14]אי מה כבש בן שתי שנים פסול, אף יין בן שתי שנים פסול?IY MAH KEVES BEN SHTEI SHANIM PASUL, AF YAYIN BEN SHTEI SHANIM PASUL?- If [the wine is compared to the sheep,] just like a two-year-old sheep is invalid, even b'Di'eved, [could it be that] two-year-old wine also invalid b'Di'eved? (It is not! Two-year-old wine is valid b'Di'eved, as the Gemara proves shortly.)
12)[line 19]"אַל תֵּרֶא יַיִן כִּי יִתְאַדָּם...""AL TERE YAYIN KI YIS'ADAM..."- "Do not look upon wine when it is red" (Mishlei 23:31) - The verse implies that red wine takes precedence, and a wine's red color is most prominent within its first year.
13)[line 20]כרמים העבודים פעמים בשנהKERAMIM HA'AVUDIM PA'AMAYIM B'SHANAH- vineyards that are worked (i.e. aerated by digging around the roots) two times a year
14)[line 22]קרנא דפרדיסאKARNA D'FARDEISA- a corner of his vineyard
15)[line 22]דרפיק ביה טפי ריפקאD'RAFIK BEI TEFEI RIFKA- he did an extra turning of the soil
16a)[line 22]ועבד חמראV'AVAD CHAMRA- and it produced wine
b)[line 23]דדרי מיא על חד תריןD'DARI MAYA AL CHAD TEREIN- that was so strong that it needed twice the water to dilute it; normal wine at the time was diluted with three parts water while Rav Yosef's wine needed to be diluted with six parts water
17)[line 24]חביות כדיות לודיות ובינוניותCHAVIYOS KADIYOS LUDIYOS BEINONIYOS- the words "Chaviyos [Ketanos]" of the Mishnah means "medium-size Ludian jugs" (see YOSEF DA'AS citing the KEREN ORAH, who states that the Girsa of the TOSEFTA is "V'LO B'CHAVIYOS KETANOS," which is a very probable reason that our Gemara rules to use Beinoniyos)
18a)[line 30]כשם שהדיבור יפה לבשמיםKE'SHEM SHEHA'DIBUR YAFEH LA'BESAMIM- just as speaking is good for the Besamim [during their preparation]
b)[line 31]כך דיבור רע לייןKACH DIBUR RA LA'YAYIN- so is speaking bad for wine [during its preparation or fermentation] (i.e. it can cause it to become vinegar instead of wine; see Interactive Discussions to Menachos 87a, "Speaking around wine and incense")
19a)[line 35]אליםELIM- rams
b)[line 35]כבשיםKEVASIM- sheep
20)[line 36]עגליםAGALIM- calves
21)[line 36]שרוןSHARON- a coastal region in Eretz Yisrael stretching from the Yarkon River in the south until Mount Carmel in the north, which is known for growing cattle
22)[line 36]גוזלותGOZALOS- doves, pigeons
23)[line 36]הר המלךHAR HA'MELECH- (lit. the mountain of the king) the region around Beis El in the hills of Efrayim, bordering on the mountains of Yehudah, preserved in the name of the Arab village Kefar Malich (ha'Ge'ografiyah ba'Mishnah, B.Z. Segal, Rav Y.A. Devorkas (ed.), Yerushalayim 5739, pp. 82-84
24)[line 37]שגבהן כרחבןSHE'GOVHAN K'ROCHBAN- (a) that they are as wide as they are high (RASHI, RASHI KSAV YAD, 1st explanation); (b) according to the reading, "SHE'GABEIHEN RECHAVIM" - the backs of which are very wide (RASHI KSAV YAD, 2nd explanation)
25)[line 39]"... יִרְעֶה מִקְנֶיךָ בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא כַּר נִרְחָב""... YIR'EH MIKNECHA BA'YOM HA'HU KAR NIRCHAV"- "[Then shall He give the rain for your seed, that you shall sow the ground with it; and bread of the produce of the earth, and it shall be fat and abundant;] in that day shall your cattle feed in large pastures" (Yeshayah 30:23) - The words "Kar Nirchav" - "large pastures," are interpreted to mean, "wide sheep," based upon many verses where the word "Karim" is used to refer to sheep (e.g. Devarim 32:14, Melachim II 3:4, Yeshayah 34:6, et al.)
26)[line 39]"עַל חוֹמֹתַיִךְ יְרוּשָׁלִַם הִפְקַדְתִּי שֹׁמְרִים, כָּל הַיּוֹם וְכָל הַלַּיְלָה תָּמִיד לֹא יֶחֱשׁוּ; הַמַּזְכִּרִים אֶת ה', אַל דֳּמִי לָכֶם""AL CHOMOSAYICH YERUSHALAYIM HIFKADTI SHOMERIM, KOL HA'YOM V'CHOL HA'LAILAH TAMID, LO YECHESHU; HA'MAZKIRIM ES HASHM, AL DAMI LACHEM"- "I have set watchmen upon your walls, O Yerushalayim, who shall never hold their peace day nor night; you who make mention of HaSh-m, take no rest" (Yeshayah 62:6) - The "watchmen" are angels. The Gemara asks, what is it that they say?
27)[line 43]"[כִּי בָחַר ה' בְּצִיּוֹן,] אִוָּהּ לְמוֹשָׁב לוֹ""... IVAH L'MOSHAV LO"- "[For HaSh-m has chosen Tziyon;] He has desired it for His habitation." (Tehilim 132:13)
PEREK #10 SHTEI MIDOS
28)[line 45]עשרוןISARON (DRY MEASURES)
(a)The following is a list of measures of volume used in the Mishnah and Gemara:
1.1 Kor (= 1 Chomer) = 30 Se'in
2.1 Lesech = 15 Se'in
3.1 Eifah = 3 Se'in
4.1 Se'ah = 6 Kabin
5.1 Tarkav (= Trei v'Kav, or 3 Kabin) = 12 Lugin
6.1 Kav = 4 Lugin
7.1 Log (= 1 Rova) = 4 Revi'iyos = 6 Beitzim
8.1 Beitzah = 2 or 3 k'Zeisim, according to the varying opinions
(b)In modern-day measures, the k'Zayis is approximately 0.025, 0.0288 or 0.05 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions. Therefore 1 Isaron = 2.16, 2.49 or 4.32 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions.
29)[line 48]חביתי כהן גדולCHAVITEI KOHEN GADOL
(a)The Minchas Chavitin is brought by the Kohen Gadol every day. It consists of 1/10 of an Eifah (approximately 2.16, 2.49 or 4.32 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions) of wheat flour made into twelve wafers or rolls. They were fried in olive oil in a flat pan after being boiled and baked (this is the ruling of the RAMBAM, but see Menachos 50b). Next, the rolls are folded without breaking them (Pesisah). Levonah is added, and Hagashah and Haktarah are performed (see Background to Menachos 72:25a:c).
(b)Half of the rolls were offered in the morning and half towards evening (Vayikra 6:13). They were completely burned on the Mizbe'ach. The Chavitin had to be brought from the money of the Kohen Gadol, but he did not personally have to offer them on the Mizbe'ach. The amount of oil that was used for each of the Chavitin rolls was one Revi'is (approximately 75, 86.4 or 150 cc, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions), a total of three Lugin for the entire Minchah.
(c)An ordinary Kohen, on the day that he begins his service in the Beis ha'Mikdash, must bring a Korban Minchah that is the same as the Minchas Chavitin that the Kohen Gadol brings every day (Vayikra 6:13). His Korban is known as the Minchas Chinuch (RAMBAM Hilchos Ma'aseh ha'Korbanos 13:2-4).
30)[line 50]"עִשָּׂרוֹן עִשָּׂרוֹן לַכֶּבֶשׂ הָאֶחָד...""ISARON ISARON LA'KEVES HA'ECHAD..."- "One Isaron for each Keves..." (Bamidbar 28:29) - From the repetition of the word "Isaron," Rebbi Meir learns that there were two separate Isaron measures in the Beis ha'Mikdash. (The reference of the Torah Or to Bamidbar 28 seems to be a misprint, since the Gemara on Amud Beis clearly shows that Rebbi Meir learns from a verse the first word of which is "v'Isaron," which has a second letter "Vav" with a dot on top of it, which is not found in Bamidbar 28.)
31a)[last line]אחד גדושECHAD GADUSH- one that would hold exactly an Isaron of flour only if it was filled with a heaping measure
b)[last line]אחד מחוקECHAD MACHUK- one that would hold exactly an Isaron of flour only if it was leveled off
32)[line 3]"וְעִשָּׂרוֹן אֶחָד לַכֶּבֶשׂ הָאֶחָד ...""V'ISARON ECHAD LA'KEVES HA'ECHAD ..."- "And one Isaron for each Keves ..." (Bamidbar 29:4)
33)[line 9]נקודוNIKUDO- from the dot that appear in a Sefer Torah over the second letter "Vav" in the word "v'Isaron" (Bamidbar 29:15)
34)[line 11]חגCHAG- of Sukos (the verses in Bamidbar 29:12-34 describe the various animal sacrifices that were brought on the festival of Sukos)
35)[line 16]חוצהוCHOTZEHU- he divides it (the flour) in half
36)[line 19](סימן חצ"י חבית"י שלח"ן)(SIMAN CHATZ"I CHAVIT"EI SHULCH"AN)- this is a mnemonic device that stands for the first words of the three questions that Rami bar Chama asked Rav Chisda in the following (and one previous) Sugyos:
1.Chatzi refers to "Chatzi Isaron l'Rebbi Meir..." (line 18)
2.Chavitei refers to "Chavitei Kohen Gadol ba'Meh Mechalkan l'Chalos..." (line 26)
3.Shulchan refers to "Shulchan Mahu she'Yikadesh Kematzim ba'Godesh she'Lo..." (line 30)
37)[line 27]כליKLI- with a measuring utensil (RASHI KSAV YAD)
38)[line 28]טורטני יכניס?TURTANI YACHNIS?- Shall he bring in a balance-scale?
39)[line 28]ויכניס!V'YACHNIS!- Let him bring it in! (What is wrong with that?)
40)[line 30]קמציםKEMATZIM- (a) the handfuls of Levonah (should they not be placed in their Bazichin (bowls) (RASHI KSAV YAD, RASHI, 2nd explanation); (b) the handful of a Minchah offering that is separated while the Kohen happens to be standing in the Heichal (RASHI, 1st explanation)
41)[line 30]בגודש שלוB'GODESH SHELO- (a) in the airspace between the stacks of Lechem ha'Panim (RASHI, 1st explanation); (b) on the surface of the Shulchan itself (RASHI, 2nd explanation)
42)[line 34]טפחיים ומחצה קופל / טפחיים קופלTEFACHAYIM U'MECHETZAH KOFEL / TEFACHAYIM KOFEL - he folds up two and one half Tefachim [of each loaf] / he folds up two Tefachim [of each loaf] (LECHEM HA'PANIM)
(a)The Lechem ha'Panim (showbread) is an offering of 12 loaves (that are Matzah), which are arranged in two Sedarim (stacks), six loaves to each Seder, on the Shulchan ha'Zahav (Golden Table) of the Mishkan or Beis ha'Mikdash. Fresh loaves were arranged on the Shulchan every Shabbos and are left there until the following Shabbos. The Kohanim eat the loaves that are removed (Vayikra 24:5-9), half being given to the Kohen Gadol (learned from the word "l'Aharon") and half to the other Kohanim (from "l'Vanav"). A Kometz of Levonah is placed alongside each stack in a Bazach (bowl). After the loaves are removed, the Levonah is salted and burned on the Mizbe'ach. The offering of the Levonah permits the loaves to be eaten.
(b)Each loaf of the Lechem ha'Panim was ten Tefachim long, and its length was laid along the width of the Shulchan. The Tana'im argue (Menachos 96a) as to whether the measurements of the Shulchan (two Amos long by one Amah wide by one and one half Amos high — Shemos 25:23) were measured with five-Tefach Amos or six-Tefach Amos. As such, the extra length of the loaves was either four Tefachim or five Tefachim, where four Tefachim necessitated folding two Tefachim on each side of each loaf, and five Tefachim necessitated folding two and one half Tefachim on each side of each loaf.
43a)[line 35]נמצא שלחן מקדש חמשה עשר טפח למעלהNIMTZA SHULCHAN MEKADESH CHAMISHAH ASAR TEFACH L'MA'ALAH- we find that the Shulchan is responsible for consecrating a stack of loaves of Lechem ha'Panim that is fifteen Tefachim high (six times two and one half Tefachim)
b)[line 36]נמצא שלחן מקדש י"ב טפח למעלהNIMTZA SHULCHAN MEKADESH SHENEIM ASAR TEFACH L'MA'ALAH- we find that the Shulchan is responsible for consecrating a stack of loaves of Lechem ha'Panim that is twelve Tefachim high (six times two Tefachim)
44a)[line 37]אינו מקדש ליקרבEINO MEKADESH LIKAREV- it does not consecrate it to be offered
b)[line 38]אבל מקדש ליפסלAVAL MEKADESH LIPASEL- it does, however, consecrate it to become Pasul, should it be brought outside of the boundaries in which it is meant to be kept ("Yotzei"), or should it be left overnight ("Linah") (RASHI), or should it be touched by a Tevul Yom (RASHI KSAV YAD)
45)[line 38]הין / לוגHIN / LOG (LIQUID MEASURES)
(a)The Gemara uses the following liquid measures:
1.1 Hin = 12 Lugin = 1 Tarkav (of dry measure; see below)
2.1 Chatzi ha'Hin = 6 Lugin
3.1 Shelishis ha'Hin = 4 Lugin = 1 Kav (of dry measure)
4.1 Revi'is ha'Hin = 3 Lugin
5.1 Log = 6 Beitzim = 1/4 Kav (of dry measure)
6.1 Chatzi Log = 3 Beitzim = 1 Toman (of dry measure)
7.1 Revi'is Log = 1.5 Beitzim
8.1 Toman = 1/8 Log = 0.75 (3/4) Beitzah
9.1 Chatzi Toman = 1/16 Log = 3/8 Beitzah
10.1 Uchla = 1/32 Log = 3/16 Beitzah
(b)The modern-day equivalent of a Revi'is would be 75, 86.4 or 150 ml., depending upon the various Halachic opinions. Thus 1 Hin is approximately equal to 3.6, 4.145 or 7.2 ml, and 1 Log is approximately equal to 0.3, 0.345 or 0.6 ml.
46)[line 41]שנתות היו בהיןSHENASOS HAYU BA'HIN- markings used for measuring were in the Hin [measure used in the Beis ha'Mikdash, specifying the amount of oil and wine needed for each type of animal]
47)[line 41]וכי מה היה הין משמש?V'CHI MAH HAYAH HIN MESHAMESH?- And what would a Hin measure be used for? (Since Moshe Rabeinu used the Hin to make the Shemen ha'Mishchah, there was no need for the Hin measure in the daily service in the Beis ha'Mikdash.)